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/ 5 







Volume 9 









• • • 

BY ' • ■ : ' 





Jll rights reserved 

An announcement of volumes of this series 
previously published, and of the volume in 
preparation, will be found at the end of this book. 

• • » 

• • • 

Copyright, 1917, by 
Columbia Universitt Press 

Primed from type^ February, igiy 





M. C. Q. 



It gives me sincere pleasure to include in the Columbia Uni- 
versity Indo-Iranian Series, as its ninth volume, this presentation 
of the works of Mayura, a Sanskrit poet of the seventh century, 
together with a supposedly rival poem by his contemporary Bana. 
The volume represents years of labor on the part of my friend 
and pupil Dr. Quackenbos, and I commend it to the consideration 
of students of Sanskrit literature as a distinct contribution to our 
knowledge of a special variety of Hindu poetry. 

A. V. Williams Jackson. 



It IS now more than a decade since this volume was b^^n under 
the inspiration and guidance of my friend and teacher, Professor 
A. V. Williams Jackson. My original plan was to make available 
for students of Sanskrit an English translation of the SUryasataka 
of Mayura, but as the work progressed the plan was gradually 
extended. The finished work includes a translation of all of 
Mayura's writings, so far as they are known, a translation of 
Sana's Candisataka, alleged to be a rival poem to the SUryaiataka, 
and a collection of all the available material throwing light on the 
life of Ma)rura. 

Soon after beginning my task I discovered that the SUryaiataka 
had already been translated into Italian by Dr. Carlo Bemheimer 
(Livomo, 1905), but a search of the records failed, and still fails, 
to reveal the existence of any English translation before the one 
here given. Of the Candisataka of Bana, and of some of the 
stanzas under Mayura's name in the various Sanskrit anthologies, 
I believe it can be said that they are here for the first time pre- 
sented in a modem European tongue. Mayura's MayUrdstaka, 
which was first edited by the present writer from a Tubingen 
manuscript and published by him, with English translation, in the 
Journal of the American Oriental Society for 191 1 (vol. 31, p. 
343-354), is here reprinted with some slight changes. 

The Sanskrit text of all the works translated in the volume is 
given in transliteration, for my plan to have the printing done in 
Oxford, with devandgarl characters for the Sanskrit passages, 
was abandoned when war broke out in 1914. In the transliterated 
portions of the work, wherever the final vowel of any word is 
of the same quality as the initial vowel of the next word, the final 
vowel is marked long whether it happens to be so or not, and the 
initial vowel is elided. Elision of an initial short vowel is denoted 
by a single quotation mark, and elision of an initial long vowel by 

• • 



double quotation marks. For example, na alam is printed in the 
transliterated text as nd 'lam, dhdutdni iddham as dhdutanl 
'ddham, tilayd adhah as tllayd 'dhah, pusnd Qtmasama as pusnS 
"tmasama, etc. 

In the preparation of this volume I have been forttmate in 
having the advice and assistance of several friends and scholars, 
and it is a pleasure to record here, publicly, my thanks and my 
gratitude. My work would have been sadly incomplete but for 
the courtesy of Professor Richard Garbe and Dr. William Geiger 
of Tubingen University, who most kindly forwarded to Professor 
Jackson for my use the Tubingen manuscript of the Mayurdstaka, 
I am also debtor to Professor Leroy Barret for some criticisms 
of my transliteration of the sarada text of the Mayurastaka 
manuscript; to Professor Mario E. Cosenza, who verified the 
translation I made, for comparative purposes, of Bemheimer's 
Italian rendering of the Suryasataka; and to Mr. F. W. Thomas, 
librarian of the India Office Library, for information r^arding 
the authorship of the ArydmuktdmdlQ, and for his kindness in 
sending to Professor Jackson for my study and perusal the Basak 
edition of the text of the Suryaiataka. I gratefully recall, too, 
many pleasant hours spent with Dr. Louis H. Gray, who helped 
me with suggestion and criticism in several parts of the volume, 
but especially in the editing of the Mayurdstaka, 

To my friends and fellow- workers in Indo-Iranian subjects, Dr. 
Charles J. Ogden and Dr. George C. O. Haas, there is due a very 
large measure of thanks. To Dr. Ogden for a most painstaking 
critical reading of the proof, for the verification of numerous 
references, and for many invaluable suggestions, criticisms and 
corrections ; to Dr. Haas for a critical reading of the proof in its 
entirety and for placing freely at my disposal, during the prepara- 
tion of my rather intricate manuscript for the press, his wide 
knowledge of things editorial. 

My greatest debt, one that cannot be paid, is that I owe to 
Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, for many years guide, coun^ 
selor and friend. During the long period that I have passed 
under his tutelage, and especially while I have been engaged upon 


the present volume, his interest in the progress of my work has 
been untiring. Page by page, and stanza by stanza, he has re- 
viewed the work with me. No details have been too small to 
gain his notice, no problems too trifling to enlist his help. He 
has always been patient, always encouraging. His advice and 
suggestion have always been freely mine even during his busiest 
times. Never could a pupil have had a better guru, and if it is 
true, as of course it is, that the guru is reflected in the work of his 
pupil, then whatever is good in this volume is his. 

G. Payn Quackenbos 

November, 191 6 



Prefatory Note by the Editor of the Series vi 

Preface vii 

Bibliography xiv 

Conspectus of Editions of Texts Cited xvi 

List of Abbreviations and Symbols xx 

General Introduction concerning the Sanskrit Poet 

Mayura 3 

Foreword 3 

The date of Masmra 3 

Life of Mayura 6 

Early life and occupation 6 

Mayura is summoned to the court of Harsa 6 

Mayura is victor in a poetical contest at Benares 7 

Mayura gains fame at court 12 

Rivalry between Mayura and Bana 12 

Mayura defeated in philosophical controversy 14 

The Jaina tale about Mayura and Bana 16 

The date of Manatuhga 16 

The Jaina tale first found in the Prabhavakacaritra 18 

The four versions of the Jaina tale 20 

The Jaina tale as told by an anonymous com- 
mentator 21 

Variations from the Jaina tale as narrated by the 

anonymous commentator 24 

The Jaina tale as given in the Prabandhacintamani 

of Merutunga 25 

Allusion to the Jaina tale in the Kavyaprakasa. . . 30 

Allusion to the Jaina tale in the Sudhksagara 31 

Allusion to the Jaina tale in Jagannatha's com- 
mentary on the Suryasataka of Mayura 32 

Comments on the Jaina tale 33 

Origin of the tale 33 

The legend of Samba 35 

What was the leprosy of Mayura? 37 

The real reason for the composition of the Surya- 
sataka 37 



The real reason for the composition of the Candi- 

sataka 39 

Mayura not a Jain 39 

King Bhoja 41 

The Bhojaprabandha 42 

Allusions to Mayura in the Bhojaprabandha 43 

A list of poets at Bhoja's court 43 

The poet Kridacandra joins the court circle of 

Bhoja 43 

The banishment of Kalidasa 44 

The poet Sukadeva joins the court circle of Bhoja. 46 

Mayura in disfavor 47 

Incidental mention of Mayura 47 

Comment on the Bhojaprabandha: Bhoja not a con- 
temporary of Mayura 48 

The credibility of Jaina tradition: Biihler's opinion. . 49 

The family of Mayura 50 

Sanku, son of Mayura 50 

Mayura as viewed by later poets 52 

The stanzas ascribed to Trilocana 53 

The stanza ascribed to Rajasekhara, 900 A. D 54 

The stanza ascribed to Vamanabhattabana, 1441 A. D. . 54 

The stanza of Jayadeva, 1 500-1 577 A. D 54 

The stanza supplied by Jayamahgala 55 

An anonymous stanza 55 

Summary of the life of Mayura 56 

Mayura's extant writings 60 

The Mayurastaka 60 

The Suryasataka 61 

Scattered stanzas in the Anthologies 61 

The Aryamuktamala wrongly ascribed to Mayura 62 

A commentary ascribed to Mayura 63 

Other Mayuras 64 

Introduction to the Mayurastaka of Mayura 69 

The Mayurastaka of Mayura : Text and Translation . . 72 

Introduction to the Suryasataka of Mayura 83 

Analysis of the Suryasataka 83 

Order of the stanzas 83 

Form of the stanzas 83 

Subject-matter 84 

Mythological allusions 86 


Epithets of Surya 87 

Epithets of Surya containing reference to his rays. 87 

Epithets of Surya as the maker of day 87 

Epithets of Surya as the bringer of heat and light. 87 
Epithets of Surya as the maintainer and stimulator 

of the universe 88 

Miscellaneous epithets of Surya 88 

Style 89 

Rhetorical devices 90 

Vedicisms 95 

Grammaitica notabiliora 95 

Meter 97 

Sanskrit works that quote the SuryaSataka 98 

Manuscripts of the SuryaSataka loi 

Commentaries on the Suryafiataka 103 

Editions of the Suryafiataka 103 

Translations of the Surya§ataka 105 

Other SuryaSatakas 106 

The Suryasataka of Mayura: Text and Translation. . 108 

Anthology Stanzas attributed to Mayura 229 

Introduction to the Anthology Stanzas 229 

Siva and Parvati 230 

Stanza in praise of Harsa 234 

The Cow and her Calf 235 

The Traveler 236 

The Two Asses 237 

Maxim on Separation 238 

The Burning of the City of Tripura 239 

The Anger of Uma 240 

The Claws of Narasimha 240 

The Dream of Krsna 241 

Introduction to the Candisataka of Bana 245 

Analysis of the Candi&ataka 245 

Number and form of the stanzas 245 

Subject-matter 247 

The legend of the demon Mahisa 247 

Mythological allusions 257 

Epithets of Candi 258 

Epithets belonging to Candi as the daughter of 

Himalaya 258 

Epithets belonging to Candi as the wife of Siva. . . 258 


Epithets belonging to Candi in her horrific aspects. 258 
Epithets belonging to Candi in her benign aspects. . 258 

Epithets of Mahisa 259 

Epithets belonging to Mahisa by virtue of his 

buffalo form 259 

Epithets belonging to Mahisa by virtue of his being 

a descendant of Diti and Danu 259 

Epithets belonging to Mahisa by virtue of his being 

a foe of the gods 260 

Style and rhetorical devices 261 

Grammatica notabiliora 261 

Meter 262 

Sanskrit works that quote the Candi§ataka 262 

Manuscripts and commentaries 263 

Editions and translations 264 

Comparison of the SiuyaSataka with the Candifiataka. 264 
Comparison of the SuryaSataka and CandiSataka with 
the Bhaktamarastotra 265 

The Candisataka of Bana : Text and Translation 267 

Addenda 358 


The titles of editions and translations of the poems of Ma3rura and of 
the Can^isataka of Bana are not included in this Bibliography. Full infor- 
mation regarding them is given on the following pages : — 

Mayura§taka page 69, note i 

Suryalataka pages 103-106 

Anthology Stanzas page 229 

Can^isataka of Bana page 264 

Aufrecht, Theodor. Catalogus Catalogorum. Volume i, page 

432, s.v. MayUra. Leipzig, 1891. 
Aufrecht, Theodor. Catalogus Codiciun Sanscriticorum Biblio- 

thecae Bodleianae. Oxford, 1864. Index, s.v. Mayura, 
Bemheimer, Carlo. II Suryagatakam di Mayura. Livomo, 

Bhandarkar, R. G. Vaisnavism, Saivism. Strassburg, 1913. 

Pages 150-155. 
Biihler, Georg. Die indischen Inschriften und das Alter der in- 

dischen Kunstpoesie. In Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch- 

Historischen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen- 

schaften, voliune 122, part 11, Wien, 1890. 
On the Authorship of the Ratnavali. In Indian Antiquary, 

volume 2 (1873), pages 127-128. 
On the Chandikasataka of Banabhatta. In Indian Anti- 

• • • • • 

quary, volume i (1872), pages 111-115. 

Daji, Bhau. On the Sanscrit Poet, Kalidasa. In Journal of the 
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, voliune 6 (1861 ), 
pages 24, 222-223. 

Ettinghausen, M. L. Harsa Vardhana, empereur et poete. Lou- 
vain, 1906. Index, s.v. Mayttra. 

Gray, Louis H. The Vasavadatta of Subandhu. New York, 
191 3. Introduction, page 5. 

Hall, Fitzedward. The Vasavadatta of Subandhu. Calcutta, 
1859. Introduction, pages 7-8, 21, 49. 



Hopkins, E. Washburn. Epic Mythology. Strassburg, 191 5. 
Pages 83-89, 224, 228. 

Jagannatha. Commentary on the Suryasataka of Mayura. Cited 
by Haraprasada Castri in Notices of Sanskrit Manuscripts, 
Second Series, volume i, page 411, number 412, Calcutta, 

Jayamahgala. Commentary on the Suryasataka of Ma}rura. 
Cited by Rajendralala Mitra in Notices of Sanskrit Manu- 
scripts, volume 4, page 214, number 1643, Calcutta, 1878. 

MuUer, F. Max. India : What Can It Teach Us ? London, 1883. 

Pages 329-330* 338. 

Peterson, Peter. The Kadambari of Bana. Second edition, 
Bombay, 1889. Part 2, introduction, pages 96-97. 

On the Suktimuktavali of Jalhana, a new Sanskrit Anthol- 
ogy. In Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, volume 17, part i, pages 57-71. 

The Subhasitavali of Vallabhadeva. Bombay, 1886. In- 

troduction, page 86, and page 8 of the notes at the end of the 

Tawney, C. H. The Prabandhacintamani. Calcutta, 1901. 

English translation. Pages 64-66. 
Telang, K. T. The Date of the Nyayakusumaiijali. In Indian 

Antiquary, volume i (1872), page 299. 
Thomas, F. W. The Kavindravacanasamuccaya. Calcutta, 

1912. Introduction, pages 67-68. 
Weber, A. Verzeichniss der Sanskrit und Prakrit Handschriften 

zu Berlin. Band 2, Berlin, 1891. Page 932. Anmerkung i. 
Yajfiesvara Sastri. Commentary on the Suryasataka of Mayura. 

Cited in B. V. Jhalakikara's edition of the Kavyaprakasa of 

Mammata, Bombay, 1901, pages lo-ii. 
Zachariae, Th. Sanskrit vicchitti schminke. In Bezzenberger's 

Beitrdge zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen, volume 

13, page 100, Gottingen, 1888. 


Tfc-ii lilt is<li-jt.*jt* rT-j* *-i-"ii'.cii of SirLikru 
t&ft ^it*f>;&t IS 'is I Tvl^:s>t r*^*r- Tb* 
due yMtikrjt t&ysat^^ 


Athzrrz Veda. En^^h transhtioo by WlntiKT 2nd Taninan. 

Two volumes, Cambridge, >, 1905 (Harrard Oriental 

JJericf, vols. 7 and 8j, 
Anelc^rthaiuuT^aha of Hemacandra fwidi coanncntarT of Ma- 

hendraj. Ed. Theodor 2^adiariae, in Qudlenwerke ier altim- 

dischen Lexicographic, voL i, Wlcn and Bombay, 1893. 
Abbidhanadntamani of Hemacandra. Ed. Sivadatta and P^rab 

tn the Abkidhana-Sangraha, Bombay, 1896. 
Amarakosa (the Xamalinganusasana of Amarasimha). Ed. 

Dtirgiprasad, Parab and Sivadatta, in the AbhidhanaSan' 

graha, Bombay, 1889. 
Alamkarasarvasva of Rajanaka Ruyyaka. Ed. DurgajM-asad and 

Parab, Bombay, 1893 (Kavyamala Series). 
A%ta/lhyayi of I^nini. Ed. O. Bohtlingk, Leipzig, 1887. 
Kath^saritsagara of Somadeva. Ed. Hermann Brockhaos, Leip- 
zig, 2 vols., 1839-1862. 
Kavikanthatiharana of Ksemendra. Ed. Durg^prasad and Parab, 

Bombay, 1887 (Kavyamala, part 4). 
Kavfndravacanasamuccaya, of unknown authorship. Ed. F. W. 

Thomas, Calcutta, 1912 (Bibliotheca Indica Series). 
K^dambarf of Bana. Ed. Peter Peterson, 2d ed., Bombay, 1889. 
Karjifiramanjari of Raja^khara. Ed. Konow and Lanman, 

('ambridgc, Mass., 1901 (Harvard Oriental Series, vol. 4). 
Kiilikil Purana. The Rudhiradhyaya chapter of this Purana, 

trannlatcd by W. C. Blaquiere, in Asiatic Researches, vol. 5, 

P- 37i-39i» London, 1799. 
Kiivyaprak^^a of Mammata. Ed. B. V. Jhalaklkara, 2d ed., Bom- 

Ixiy, 1901. 



Kavyadarsa of Dandin. Ed. O. Bohtlingk, Leipzig, 1890. 
iCavyalamkarasutrani of Vamana. Ed. Dtirgaprasad and Parab, 

Bombay, 1889 (Kavyamala Series). 
Kumarasambhava of Kalidasa. Ed. Vasudev Pansikar, Bombay, 

Ganaratnamahodadhi of Vardhamana. Ed. J. Eggeling, London, 

Garuda Purana. Ed. Pancanana Tarkaratna; revised by Vira- 

simhasastri and Dhiranandakavyanidhi, Calcutta, 1890. 
Gitagovinda of Jayadeva. Ed. Telang and Pansikar, Bombay, 

Candisataka of Bana. Ed. Durgaprasada and Paraba, Bombay, 

1887 (Kavyamala, part 4). 
Caurapaiicasika of Bilhana. Ed. W. Solf, under the title Die 

Kagmir-Recension der PaficQgika, Halle, 1886. 
Dasarupa of Dhanamjaya. Edited, with English translation, by 

George C. O. Haas, New York, 1912. 
Durghatavrtti of Saranadeva. Ed. T. Ganapati Sastri, Trivan- 

drum, 1909 (Trivandrum Sanskrit Series). 
Devimahatmyam (section of the Markandeya Purana). Edited, 

with Latin translation, by Ludovicus Poley, Berlin, 1831. 
Dhatupatha of Hemacandra. Ed. Joh. Kirste, in Quellenwerke 

der altindischen Lexicographie, vol. 4, Wien and Bombay, 

Dhvanyaloka of Anandavardhana. Ed. Durgaprasad and Parab, 

Bombay, 1891. 
Navasahasankacarita of Padmagupta (also called Parimala). 

Ed. Vamana Shastri Islampurkar, Bombay, 1895 (Bombay 

Sanskrit Series, no. 53). 
Pancatantra. Ed. F. Kielhorn, Bombay, 1885. 
Paddhati of Sarngadhara, see Sarhgadharapaddhati. 
Parvatiparinaya of Bana. Ed. M. R. Telang, Bombay, 1892. 
Prasannaraghava of Jayadeva. Ed. Paranjpe and Pause, Poona, 

Bhaktamarastotra of Manatuhga. Ed. Durgaprasad and Pana- 

shikar, 3d ed., Bombay, 1907 (Kavyamala Series). 



Bhagavata Purana. Ed. Ttikarama Javaji (Bombay), 1898. 
Bhojaprabandha of Ballala. Ed. K. P. Parab, 2d ed., Bombay, 

Mankhakosa. Ed. Theodor Zachariae, in Quellenwerke der 

altindischen Lexicographie, vol. 3, Wien and Bombay, 1897. 
Mahabharata. Bombay edition, 1862-1863. 
Manavadharmasastra (Code of Manu). Ed. V. N. Mandlik, 

Bombay, 1886. 
Markandeya Purana. Translation of F. Eden Pargiter, Cal- 
cutta, 1904. 
Mrcchakatika of Sudraka. Ed. Parab, Bombay, 1900. 
Yasastilaka of Somadeva. Ed. Sivadatta and Parab, 2 volumes, 

Bombay, 1901 and 1903 (Kavyamala Series). 
Yajnavalkyasmrti. Ed. H. N. Apate, 2 volumes, Poona, 1903- 

Yogayatra of Varahamihira. Edited, with German translation, 

by H. Kern in Ifidische Studien, volumes 10 and 14, Leipzig, 

1868 and 1876. 
Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa. Ed. G. R. Nandargikar, 3d ed., Poona, 


Ratnavali of Sriharsa. Ed. Parab and Josi, Bombay, 1888. 

Rasikajivana of Gadadhara. The first 46 stanzas have been edited 
and published by P. Regnaud under the title 'Stances San- 
skrites Inedites,* in Annuaire de la Faculte des Lettres de 
Lyon, Paris, 1884. 

Rajatarangin! of Kalhana. Ed. Durgaprasada, son of Vrajalala, 
3 vols., Bombay, 1892-1896. 

Rajanighantu of Narahari. Edited, with German translation, by 
Richard Garbe, under the title Die indischen Mineralien, Leip- 
zig, 1882. 

Ramayana. Bombay edition published by the Laksmivenkates- 
vara Press, Bombay, 1895. 

Rig Veda. Edited, with Sayana's commentary, by F. Max 
Miiller, 4 vols., 2d ed., London, 1890-1892. 

Vikramorvasi of Kalidasa. Ed. G. B. Vaidya, Bombay, 1894. 

Visnu Purana. English translation, in five volumes, by H. H. 
Wilson, London, 1864-1877. 


Venisamhara of Bhatta Narayana. Ed. Parab and Ma^avkar, 
Bombay, 1898. 

Vetalapancavimsati. Ed. Heinrich Uhle, Leipzig, 1881. 

Sakuntala of Kalidasa. Ed. Godabole and Parab, 3d ed., Bom- 
bay, 1891. 

Satapatha Brahmana. Ed. A. Weber, Berlin and London, 1855. 

Sarngadharapaddhati of Sarngadhara. Ed. Peter Peterson, Bom- 
bay, 1888 (Bombay Sanskrit Series, no. 37) ; and partially 
edited by Aufrecht in ZDMG, vol. 27. 

Saduktikarnamrta of Sridhara Dasa. Partially edited (376 out 
of 2380 stanzas) by Ramavatara Sarma, Calcutta, 191 2 (Bib- 
liotheca Indica Series). 

Saras vatikanthabharana of Bhojadeva. Ed. Jivananda Vidyasa- 
gara, 2d ed., Calcutta, 1894. 

Sahityadarpana of Visvanatha Kaviraja. Ed. Jivananda Vidya- 
sagara, Calcutta, 1895. 

Subhasitaratnabhandagara, a modem anthology. Compiled by K. 
P. Parab, 3d ed., Bombay, 1891. 

Subhasitavali of Vallabhadeva. Ed. Peter Peterson, Bombay, 

Suryasataka of Mayura. For the five editions used in the prepa- 
ration of this volume see Introduction, pages 83 and 103-105. 

Harivamsa. Ed. Vinayakaraya, Bombay, 1891. 

Harsacarita of Bana. Ed. A. A. Fiihrer, Bombay, 1909. 

Hitopadesa. Ed. Godabole and Parab, 3d ed., Bombay, 1890. 


A = Alamkarasarvasva. 

Abth. == (Abtheilung) , section, division. 

ad loc. = (ad locum) , in the passage cited. 

Altind. Gr. = Altindische Grammatik, by J. Wackernagel, parts 

I and 2, Gottingen, 1896, 1905. 
Anm. = (Anmerkung) , note. 
B =Basak's text of the Suryasataka, Calcutta, 1874 (in 

the Variae LecHones of the Suryasataka). 
= Buhler's text of the Candisataka, lA, 1.111-115 (in 

the Variae Lectiones of the Candisataka). 
Bd. = (Band), volume, 

cap. = (caput), chapter, 

cat. = catalogue. 

Cat. Cat. =Catalogus Catalogorum, by Theodor Aufrecht, 3 

vols., Leipzig, 1891-1903. 
CII = Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. 

q)d. = compound, 

d. i. = (das ist), that is. 

ed. = edition, edited by. 

EI =Epigraphia Indica. 

fl. = (floruit), flourished, 

f ol. = folio, 

frag. = fragment. 

H = Haeberlin's edition of the Suryasataka. 

HS ==: (Handschrift) , manuscript. 

HSS = (Handschriften) , manuscripts. 

lA =3 Indian Antiquary, 

idg. = (indogermanisch) , Indo-Germanic. 

introd. = introduction. 
Introd. =the Introduction of this volume. 
J = Jivananda's edition of the Suryasataka. 





— Journal of the American Oriental Society. 


= Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


— Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 



= Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic 



— Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 


— footnotes in the Kavyamala editions of the Surya- 

sataka and Candisataka. 

• • 

loc. cit. 

— (loco citato), in the passage previously cited. 


= Mahabharata. 


= manuscript. 


— manuscripts. 


= note. 


Orientalische Bibliographic. 

op. cit. 

= (opus citatum), the work previously cited. 


-^ plate. 


— preface. 


— -published. 


= Sanskrit- Worterbuch, by Bohtlingk and Roth, in 7 

vols., St. Petersburg, 1855-1875. 


Sanskrit- Worterbuch in kiirzerer Fassung, by Otto 

Bohtlingk, 7 vols., St. Petersburg, 1879-1889. 


— Rig Veda. 


— Subhasitavali, p. 233-234, in the Variae Lectiones. 


— (Sette), page. 


=3 section. 


=« (sequentia), the following. 


— (Serie), series. 


K = Sitzungsberichte. 


= Sanskrit. 


= stanza. 


=3 Subhasitavali. 



=3 (sub verbo), under the word. 


= (Tome), volume. 


=3 translation of, translated by. 



transl. => translation. 

V. = verse. 

V =3Vidyodaya edition of the Siiryasataka. 

Vikr. ==Vikrama (era). 

V. L. = (variae lectiones) , variant readings. 

ZDMG =Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 


(a), (b), (c), (d) 

<>, €», «» 

These symbols indicate the pOdas, in order, 
of the four-line stanzas of the Suryasataka» 
Candisataka, etc. 

These angle-brackets indicate paronomasia: 
for explanation of their use see page 91. 






In the following pages I have sought to collect, as completely 
as possible, the scattered references that throw light on the life 
and history of the Sanskrit poet Mayura. A part of the ground 
has already been covered in a preliminary way by M. L. Etting- 
hausen, who gives a fairly full account of our poet in his mon- 
ograph on the reign of Harsavardhana,^ although I have been 
able to supplement and correct his work in some details. In 
addition to this, both Biihler and Peterson have recorded most 
valuable and recondite data concerning Mayura, so that it is but 
fair to say that without the groundwork of their researches, even 
the meager account here presented of this interesting author 
would have been impossible. 


It may be regarded as fairly certain that Mayura flourished 
in the first half of the seventh century. This conclusion rests 
on a double basis. In the first place, there is a bit of con- 
temporary evidence in the shape of a statement by Bana, the 
well-known writer of the seventh century, to the eflfect that 
Mayuraka was his friend. It must be acknowledged, however, 
that the identification of this Mayuraka with our poet has been 
called in question. In the second place, persistent tradition^, 
beginning in the ninth and tenth centuries, insists on making 
Mayura a contemporary of Bana, and a prot%e of King Harsa,. 
who reigned 606-647 A.D. In fact, in the case of written 
records subsequent to 900 A.D., any verse or anecdote that men- 

^ M. L. Ettinghausen, Har^a Vardhana, empereur et poite, p. 124-126, 
Louvain, 1906. 


tions Mayura, and does not also include the name of Bana, is a 
rara avis, so far as I have been able to find. 

The contemporary evidence, to which reference has just been 
made, is as follows. In Bana's Harsacarita^ (ed. Ftihrer), the 
author, when enumerating the friends of his youth, includes a 
certain jdhguliko MCkyUrakah, which is rendered by G)well and 
Thomas in their translation of the Harsacarita as 'a snake- 
doctor Mayuraka.' The commentary of Samkara, in the Fiihrer 
edition of the Harsacarita, and also in that of Parab and Vaze, 
gives as the gloss of jdngulika the word gdrudika, 'dealer 
in antidotes.* Max Miiller,* Peterson' and Dutt* have accepted 
this statement of Bana as a reference to the poet Mayura. 
Biihler, however, denies such identification, for he says :• * Der 
von Bana selbst als ein Jugendfreund genannte Schlangengift- 
beschworer (jQngulika) Mayuraka (Harsacarita, p. 95, KaS. 
Ausg.) wird schwerlich mit dem Dichter identificirt werden 

Unless there is some reason why a jdngulika could not become 
a poet — ^and Biihler gives none — I am inclined not to agree with 
his conclusion, but to side rather with Miiller and Peterson, and 
to believe that the 'dealer in antidotes,* or 'snake-doctor,' was 
our poet.'' Besides I believe that this view is strengthened by a 

^Edited by A. A. Fiihrer, Bombay, 1909 — see p. 67; Parab and Vazc, 
Bombay, 1892, p. 47. Cf. translation by Cowell and Thomas, cap. i, p. 53, 
Cambridge, 1897. 

«F. Max MuUer, India: What Can It Teach Usf, p. 329, London, 1883. 

« Peter Peterson, The Subhdshitavali of Vallahhadeva, introd., p. 86, 
Bombay, 1886. 

*R. C. Dutt, A History of Civilisation in Ancient India, vol. 3, p. 448, 
Calcutta, 1890. 

i^G. Buhler, Die indischen Inschriften und das Alter der indischen 
Kunstpoesie, printed in Sitsungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen 
Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol. 122, part 11, 
p. 14, footnote, Wien, 1890. 

* Some years earlier, however, Buhler identified the Mayuraka of the 
Harsacarita with the poet Mayura; cf. Biihler, On the Chan4ik(l£ataka of 
Banabhaffa, in lA, vol. i (1872), p. iii. 

^ Many great poets have been men of humble origin and limited means 
of education. Plautus was a miller and an actor's servant; Shakespeare 
held horses; K^lid&sa may have been a slave. 


stanza of Rajasdchara^ to which I would direct attention, because 
it appears to me to contain an allusion to the early vocation of 
Mayunty and represents him as still able to administer antidotes, 
figuratively speaking, even after he had become a poet. The 
stanza, a Moka, reads : — 

darpaffi kavibhujangHnUffi gata iravanagocaram 
vifovidyeva mdyUri mdyUr% vM nikfntoH* 

' The voice of Mayura, when it reaches the range of hearing, destroys the 

< conceit > of poets, 
As Mayura's knowledge of poison destroys the < pride > of snakes.'^ 

The second proof that warrants the placing of Mayura in the 
seventh century — ^the fact that his name is so often and so 
persistently coupled with that of Bana — will become very ap- 
parent as the various quotations in which their names occur are 
given in the course of the discussion. 

*The stanza in question is quoted by Prof. Peter Peterson from the 
SQktimuktdvali, where it is ascribed to the pen of R&jaSekhara; cf. Peter- 
son's article, On the Suktimuktavali of Jalhana, a new Sanskrit Anthol- 
ogy, in J BRAS, vol. 17, part i, p. 57-71. Peterson there states (p. 68) 
that this RajaSekhara flourished at the beginning of the tenth century. 
He must therefore be the dramatist Rajasekhara, whose date is fixed in 
the tenth century by the latest researchers (cf. Konow and Lanman, 
KarpUra-manjarf, p. 179, Cambridge, Mass., 1901). Besides, the date of 
Jalhana's SuktimuktHvali (approximately 1247 A.D., according to Mabel 
Duff, Chronology of India, p. 192, Westminster, 1899) would prevent the 
ascription of this verse to the younger Rajasekhara, who flourished about 
1348-1349 A.D. (cf. Duff, Chronology, p. 223, and M. Krishnamacharya, 
A History of the Classical Sanskrit Literature, p. 123, Madras, 1906). 
Konow and Lanman, however, do not include this verse in their list of 
the anthology stanzas ascribed to Rajasekhara the dramatist (cf. KarpUra- 
manjarl, as cited above, p. 189-191). 

* Besides being in the Suktimuktavali (cf. the foregoing note i), this 
stanza is quoted in the following works: Peterson, Subhilfitdvali, introd., 
p. 86; Parab and Durg§prasad, SQryalataka of MayUra, p. i, footnote 
(pub. as vol 19 of the KHvyamSllSl Series, 2d ed., Bombay, 1900) ; and 
Parab's modem anthology, the Subh(i^itaratnahhan4^gHra, p. 54, stanza 
35, 3d ed., Bombay, 1891. 

*L^i, Le Catalogue giographique des Yakfa dans la MahanUlyUr%, in 
Journal Asiatique, 11 S^r., Tom. 5 (1915), P. Ii7» interprets vifavidyeva 
mOyUfl as ' the Mayuri, a charm against poisons,' and as a reference to this 
well-known Buddhistic formula. 



With the excqytion of the passage in the Harsacarita, noted 
above, and referring to * the snake-doctor Mayuraka/ I have not 
succeeded in unearthing any other allusions to Mayura by his 
contemporaries. The next earliest mention of him is that by 
Rajasekhara, about 900 A.D., and the latest falls in the seven- 
teenth century, though perhaps some undated commentators, whose 
remarks I shall cite, may be even later. It is thus dear that our 
knowledge of the poet's life comes only at second hand, through 
writers who have referred to or quoted him ; for that reason due 
allowance must be made for inaccuracies of statement. Judg- 
ment must also be exercised in separating fiction from fact in the 
various anecdotes that form the basis of his biography. 

Early Life and Occupation 

Of the birth-place of Mayura nothing has been recorded, and 
of his early life we know only that he was a jdngulika, * snake- 
doctor.' His first real appearance, therefore, on the stage of 
history is as a full-fledged poet, entering the lists at a public 
recital, and winning for himself, by the charm of his verses, the 
favor and patronage of his sovereign, the reigning emperor 

Mayura is Summoned to the Court of Harsa 


The story of Mayura's first step toward fame, along with cer- 
tain other biographical details, is given by Madhusudana in his 
Bhdvabodhini, which is a commentary on the Sttryasataka of 
Mayura. Biihler fixes the date of Madhusudana in the year 
1654 A.D., and gives the extract from his Bhavabodhint as 
follows* : — 

atha vidvadvrndavinodHya MmadvrddhavadanOd viditah hUUryaiatO' 
kaprddurbhOvaprasangas tOvai procyaie \ sa yathd \ mdlavarajasyojjayinlrO' 

^Har^a reigned 606-^7 A.D.; cf. Ettinghausen, Harfa Vardhana, p. 
10-15 ; Vincent A. Smith, Early History of India, p. 337-352, 3d cd., Ox- 
ford, 1914. 

sG. Buhler, On the Authorship of the RatnOvaH, in I A, vol. 2 (1873), 
p. 127-126. 


jadhdnlkasya kavijanantUrdhanyasya ratnilvalydkhyafUltikilkartur mahard' 
jairiharfasya sabhyilu mahakavi pdurastydu hdnamayUrOv Ostdtn \ tayor 
madhye mayQrabhattah Jv<Uuro bdnabhattah kddatnbarlgranthakartd tasya 
jdmdtd I tayoh kavitvaprasange parasparatn spardhd "sit \ bdnas tu purvam 
eva kaddcid rdjasamipe samdgato rdjnd mahatyd sambhdvanayd svanikate 
sthdpitah kutumbena sahojjayinydffi sthitah \ kiyatsv apt divase^ atttefu 
kavitvaprasange tatpadydni irutvd mayUrabhatto rdjnd svadeidd dkdritah \ 

This passage Biihler translates as follows: — 

* Now, for the amusement of the learned, the account of the composition 
of the illustrious " Century addressed to the Sim " [i.e. the SUryalataka] 
is narrated, as it has been learnt from the mouth of the illustrious 
ancients. It is as follows. Two eastern poets, called Bana and Mayura, 
lived at the court of Maharaja Srihar$a, the chief of poets, the com- 
poser of the Ndtikd called Ratndvati, who was lord of Malava, and 
whose capital was Ujjain. Amongst them Mayurabhatta was the father- 
in-law, and Banabhatta, the author of the Kddatnbari, was his son-in- 
law. They were rivals in poetry. But Banabhatta had before, ^t some 
time or other, approached the king, had been honorably settled near him, 
and dwelt with his family in Ujjain. After the lapse of some time the 
king heard, on the occasion of a poetical recital, some verses of Mayu- 
rabhatta, and called him from his cotmtry, etc' 

Biihler comments that this account ' contains undoubtedly some 
grains of truth, as it associates Sriharsa with Bana and Mayura/ 
but it *is probably inaccurate in making Ujjain Sriharsa's 
capital/ because neither the Harsacarita nor Hiian Tsang state 
that he ever resided there. Biihler is not, on the whole, inclined 
to give much credence to the tale. However, it should be noted, 
as regards the details of the story, that the rivalry of Bana and 
Mayura, and their relationship by marriage, are recorded by other 
writers also, notably in Jaina tradition, and that there is another 
account of a literary contest in which Ma)aira played a leading 

Mayura is Victor in a Poetical Contest at Benares 

The account of this second contest, which may perhaps be the 
same as that recorded by Madhusudana, is given by Jagannatha, 
who, if he be the same as the Jagannatha (or Jagannadha) who 
wrote the Prdnabharanam and the Amrtalahari,^ flourished in 

^The following six works of Jagannatha have been edited in the 


the seventeenth century.^ According to his commentary on the 
SUryaiataka, a literary contest once took place at Varanasi 
(Benares). The theme on which the contestants were to write 
seems to have been, if I have interpreted the text correctly, the 
'adorning of the Bald-headed (-mundatnandana) * The prize 
was apparently awarded as much for the knowledge of the Sdstras 
as for poetic excellence. Many court poets contended, but 
Mayura, emaciated by tapas, carried oflF first honors. So, at any 
rate, I interpret the text, which I here append, together with my 
translation of it : — 

purU kila ^araccandrakhandamanifitakapdlc^apdlitdrakabrahtnadilnavdri'' 
takfetrak^inakalevaro vdrdtiasydm <iie^<ii(lstravicirasangrifnavedaveddntH' 
dividydviiicwetanagrahlkftdntevdsibhatajitdJefabrahmanifabhani/od .... 

mui^40'fnandanavidvadganav(iir% rftitraydnvitakazHtdtyajitakavirdia' 

rdjikOvyasujatagarvas tapaJkkhan/lkftiUefatapodhano mahamahopddhyilyah 
MmanmayQrabhattah . . . ityOdi^ 

'Formerly, indeed, the most revered teacher, the celebrated Mayura- 
bhatta, whose emaciated body had subdued its passions [lit had restrained 
its sphere of action] by the gift of the salvation-bringing knowledge of 
the Veda, [a gift bestowed] by Siva whose skull [i.e. whose head] is 
adorned by the crescent of the autumnal moon, (this Mayura), the rival of 
the troop of seers in the adorning of the Bald-headed One [i.e. Siva?] 
.... [text missing] .... having at Benares conquered the interior of the 
entire mundane egg [i.e. the universe; meaning here, perhaps, literary 
rivals] by his mercenary soldiers [i.e. his verses] which were at hand, and 
which seized as their pay the wealth of the knowledge of the Veda and 
Ved§nta in the contest [involving] the discussion of all the iHstras, (even 
that Mayura) who in ascetic practises outdid all ascetics, and who felt 
noble pride at the poems of the group of rosral poets being disregarded in 
favor of his poetry which possessed the three styles of eloquence,' etc' 

Kav3ramala Series: Amftalahari, KarunSlahari, PrdnObharanant, SudhdlO" 
haf%, RasagangOdhara and Lakftnllahari; cf. the list of Kavyamala publi- 
cations in ZDMG, vol. 47 (1893), p. 128. 

^ Krishnamacharjra, Sanskrit Literature, p. 127. 

'This text is given by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasada Sastri, in 
Notices of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Second Series, vol. i, p. 411, no. 412, 
Calcutta, 1900. 

» The three styles of eloquence (riti) are the viUdarhhl, the g(^u4l, and 
the paiicatl; cf. Dancjin's KdvyHdaria, 1.42 (ed. O. Bohtlingk, Leipzig, 
1890) ; cf. also Bhojadeva's Sarasvatlkanthabharana, 2. 52 (ed. Jivananda 
Vidyasagara, 2d ed., Calcutta, 1894), where are enumerated six diflFcrent 
styles, including the three just named. 


The contest here described may or may not be the same as the 
one mentioned by Madhusudana. The prominent part played by 
Mayura in both competitions would, however, make the identi- 
fication possible. But, apart from that question, it is interesting 
to note, by way of comment, that the break in the text, if filled 
in, might possibly give the title of a work by Mayura, not now 
known, perhaps including Mayura's vakrokti stanzas,* which, in 
Peterson's estimation,* formed the introduction to some lost 
work of that poet. The vakrokti stanzas deal with Siva, and 
munda, 'bald-headed,' is, according to the lexicons, sometimes 
used as an epithet of Siva. Possibly there is some connection 
between the two compositions, but it must be confessed that the 
evidence is very slight. 

It has already been stated, on the authority of Madhusudana, 
that Mayura was summoned from his country by Harsa and 
became a courtier of that monarch. Confirmation of this state- 
ment is given by Rajasekhara, in the following Moka^ : — 

aho prabhdvo vUgdevyH yan mdtangadivQkarah 
Mharfosyd thavat sabhyah samo bOnamayQrayoft^ 

^ See below, p. 230-232, where the text and also the translation of 
Maytira's vakrokti stanzas are given. 
* Peterson, Subha^itdvali, p. 8 of the notes at the end of the volume. 
» Peterson, On the SuktimuktOvali of Jalhana, in JBRAS, vol. 17, part 

h P* Sy-yh refers this stanza, on the authority of the Suktimuktavali and 
other anthologies, to the pen of the dramatist Rajalekhara (900 A.D.). 
In this he is followed by Buhler in Die indischen Inschriften, p. 14, foot- 
note. Konow and Lanman, however, in their edition of the KarpHra- 
tnanjari, p. 191, assign it to the younger RajaSekhara who flourished 1349 
A.D. (cf. Duff, Chronology of India, p. 223). But if Fleet, following 
Bhandarkar, is correct in assigning the date of the composition of the 
Suktimuktavali to 1247-1260 A.D. (cf. Imperial Gasetteer of India, the 
second volume of Indian Empire, the article Epigraphy by J. F. Fleet, 
p. 20, Oxford, 1908), stanzas of the yotmger Rajasekhara could not be 
included, as is this stanza, in that anthology. 

^The text of this stanza, besides being found in the SuktimuktHvali, 
IS also given in the Paddhati of S&rngadhara (cf. the edition by Peterson, 
stanza 189, Bombay Sanskrit Series no. 37, Bombay, 1888, and the partial 
edition by Th. Aufrecht, ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 77), and in Parab's SubhUfi' 
taratnabhUfii/agara, p. 54, stanza 36. 


'Great is the power of (Sarasvati), the goddess of speech, seeing that 

even the outcast Divakara 
Became a courtier of the illustrious Har$a, on equal terms with Bana and 

The exact meaning of this stanza has caused speculation. 
Fitzedward Hall^ inclined to the view that mQtangadivdkara was 
a shortened form of mdnatungadivakara, referring to Manatuhga, 
the well-known Jain of whom we shall hear more anon. Hall's view 
was adopted by Max Miiller,* who writes, referring to Manatunga : 
' [Manatuhga] , called also Matahga, as in the verse of Rajasekhara, 
aho prabhavo etc. Cf. Hall, Vdsavadattd, pref. p. 21. This 
surely proves that all three were favorites of Harsa (whatever 
Mahesa Candra Nyayaratna in his edition of the Kdvyaprakdsa,^ 
Vijiiapana, p. 19, may say to the contrary) ; for the meaning is 
that the power of Sarasvati is so great that even a Jaina could 
become a favorite of king Harsa, like Bana and Ma3rura, i. e. as 
if he were their equal.' Peterson,* however, makes a correction 
and introduces a variant reading. He says: 'But there is no 
warrant for identifying Matahgadivakara" with the Jain writer 
Manatuhga, as Hall and Max Miiller have done. The fact is 
that Divakara is the real name of our poet, not Mataiiga. There 
is a reference to him under the name Divakara in our verse 30,* 

^ F. Hall, Vdsavadatta of Subandhu, introd., p. 21, Calcutta, 1859. 

* Max Muller, India: What Can It Teach Usf, p. 330, note 5. 

' I have not been able to procure this edition and learn the views of 
its editor. 
♦Peterson, On the Suktimuktdvali of Jalhana, in JBRAS, vol. 17, part 

I, p. 67. 

B A stanza under the name of Matahgadivakara is given in the Paddhati 
of Sarngadhara (cf. Aufrecht, ZDMG, 27.73, or Peterson, no. 1227), in 
the Subhdfitavali of Vallabhadeva (Peterson, no. 2544), and in the Su- 
bh6fitaratnabhan(/agara, p. 208, stanza 33. Three other stanzas, attributed 
to the same author, are given in the Subhilfitdvali (Peterson, nos. 30,2496 
and 2546). See also Aufrecht, Miscellen, in Indische Studien, vol 17, p. 

* Verse 30 of a list, compiled from the SuktimuktOt^ali and other anthol- 
ogies, of verses ascribed to R^jaSekhara (cf. Peterson, On the SUkti- 
muktOvali of Jalhana, in JBRAS, vol. 17, part i, p. 60). The text of 
this verse is as follows: — 


where he is put in one compound with Bana. In the SUktimuk- 
tdvali, the reading in the present verse is canddla Divdkara for 
fndtanga Divdkara,' 

I believe that Peterson is right in not permitting the identifica- 
tion of mdtahga with Manatunga, the more so since I have shown 
below (see p. i8) that there is reason to believe that Manatunga 
was not a contemporary of Bana and Mayura at all, but flourished 
in the third century A. D. I would, therefore, as Peterson does, 
regard fn&tanga as a common noun, equivalent to candQla, * out- 
cast,' but I would adopt the reading mdtanga rather than candSla, 
because fndtangadivakara is the traditional form of the name, 
canddladivQkara seemingly being found but once. If then we 
accept the rendering of tmtanga as * outcast,' the meaning of the 
stanza appears to be that the power of literary excellence is great 
enough to enable its possessor, even though of the lowest caste, 
to gain access to the charmed circle of royal literati. This would 
be a not improbable state of aflfairs, when it is remembered that 
Buddhism, the great leveling and democratic force in India, was, 
although begiiming to wane, still comparatively strong m the days 
of Harsa.^ 


bhdso rdtnilasomilAu vararucih Msdhasdnkah kavir 
mentho bhdraTnkaliddsataralah skandhah subandhui ca yah 
dan4l bdnadivdkardu ganapatih kUntai ca ratn(lkarah 
siddhd yasya sarasvatl bhagavatl ke tasya sarve 'pi te 

This Aufrecht (ZDMG, 27,77) translates as follows: 'Bhasa, Ramila, 
Somila, Vararuci, der Dichter Sahasanka, Mentha, Bharavi, K§lid§sa, 
Tarala, Skandha, Subandhu, Dancjin, Bana, Divakara, Ganapati, und der 
reizende Ratnakara: wer mit der erhabenen Redegottin wohl vertraut 
ist, was braucht sich der um alle diese zu ktimmern?' The text of the 
stanza may also be found in the Paddhati of Sarngadhara (Aufrecht, 
ZDMG, 27. 77^ or Peterson, no. 188), and in the Subh(i^itaratnabhan4dgira, 
p. 56, stanza 68. 

^ Htian Tsang, the celebrated Chinese pilgrim who visited India in the 
seventh century A.D., testifies that there were many Buddhist monasteries 
scattered throughout the Indian peninsula, and that he expounded some 
of the tenets of the Buddhist faith to the emperor Har$a; cf. Vincent A. 
Smith, Early History of India, p. 344-345, 3d ed., Oxford, 1914. 

12 general introduction 

Mayura Gains Fame at Court 

But we have wandered slightly afield, and must now return to 
Mayura. If the testimony of Jayamangala, a commentator on 
the SUryaiataka, may be believed, our poet Mayura became at 
court the very embodiment of Sarasvati herself, and endeared 
himself to all his hearers by the verses proceeding from his lotus 
mouth. Jayamahgala testifies: — 

hhak tamayUravak trdbjapadavinydscJalinl 
nartakl 'va narinartti sabhdtnadhye sarastwti^ 

* Sarasvati, abiding in the arrangement of the verses from the lotus mouth 

of the beloved Mayura, 
Sports in the midst of the assembly-hall, like a dancing-girl' 

Rivalry between Mayura and Bana 


Granting that Mayura's success at court was so great, it is not 
difficult to imagine the state of Bana*s feelings, as he saw himself 
being supplanted in popular and royal estimation by a newcomer, 
even though that newcomer was his relative and the friend of his 
youth. Bana was not more than human, and therefore quite 
vulnerable to the attacks of jealousy.* A feeling of rivalry 
towards his father-in-law— doubtless reciprocated — ^would be 
only the natural result of the situation, and the royal smile of 
approval would become the source of contention par excellence. 
This view, besides finding direct support in the Jaina tale about 
Bana and Mayura (see below, p. 26), is confirmed by the follow- 
ing Sloka taken from the Navasahasdnkacarita of Padmagupta,' 

^Extracts from the commentary of Jayamangala, including the Jloka 
quoted here, are given by R^jendralala Mitra in Notices of Sanskrit 
Manuscripts, vol 4, p. 214, no. 1643, Calcutta, 1878. 

•From an entirely different point of view, Dr. Louis H. Gray, in the 
introduction to his translation of the Vdsavadatta (p. 3, 10, New York, 
1913), has also charged Bana with jealousy, this time of Subandhu, his 
rival in romance-writing. I am informed by Dr. Gray that when he 
reached this not particularly flattering opinion of Bana, he was entirely 
ignorant of the similar tradition respecting the rivalry between Bana 
and Mayura. 

• Biihler and Zachariae (lA, vol. 36, p. 150, 172) give the date of Pad- 
magupta's literary activity as 975-1025 A.D., and fix the date of the com- 
position of the Navasdhasankacarita as about looo-ioio A.D. 


which states in so many words that King Harsa, in connection 
with the literary activities of the two poets, was the cause of the 
rivalry between them. The Sloka runs as follows: — 

sa citravarnavicchittihdrinor avahUvarah 
Mhar^a iva safnghaffafu cakre bat^mayQrayoh^ 

'He (King Sindhuraja), the lord of the earth, brought about <a col- 
lision)* € between peacocks and [his] arrows » — [peacocks] that en- 
chanted [people] by «the variegated arrangement' of their coloring », 
and [arrows] that enchanted [Saliprabha] by «the wonderful arrange- 
ment of the letters [inscribed upon them]»^; just as the illustrious 
Har$a caused <a rivalry > c between Bana and Mayura> who enchanted 
[him] by «the wonderful arrangement of words [in their literary com- 
positions] ».' 

There is no good reason for supposing that Padmagupta has 
not preserved a true record of the cause of the rivalry between 
these two poets laureate of Harsa's reign, and until contrary evi- 
dence is adduced, his statement of the matter may be tentatively 
accepted as fact. 

^ The text of this Sloka is given by Th. Zachariae in an article entitled 
Sanskrit viccMtti schtninke, published in Bezzenberger's Beitrdge sur kunde 
der indogermanischen sprachen, vol 13, p. 100, Gottingen, 1888; by Buhler 
and Zachariae, On the Navasahasdnkacarita of Padmagupta or Parimala, 
in I A, vol. 36, p. 151 ; and also in the edition of the Navasihasinkacarita 
(cap. 2, stanza 18) by V. S. Islampurkar, Bombay, 1895. The text quoted 
here is that of Zachariae. Buhler has eva for iva, Islampurkar reads 
avanlpatih, and in a footnote offers sammardam as a variant for satfi- 

2 Zachariae (see note preceding) explains that by 'a collision between 
peacocks and arrows' is meant that the king killed peacocks with his 

> For vicchitti in the sense of 'arrangement/ and for a full discussion 
of the puns contained in this iloka, see Zachariae as cited in the note 

^The heroine, Sasiprabha, read on the arrow taken from the body of 
her pet antelope, which had been shot by the king, the name of the marks- 
man — Navasahasanka [i.e. Sindhuraja]. As soon as she had read the 
name, love for its possessor filled her heart ; hence the arrow ' enchanted ' 
her. In the VikramorvaH (act 5, stanza 7) also the name of the marks- 
man Ayus was inscribed upon his arrows; cf. Buhler and Zachariae, On 
the NavasahasOnkacarita of Padmagupta or Parimala, in I A, vol. 36, p. 155. 

14 general introduction 

Mayura Defeated in Philosophical Controversy 
But Mayura was not always successful in his literary en- 


deavors. The Vedantists and the Jains have preserved records — 
partly fictitious, but containing some grains of truth — of his 
defeats at the hands of their champions. The former of these 
tales — ^that of the Vedantists — ^is given in the Sarnksepaiamkaror 
jay a} of Madhava,* who flourished 1 300-1 350 A.D. The story 
runs that the gods, seeing mankind given over to Buddhism, 
sought the aid of Siva. That deity, assuming the form of 
Samkara, the celebrated Brahmanical reformer and the real 
founder of the Vedanta system of philosophy, descended to earth. 
In the course of a grand tour of India he met in philosophical 
disputation many noted opponents, including representatives of 
the Jains and other sects. All were confuted, and many were 
converted to the true religion (Brahmanism) by the invincible 
guru. Among those who yielded to his prowess in argument are 
enumerated Bana and Ma)aira. The portion of the text that 
treats of their downfall is as follows : — 

sa kathabhir avatfttifu prasiddhUn 
vibudhdn bitnamayUradan^itnukhydn 
nijabhU^yasravanotsukaffti cakOra* 

*Hc (Saipkara), by his talks, made the celebrated pandits in Avanti, 
chief of whom were Bana and Mayura and Dan<Jin, desirous of listening 
to his own BhOfyas ("commentaries"), after he had overcome their 
envious sclf-concdt' 

^This work is a copy, with some changes, of the Samkaravijaya of 
Anantanandagiri ; cf . Auf recht, Catalogue Codicum Sanscriticorutn Biblio- 
thecae Bodleianae, p. 260, a, line 2 seq., and p. 247, no. 624, Oxford, 1864; 
also, K. B. Pathak, The Date of SamkarOcharya, in I A, vol. 11 (1882), 
p. 175. A summary, with abstracts, of this work of Madhava is given by 
Aufrecht, op, cit, p. 252-260, no. 626. 

* This Madhava was the brother of Sayana, who wrote the well-known 
commentary on the Rig Veda, cf. Aufrecht, as cited in note preceding, 
p. 519, c He, like his brother, flourished in the 14th century; cf. Duff, 
Chronology, p. 223. 

» I have used the text as given on p. 258, b, of Auf recht's abstract ; cf . 
above, note i. 


By way of comment, it has been rightly noted by Telang^ that 
'Bana and Mayura, and Dandin, who is mentioned with them, 
are now hardly known as philosophers/ Biihler* is not content 
with so mild a criticism. ' Madhava's work/ he says, ' is devoid 
of all historical value. It is nothing but a mass of legends heaped 
one upon the other for the glorification of the great master. To 
give only one instance of its inaccuracies, Samkara is made to 
refute Bana and Ma)aira, the two well-known poets of the seventh 
century.' Still, granting that we are dealing with legend, as of 
course we must be, since Samkafa flourished* a hundred years 
and more after the close of Harsa's reign, it is yet possible to 
regard the defeat of Bana and Mayura as a fact around which 
legendary matter has been grouped. It can at least be said that 
there may have been a literary contest of some kind, in which 
Bana and Mayura were worsted by somebody. I admit that this 
is hardly a satisfactory datum from a historical standpoint, yet 
the fact is possible none the less. But apart from such specula- 
tive uncertainties, the story is of value as showing the esteem in 
which Ma)mra and Bana were held by the writers of generations 
that succeeded them ; for the author Madhava was doubtless acute 
enough to realize that the greater the fame of those whom his 
hero Samkara was made to conquer, the greater would be the 
glory of that hero. Therefore, in selecting Mayura to pose as a 
victim of Samkara's eloquence, Madhava has paid our poet a 
delicate but obvious compliment. 

IK. T. Telang, The Date of the Nyayakusumafijali, in I A, vol. i (1872). 
p. 299; cf., however, Telang, The Date of Sankarilcharya, in I A, vol. 13 

(1884), p. I0I-IQ2. 

*G. Buhler, Additional Remarks on the Age of the Naishadhlya, in 
JBRAS, vol. II (1875), p. 283. 

>It is generally accepted that Sainkara flourished at the beginning of 
the ninth century A.D. ; cf . especially K. B. Pathak, The Date of Samka- 
rdchdrya, in I A, vol. 11 (1882), p. 175, and the same author in Bhartfhari 
and Kumarila, in JBRAS, vol. 18 (1890-1894), p. 233. His conclusions 
place Samkara between 750 and 838 A.D. K. T. Telang, however, con- 
tends that Saipkara should be placed toward the end of the sixth century 
A.D.; cf. The Date of SankarOcharya, in I A, vol. 13 (1884), p. 103. Sec 
also Duff, Chronology, p. 69, and Krishnamacharya, Sanskrit Literature, 
p. 119. Some additional notes on the subject of Saipkara's date are given 
by D. R. Bhandarkar, in I A, vol. 41 (1912), p. 200. 

1 6 general introduction 

The Jaina Tale about Mayura and Bana 

The other tale concerning Mayura, to which reference has 
aU-eady been made (see above, p. 14), seems to owe its origin to 
Jaina tradition, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say that 
in the highly embellished form in which we receive it, it comes 
direct from Jaina writers. Some of the facts it relates receive 
confirmation from other sources, but much that it presents is 
nonsense and must, of course, be rejected. Its theme, or rather 
purpose, is the glorification of the Jaina religion, which is shown 
to be superior to other religions because one of its devotees, 
Manatuhga, is able to work greater miracles by the recitation of 
his verses than Mayura and Bana could accomplish by the recita- 
tion of theirs. 

The date of Manatuhga. This Manatunga is the well-known 
Jain QcQrya, the author of the Bhaktdmarastotra and Bhayahara- 
stotra,^ but his date appears to be a matter of uncertainty. Ac- 
cording to most of the sthirQvalis, or lists of the Jaina hierarchs, 
he should be placed in the third century A.D.* Other traditions, 
such as the story under consideration, make him a contemporary 
of Bana and Mayura in the seventh century. A pattdvat^ of the 
Tapagacha sect of the Jains, which presumably derives its in- 

* Cf . A. Weber, Verseichniss der Sanskrit und Prakrit Handschriften 
su Berlin, Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 1003, 1034, Berlin, 1891. For a bibliography 
dealing with Manatunga, see the references cited by page number in A 
Gu^rinot's Essai de Bibliographie Jaina, p. 514, published in MusSe Guitnet, 
Annales, vol. 22, Paris, 1906; cf. the supplementary work by the same 
author, entitled Notes de Bibliographie Jaina, and published in Journal 
Asiatique, 10 Scr., Tom. 14 (1909), p. 47-148, nos. 968, 1012, 1070. 

«Bhau Daji, On the SanscHt Poet, Kalidisa, in JBRAS, vol. 6 (1861), 
p. 24, 222-223. Daji, in spite of the unanimous evidence of seven 
sthirdvalis which he examined, places Manatuhga in the seventh century— 
apparently for no other reason than because his name is coupled with that 
of Bana and that of Mayura in the Jaina tale under discussion. See also 
G. Biihler, On the Chan4ikaJataka of Bdnabhatta, in I A, vol. i (1872), 
p. 115. 

' This patfdvatl is outlined, and extracts from it are given, by Johannes 
Klatt, Extracts from the Historical Records of the Jainas, in I A, vol. 11 
(1882), p. 245-256; see especially p. 252, no. 20. 


fonnation about Manatunga {rem the Prabhdvakacaritra,^ a work 
composed by the Jain writers Prabhacandra and Pradyiimnasuri 
about 1250 A.D.,' both makes him a contemporary of Bana and 
Mayura, and author of the Bhakt&marastotra, and at the same 
time describes him as 


' councillor of the Caulukya Vayarasiiphadeva, Lord of Malava '.' 

Now if Vayarasimha be, as seems likely, the same as Vairisimha I 
or II, Paramara kings of Malava, who reigned sometime between 
825-950 A.D. (DuflF, Chronology, p. 300), Manatunga would 
have to be placed in the ninth or tenth century. Still other evi- 
dence points to the eighth century as the time of Manatunga's 
Blutejseit; for example, Weber* informs us that in an edition of 
' KalpasQtra translated into Bhdshd (Lakhnaw, 1875), P- 9^* 3' 
wird die Zeit des Manatunga, Verfassers des bhakt&marastotra, 
auf Vikr. 800 [i. e. 742 A.D.] angegeben/ 

With such contradictory evidence, it is next to impossible to 
determine the period when Manatunga wrote and flourished. In 
favor of an early date is the evidence of the sthirdvalis and the 
fact that in some of them Manatunga is named as only the 20th,^ 
or 23d, hierarch in direct descent from Mahavira, the founder 

^Cf. Klatt, as cited in note preceding. The paftOvaH states: Mpra- 
hhOvakacaritre prathamatfi Jrftndnatungacaritrant uktaff^, 'the story of 
the illustrious Manatunga is first narrated in the illustrious Prabhavaka- 
caritra'; cf. Weber (as dted in the second note following), p. 1003. 

* G. Buhler, Ueber das Leben des Jaina Monches Hemacandra, in Denk- 
schriften der kaiser lichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch- 
Historische Classe, vol. 37, p. 172, 221, Wien, 1889. 

•So Klatt, in I A, vol 11, p. 252, no. 20; but Weber, Verseichniss der 
Sanskrit und Prakrit Handschriften zu Berlin, Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 1003, No. 
20, does not include this passage in his text; compare, however, Weber, 
opus cit,, p. 932, note i, where this quotation is ascribed to a paft^vati of 
the Vrhadgacha sect 

♦ A. Weber, as cited in the note preceding ; cf . P. Peterson, Search for 
Sanskrit Manuscripts, Fourth Report, introd.. Index of Authors, p. 92, 
Bombay, 1894. 

»Cf. Klatt, in I A, voL 11 (1882), p. 247, 252; J. Stevenson, The Kalpa 
Sutra and Nava Tatva, p. 102, London, 1848; Weber, Verseichniss der 
Sanskrit Handschriften su Berlin, Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 1003, 1034. 



of Jainism, who died, according to tradition, about 527 B.C.* 
On the other hand, in support of a later date is the evidence set 
forth in the page just preceding, and the fact that the Bhak- 
tdtnarastotra, Manatufiga's work, is written in Sanskrit, although, 
as pointed out by Jacobi,* early Jain writings are for the most 
part written in the Maharastri Prakrit, and not till after 1000 
A.D. did the Jains generally adopt Sanskrit as their literary lan- 
guage. This would argue, though not absolutely conclusively, 
against the BhaktQmarastotra*s being an early work. On the 
whole, the evidence for making Manatunga a contemporary of 
Bana and Mayura seems to me to be the weakest, being supplied 
to us, as it is, from this quasi fairy tale of the Jains and from 
the apparently self-contradictory passage in the Tapagacha 
pattdvali. Until more evidence is forthcoming, I am inclined to 
give most credence to the sthirdvalis that were examined by Bhau 
Daji (see above, p. 16, note 2), and I would therefore place 
Manatunga, tentatively, in the third century A.D.,* even though 
Max Mtiller says that this date 'is systematic rather than 

The Jaina tale first found in the Prabhavakacaritra. Accord- 
ing to the pattdzmti^ of the Tapagacha sect of the Jains, and to 

* Sec Vincent A. Smith, Early History of India, p. 46, 3d ed., Oxford, 


> H. Jacobi, KalpasUtra of Bhadrabahu, introd., p. 20, Leipzig, 1879. 

< It may be noted that Jacobi, when editing the BhaktHmarastotra, with 
transliteration and German translation, was unable to determine Mana- 
tunga's date; of. Indische Studien, vol. 14 (1876), p. 360-361. It has not 
escaped my attention that Peterson, Search for Sanskrit MSS, Fourth 
Report, introd., p. 92-93, lists two Jaina M§natuiigas. TtH latter of them, 
however, lived about 1200 A.D. "^ 

* Max Miiller, India: What Can It Teach Usf, p. 338, London, 1883. 
*This paftaval^ is given in part by Klatt, in I A, vol. 11 (i8i!^), p. 251- 

256. See especially p. 252-253, where Manatunga is named as the 20th 
in descent from Mahavira among the hierarchs of the Jain persuasion. 
The pattOvaU of the Kharatara sect is given by Weber, Verseichniss der 
Sanskrit HSS zu Berlin, Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 1034, and by Klatt, in lA, vol. 
II, p. 245-250. It makes M§natuAga the 23d, instead of the 20U1, in 
descent from Mahavira. In this connection see also Muller, India: What 
Can It Teach Usf, p. 337-338. 


Dharmasagaragani's commentary on his GurvQvallsutram,^ the 
three-cornered contest between Mayura, Bana and Manatunga is 
first described in the Prabhdvakacaritra, a Jain work which, as 
noted above (p. 17), was composed by Prabhacandra and 
Pradyumnasuri* about 1250 A.D. A portion of the text of this 
patt&vati and of the commentary on the GurvdvallsUtram runs 
as follows: — 

ifiprabhOvakacaritre prathamaifi JrimSnatuhgacaritratn uktatfi* 

' The deeds of the illustrious Manatunga are first told in the illustrious 

Since I have no text of the Prabhdvakacaritra, I am compelled to 
rely on Weber for confirmation of the presence of the story in 
that work. This he gives in the following note taken from his 
catalogue* of the Berlin Sanskrit manuscripts: 'Klatt's Freund- 
lichkeit verdanke ich noch f olgende Angabe : " Das PrabhOvakon 
caritra (ca. samvat 1250 verfasst), in welchem Manatunga's 
Leben {srnga 12) erst hinter dem des Bappabhatti {] samvai 
895) folgt, erzahlt nur die bekannte Legende von dem Wettstrcit 
zwischen Bana, Mayura und Man. vor dem Konig Harsa in 
Vanarasi.'" And the Tapagacha pattdvatl, which, as noted 
above (p. 16), probably derives its information concerning 
Manatunga from the Prabhdvakacaritra, likewise states that 
' Manatunga, councillor of the Caulukya Vayarasimhadeva, Lord 
of Malava (mUlavesvaracdulukyavayarasifnhadevdindtyah), con- 

1 For this commentary, see Weber, Verscichniss der Skt. HSS zu Berlin, 
Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 1003. This commentary appears to be identical with 
the Tapagacha paftdvatl as outlined by Klatt, in I A, vol 11, p. 251-256. 

2 See above, p. 17, notes i and 2. This Pradyumnasuri is presumably 
not the Jaina hierarch mentioned (I A, 11. 253) as 32d in descent from 
Mahavira; of. Peterson, Search for Skt MSS, Fourth Report, introd., 
Index of Authors, p. 79-81, where are listed 7 writers by the name of 
Pradyumnasuri, the hierarch being distinguished from the author of the 

•Text is that given by Klatt, I A, vol. 11, p. 252, and Weber, Verseich- 
niss der Skt. HSS zu Berlin, Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 1003. 

* Weber, Verzeichniss, etc, S. 932, Anm. i; of. Peterson, Search for 
Skt. MSS, Fourth Report, introd.. Index of Authors, p. 92, Bombay, 1894, 


verted the king (Harsa ?), who was b^[uiled by the sorceries of 
Bana and Mayura, at VanarasI, by the Bhaktdmarastavana/^ 
So much for the source of the story. 

The four versions of the Jaina tale. The story itself, in more 
lengthened form, and with variations of detail, is found in several 
accessible places, but I have, unfortunately, been unable to secure 
a complete text. Fitzedward Hall,' as early as the middle of the 
last century, gave a summary of the tale as found by him in an 
anonymous' commentary on Manatuhga's Bhaktdmarastotra. 
Hall* must also be credited with the discovery of a second 
version of the story, found in a second anonymous commentary 
on the Bhaktctmarastotra, and partly translated by Btihler* in 
the Indian Antiquary, A third version is supplied by Madhu- 
sudana's commentary* on the SUryasataka of Ma3rura, from 
which we have already quoted above (p. 6), and still a fourth 
is contained in the Prabandhacintdmani of Merutuhga, trans- 
lated by Tawney.^ I shall submit first the account found in 
Hall's second anonymous commentary on the Bhaktdmarastotra, 
as translated by Btihler, then point out its principal variations 
from the first and third versions, and conclude by giving the 
account contained in the PrabandhacintQmani. Though Hall's 
second commentary is anonymous, Biihler has concluded, on the 

^ Klatt, in I A, vol. ii, p. 252, no. 20. 

2 F. Hall, VOsavadatta, introd., p. yS, note, Calcutta, 1859. 

< C. Bendall, in his Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the British 
Museum, p. loi, London, 1902, is wrong in making Menitunga the author 
of this anonymous commentary. Had he read HalFs account (see note 
preceding), and compared it with that of Merutuhga, which is given in the 
Prabandhacintamani (p. 64-66 of the translation by C. H. Tawney, Cal- 
cutta, 1901), he must have noted striking difiFerences in detail 

^ F. Hall, Vdsavadatta, introd., p. 49. Part of this commentary is given, 
in transliterated text, by Weber, Verseichniss Skt, HSS su Berlin, Bd. 2, 
Abth. 3, S. 939, No. 1969. 

* Biihler, On the Chandikdiataka of BUnabhatta, in I A, vol i (1872), 
p. 111-115. 

* Biihler, On the Authorship of the Ratnavati, in I A, vol. 2 (1873), p. 

^ C. H. Tawney, p. 64-66, Calcutta, 1901. 


Strength of internal evidence, that the commentator lived prob- 
ably about the banning of the fifteenth century.^ 

The Jaina tale as told by an anonymous conunentator. I 
have been able to secure in text form only the first part of the 
commentary. This is supplied by Weber, from his catalogue of 
the Berlin Sanskrit manuscripts, and runs as follows^ : — 

pura 'mardvatljayinyant M Ujjayinyant puri vrddha'BhojarajapUjyo 
'dhltaJOstrapUro MayUro nama pan4itah prativasati sma, tajjamUta Banah, 
so 'pi vicak^anah, dvayor anyo-nyam matsarah, uktatfi: na sahanti ikka- 
m-ikkatft I na vind ciffhanti ikka-m-ikkena \ rdsahavasahaturanga jUydri 
. pan4h<^iv^^^ II anyedyur vivadamdndu nrpeno 'ktdu: bho pan4itdu 
yuvdffi Kdimlrdn gachatatu, tatra Bhdratl yatu pan4itam adhtkaffi manyate 
sa evo 'tkfffah 

Biihler's translation of this commentary, or rather, so much 
of it as refers to Mayura, is as follows* : — 

'Formerly there lived, in Amaravati Ujjayinl, Sri Ujja3rini, a Pandit, 
named Ma3nira, who had studied the Sdstras and was honored by the elder 
Bhoja* His son-in-law was Bana. The latter also was clever. The two 
were jealous of each other, for it is said, — na sahanti ikkamikkam na 
vind cifhanti ikkamikkena rdsahavasahaturagd jUydrd pan4iyd4(iffibhd, 
"donkeys, bulls, steeds, gamblers, Pandits, and rogues cannot bear each 
other and cannot live without each other." 

' One day they were quarrelling. The king said to them, " Ho Pandits, 
go to Kashmir. He is the best whom Bharali, who dwells there, con- 
siders to be the better Pandit" 

'They took food for their journey and set out They came on their 
road to the country of the Madhumatas (Kashmir). Seeing five hundred 
oxen which carried loads on their backs, they said to the drivers, "What 
have you got there? " The latter answered, " Commentaries on the sylla- 
ble Om." Again they saw, instead of five hundred oxen, a herd of two 
thousand. Finding that all these were laden with different new explana- 
tions of the syllable Otn, they lost their pride. 

' They slept in some place together, [jdgarito MayQro vdnyd iatacandratf^ 
ndbhastalatfi sanuisydpadant vadantyd \ ardhotthitena natena] Mayura 

iBiihler, On the Chan4ikd^ataka of Bdnabhafta, in I A, vol. i (1872),. 
p. 113, footnote. 
2 Weber, Verseichniss Skt. HSS su Berlin, Bd. 2, Abth. 3, S. 939. No. 1969^ 
'Buhler, On the Chan4ikdiataka of Bdnabhalfa, in I A, vol. i (1872)^ 

p. 113-114. 
* Bhoja and the Bhojaprahandha are discussed below, p. 41-49. 


was awakened by the goddess Sarasvati who gave him this tkema^ for a 
verse, " The sky filled with a hundred moons." He half raised himself, 
bowed, and gave the following solntion, — 


dfftam cinUramallena Jatacandram nabhastahm' 

t " Cantiramalla, stunned by the blow of Damodara's hand, saw the sky 

j filled by a hundred moons ". 

' [B&nopi tathdiva Pfffah \ humkdram krtva 'pi kaihitH] The same 
j question was addressed to Bana. He growled, and worked the thema in 

I the following manner : — 

I tasydm uttungasSudhdgraznlolavadanSmbujSih 

virarUja vibhSvarydm satacandram nabhastalam 

" In that night, on account of the lotus- faces that moved to and fro on 
the high terraces, the sky shone as if filled by a hundred moons." 

'The goddess said, "You are both poets who know the S Astros, but 
Bai^a is inferior, because he growled. I have shown you that quantity of 
commentaries on the syllable Om. Who has ever attained a complete 
knowledge of the dictionary of the goddess Speech. It has been also 
said, ' Let nobody assume pride, sasring " I am the only Pandit in this age. 
Others are ignorant" Greatness of intellect is only comparative.' " 

' Thus Sarasvati made friendship between the two. When they arrived 
at the outer wall (of Ujjasrini), they went each to his house. One after 
the other they paid their respects to the King as before. It has been also 
said, — " Deer herd with deer, kine with kine, steeds with steeds, fools with 
fools, wise men with wise ones. Friendship (has its root) in the simi- 
larity of virtues and of faults." 

'Once Baiia had a lover's quarrel with his wife. The lady, who was 
proud, did not put ofiF her pride. The greater part of the night passed 
thus. Mayura, who was taking his constitutional, came to that place. 
Hearing the noise made by the husband and his wife through the window, 
he stopped. Bai^ Tell at the feet of his wife and said, " O faithful one, 
pardon this one fault; I will not again anger thee." She kicked him 
with her foot which was encircled by an anklet Mayura, who stood 
under the window, became sorry on hearing the sound of the anklet, and 
on account of the disrespect shown to the husband. But Bana recited 
a new stanza — 

^ The Sanskrit word is samasyd, and means a part of a stanza given to 
another person to be completed. Cf. Auf recht, ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 51 : 
'Dieser Vers dient als Beispiel einer Samasyd, das ist, eines Spieles, in 
welchem zu einem gegebenen Thema (hier: latacandratn nabhastalam) 
die iibrigen Verstheile hinzugedichtet werden, nach Art unserer Glossen. 
Auch K9!rasvamin im Commentar zu Amara gibt diesen Vers zu samasyd.' 

*The Paddhati of Sarngadhara, 32.5 (Peterson's edition, no. 498; cf. 
Auf recht, ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 51) ascribes this stanza to Bana, not to 


gatapr&ya ratrih kfiatanu iailyata iva 
pradipo 'yatfi nidrdva^am upagato ghUrnata iva 
prandmUnte mdnam tyajasi na yatha tvam krudham aha 
kucapratydsattya hfdayam api te subhru kathinam^ 

" O thin-waisted one, the night that is nearly past escapes swiftly, like a 
hare; this lamp nods as if it were sleepy; O fair-browed one, thy heart 
also has become hard on account of its vicinity to thy breasts, so that, 
alas! thou dost not put off thy pride and thy anger at the end of my 

* Hearing this, Masrura said, — " Don't call her fair-browed but passionate 
(ca«(ft),* since she is angry." Hearing this harsh speech, that faithful 
wife cursed her father, who revealed the character of his daughter, saying, 
" Mayes t thou become a leper by the touch of the betel juice which I now 
have in my mouth."^ At that moment lepra-spots appeared on his body. 
In the morning Bat;ia went as formerly to the Court, dressed as a Varaka, 
and made with reference to Ma3rura, who also came, the following speech 
containing a pun, " The Varako(fhl* has come." 

^This stanza, which is in the Hkharinl meter, is quoted in the Su- 
bhdfitavali (Peterson, no. 161 2), in the Paddhati of Sarngadhara (Peterson, 
no. 3713), in the Kavindravacanasamuccaya (edition of F. W. Thomas, in 
the Bibliotheca Indica Series, Calcutta, 1912), stanza 367, and also, accord- 
ing to Thomas (Kavindravacanasamuccaya, stanza 367, footnote), in the 
following: the Suktimuktdvali (120, a) of Jalhana, the Alatfikdratilaka 
(Kavyamala Series, no. 43, p. 54) of Vagbhata, the Sabhydlatftkarana 
Safftyoga^rngdra (4, 21, 2l) oi Bhatta (jovindajit, the Padyaracand (Kkvyz- 
mala Series, no. 89) 9.1, and the Padyavenl (5.34) of Vei^idatta. The 
Subhdptdvali assigns it to Bana, and the Kavindravacanasamuccaya to 
Mahodadhi; in the other works cited it is given anonymously. The Su- 
bhdfitdvali has the following variants : (a) ioif sidata iva, (c) prandmdnto 
mdnas, tathd 'pi krudham aho. (d) can4i (for subhru). The Paddhati 
has: (a) rdtrih iaiimukhi iaii Hryata iva, (c) prandmdnto mdnas tad 
api na jahdsi krudham aho, (d) cancfi (for subhru). The Kavindrava- 
canasamuccaya has : (a) ioii Bryata iva, (c) prandmdnto mdnas tyajctsi 
na tathd 'pi krudham aho, (d) canifi (for subhru). It should be noted 
that the first pdda as given by Btihler is metrically one syllable short 

*Punningly, 'Don't call her the < fair-browed > < Subhru >, but €Can<}i>, 
ca scold >.' See below, p. 247, where I have discussed this passage more 
at length. 

< That is, she spat down on him from the window beneath which he was 

^Biihler (I A, 1. 114, footnote) says: 'I am unable to translate the term 
Varaka. The words of the text are — varakavastram paridhdya sametam 
mayUram prati (dv du varakodhi) iti iliftam vaca uvdca.' The lexicons 
give 'cloak' as the meaning of varaka; I would therefore render: 'He 
made, referring to Mayura, who came wearing a cloak as his garment, the 


' The king, understanding this, and seeing the lepra-spots, sent (Mayura) 
away, saying, "You must go/' Ma3nira fixed himself in the temple of 
the Sun, sat down, keeping his mind concentrated on the deity, and praised 
the Sun with the hundred verses, which begins jambhOrdflbhakumbhod' 
hhavam,^ etc 

'When he had recited the sixth verse which begins HrnaghrHndnghri- 
pUnln, etc. — ^the witness of the world's deeds appeared visibly. Mayura, 
bowing to him, said, "Lord, deliver me from my leprosy." The Sun 
answered, "Friend, I also sufiFer even now from leprosy on the feet, in 
consequence of a curse, because I had sexual intercourse with the horse- 
shaped Rannidevi against her will. Nevertheless, I will cover the leprosy 
caused by the curse of the faithful wife by giving you one of my rays." 
Speaking thus, the Jewel of the Sky went away. That one ray, enveloping 
his (Ma3nira's) body, destroyed the lepra-spots. The people rejoiced. 
The King honored him. Bana, being jealous of Mayura's fame, caused 
his hands and feet to be cut ofiF, and making a firm resolution, praised 
Candika with the hundred verses, beginning tnd bhankfir,* etc. At the 
recitation of the sixth syllable of the first verse Candika appeared and 
restored his four limbs.' 

'Here/ says Biihler, 'I break my translation off. The re- 
mainder of the kathd states that the Jainas, who were anxious to 
show that their holy men could work as great miracles, produced 
Manatuhga Suri to uphold their good name. This worthy 
allowed himself to be fettered with forty-two iron chains, and to 
be locked up in a house. He then composed the forty-four verses 
of the Bhakt&tnarastotra,^ and freed himself thereby. He of 
course converted King Bhoja by this miracle to the Jaina 

Variations from the Jaina tale as narrated by the anonymous 
commentator. The principal variations from the story as just 

punning remark: "The varako4hl has come"'. Resolve varako^hl as 
varaka-IUfhl, ' the one wearing a cloak ', and also, punningly, as vara-koifhl, 
* the one possessing excellent lepra-spots ' ; ko4hi is perhaps dialectic for 
kothi, the recognized spelling (cf. also Ettinghausen, Harfa Vardhana, 
p. 126, note i). 

^ This is the opening line of Mayura's SUryaiataka ; cf . below, p. 108. 

* This is the opening line of Bana's CantfUataka ; cf. below, p. 267. 

s The Bhaktamarastotra has been edited — transliterated text and GermSm 
translation— by H. Jacobi, in Indische Studien, vol. 14 (1876), p. 363-376; 
and also in the K§vyamala Series, part 7, no. i, by Durg^prasad and 
Pa^iashlkar, 3d edition, Bombay, 1907. Other editions are mentioned by 
Ettinghausen, Harfa Vardhana, p. 127, note 2. The meter of the Bhakid- 
marastotra is vasantatilakd. 


narrated are as follows. In the accotmt of Madhusudana,^ the 
King is Harsa, not Bhoja, and the cause of Mayura's leprous 
condition is given as the composition* of a licentious description 
of his own daughter's charms. Besides, there is no mention at all 
of the Jain Manatunga, a fact which makes it clear that Madhu- 
sudana was not a Jain, and adds more weight to my supposi- 
tion (see above, p. i8) that Manatunga has been brought forward 
by his fellow-religionists from the third century, where he prob- 
ably belongs, and made the contemporary of Bana and Mayura 
for the purpose of his own glorification. The fact, too, that 
Madhusudana calls the king Harsa, while all the other versions 
name him Bhoja, may indicate that he is following a tradition 
free from Jaina influence. 

In the account taken from Hall's first commentary' on the 
Bhaktdmarastotra, the cause of Mayura's curse and leprosy is 
similarly given as due to a licentious description of his daughter's 
charms, but we are here vouchsafed the further piece of informa- 
tion that the name of this poem was the MayQrdstaka.^ Bhoja 
is represented as a patron of literature, surrounded at his court 
by five himdred men of letters, among whom Mayura and Bana 
were not the least.' 

The Jaina tale as given in the Prabandhacintamani of 
Merutunga. It would seem that the manuscripts of the Pra- 
bandhacintdmani must differ, since the account of our tale as 
given in Tawney's translation of this work* is different from the 

* Given by Buhler, On the Authorship of the Ratndvatl, in I A, vol. 2, 
p. 127-128. 

3 This composition was the MayUrOffaka, which is translated and edited 
on p. 72-79 of this volume. 
» F. Hall, VOsavadatta, introd., p. 7-S. 

* See above, note 2. 

^ This is reminiscent of the Bhojaprabandha, which also states that Bana 
and MajTura were to be found among the five hundred savants that 
thronged the court of Bhoja; cf. below, p. 43. 

«C. H. Tawney, Prabandhacintamani, p. 64-€6. For the date of this 
work— about 1306 A.D. — sec Tawney, ibidem, introd., p. 7, where it is 
given as Vikrama 1361; cf. Duff, Chronology, p. 210, and Krishnama- 
charya, Sanskrit Literature, p. 122. 







one drawn therefrom by Yajiiesvara.^ In Tawney's translation, 

Mayura is represented as Bana's brother-in-law, having Bana's 

sister as his wife. Besides, Bana is made out to be the author of 

the SHryaiataka, while Mayura is said to have written the 

Candlsataka, and it is Bana, not Mayura, who is cursed for his 

eavesdropping propensities. In Yajiiesvara's accotmt, on the 

contrary, Bana's wife is said to be Mayura'3 sister. 

The account as given in Tawney's manuscripts is not always 

very lucid, and once, at least, is self-contradictory. It runs as 

follows : — 

*Then two pandits, related as sister's husband and wife's brother, who 
were called Mayura and Bana, and were engaged in a perpetual rivalry 
on account of their own respective literary merits, had obtained an hon- 
ourable position in the king's court. One day the pandit Bana went to 
his sister's house at night, to pay her a visit, and as he was lying down 
at the door, he heard his sister's husband trying to conciliate her, and 
paying attention to what was being said, he managed to catch these lines : — 
"The night is almost gone, and the emaciated moon is, so to speak, 
wasting away. 
This lamp, having come into the power of sleep, seems drowsily to nod. 
Haughtiness is generally appeased by submission, but, alas! you do 

not, even in spite of submission, abandon your anger," — * 
' When Bana had heard these three lines repeated over and over again 
by Mayura, he added a fourth line: — 

" Cruel one, your heart also is hard from immediate proximity to your 

'When Mayura's wife heard this fourth line from the mouth of her 
brother, being angry and ashamed, she cursed him, sasring, "Become a 
leper". Owing to the might of the vow of his sister, who observed 
strictly her vow of fidelity to her husband, Bana was seized with the 
malady of leprosy from that very moment. In the morning he went into 
the assembly-hall of the king, with his body covered with a rug. When 
Mayura, with a soft voice, like a peacock, said to him in the Prakrit lan- 
guage, " Ten million blessings on you ! " the king, who was foremost 
among the discerning, looked at Bana with astonishment, and thought in 

^ Yajiiesvara Sastri edited the SUrya^ataka of Mayura, with a com- 
mentary composed by himself. I have been unable to secure a copy of 
this work of Yajnesvara, but Biihler, writing in 1872 (cf. I A, vol. i, p. 
115, footnote), refers to it as being in course of publication at that time. 
The portion of the commentary that I give below is quoted by Jhalaldkara, 
in his second edition of the KHvyaprakala, cap. i, 2-3, p. lo-ii, Bombay, 

2 The stanza beginning gataprayd ratrift, etc See above, p. 23, note i. 


his own mind that Bairia would, on a future occasion, make use of some 
device for propitiating the deity^; but Bana rose up from his seat in the 
assembly-hall utterly abashed, and setting up a post on the border of the 
town, he placed under it a fire-pit, full of charcoal made of Khadira wood, 
himself mounted on a palanquin at the end of the post, and began utter- 
ing a hymn of praise to tlie sun-god.^ At the end of every stanza, he 
cut away, with his knife, one support of the palanquin, and at the end of 
five stanzas five supports had been cut away by him, and he was left 
clinging to the end of the palanquin. While the sixth stanza was being 
recited, the sun-god appeared in visible form, and owing to his favour 
Bana at once acquired a body of the colour of pure gold. On a subse- 
quent day he came with his body anointed with golden sandal-wood and 
clothed in a magnificent white garment When the king saw the healthy 
condition of his body, Mayura represented that it was all due to the favour 
of the sun-god. Then Bana pierced him in a vital spot with an arrow- 
like speech. "If the propitiating of a god is an easy matter, then do you 
also display some wonderful performance in this line." When he said 
this, that Ma3rura aimed at him the following retort, " What need has a 
healthy man of one skilled in the science of medicine? Nevertheless, so 
much I will do. You, after cutting your hands and feet with a knife^ 
to confirm your words, propitiated the sun with your sixth stanza, but I 
will propitiate BhavanI with the sixth syllable of my first stanza." Having 
made this promise, he entered the back part of the temple of Candika, 
sitting in a comfortable litter, and when he uttered the sixth syllable of 
the poem beginning, " Do not interrupt your coquetry,"* by the favour 
of Candika visibly manifested his tender body seemed to be entirely re- 
newed,^ and then he looked at the temple of the goddess fronting it, and 
the courtiers, headed by the king, came to meet him, and uttered the cry 
of " Bravo 1 Bravo 1" and so with great jubilation he entered the city. 

'At this conjuncture, the law of the false believers being triumphant, 
some principal men, who hated the true religion, said to the king, ''If 
among the adherents of the Jaina system any such display of power takes 
place, then establish the white-robed Jainas in your territory, but if not, 
then banish them". No sooner had this been said than the king sum- 
moned the teacher, Manatuhga, and said, " Show some miracle of your 
deities". He said, "As our deities are emancipated from the bonds of 
existence, what miracle is possible for them here? Nevertheless, I will 

^ I do not see the point of this thought of the king. 

2 The SUryaiataka is evidently meant. 

3 The author has evidently forgotten that he has just made Bana*s miracle 
to be the palanquin incident The ordinary account of the story represents 
Bana as cutting off his hands and feet; cf. above, p. 24. 

* These are the opening words of the Can(fUataka ; cf . below, p. 267. 

^ It is not clear to me just what miracle is described in the words ' his 
tender body seemed to be entirely renewed '. It might lead one to believe 
that in Merutunga's estimation Mayura also was a leper. At any rate, 
the spectators were duly impressed. 


show you a manifestation of the power of their servants, the lower gods, 
that will astonish the universe." When he had said this, he caused him- 
self to he bound with forty-four fetters, and placing himself in the back 
part of the temple of R$abha, who was worshiped in that city, he com- 
posed a new hymn of praise, full of spells, beginning, " Having duly wor- 
shiped the two feet of the Jina illuminating the brightness of the pros- 
trate crest-jewels of devoted gods,"^ and with each stanza of the hymn 
one fetter broke, until he had completed the hynm with a number of 
stanzas equal to the number of fetters. Then he faced the temple and 
preached the law. 
'Here ends the story of the great teacher Manatunga.' 

YajiieSvara's account of the story, as given in the Praban- 
dhacintdntani, is as follows* : — 

mayUrakaveh ku^tharogaprClptdu kdranatu tu bhaftayajnelvarakftayatu 
sUryaiatakafikHydm dbhihitam tathd hi — pura kila MvikranUtrkasatnayOd 
offasaptatyuttarasahasrasammite^u 1078 satjtvatsare^u (1022 khristubdefu) 
vyatltefu satupraptodayasya Mmadbhojar&jasya sabhOsadmaratnadipo mO" 
hlUtavir mayUro dhardnagar^m adhivasati sma \ tasya ca bhaginlpatih 
kadambarigadyaprabandhanirmatA bUnakavih paramamitram HAt \ atha 
kadacin mayUrakaznr nUah prdnte saffipraptaprabodhafi kattctt pady&tU 
kavaydm cakre \ tSni cd 'flva sarasaramanlydny dkalayya taddnltn evot" 
ka(asamutkanfhiivaJan nijasuhfde bdnakavaye nivedayitumarULs tadQvlisa' 
bhavanam abhijagdma \ tatra ca bdnakavir nijavallabhdni mayUrasi/a^ 
sdraifi mdnakalufitaiji prasddayaifts tatkdlakalpitavft 

gataprdyd rdirih kfiatanu iaif Htyata iva 
pradipo 'yaffi nidrdvoJam upagato ghUrnita iva 
prandmdnto mdnas tyajasi na tathd 'pi krudham aho 

iti pddonatft padyam pathitvd caramacaranasatfigatifn kalpayatfis tdvad eva 
pdpafhydfft cakre \ atrd 'vasare ghanastanitasyeva gambhlrasya bdnakavi- 
bhd^anasya iravanena vivaidntahkarano mayUrakavih svapratibhdpravd- 
hafu niroddhum ak^attuu tatpadye 'pekfitatu susangatatft caturthacarafiafit 

kucapratydsattyd hfdayam api te candi kafhinam 

ity evaifirupafft kekdninddam iva mandramadhurasvarenodlraydm dsa \ tac 
chrutvd sajjadhanufas tarnafit bdno lakfyam ivd 'yam api bdnakavir nija- 
ndmno 'nvarthatdsamarthandya [iva\ tlldsadmano jhafiti vinirgatya prd» 
nddhikapriyatjt suhfdvarafft mayUrakazntu samdjagdma \ tato 'syd bdnc^ 
vanitdyd rasabhangajanitamanahkfobhavatydh pdtivratyaprabhdvend 'ctrdd 
eva idpatah sa mayQrakavih ku^tharogakavalitasarvdngah sairtt/fttali | athd 
*sya pdparogasya samUlam untnUlandya iatasairtkhydkahfdyatamapadya" 
ghafitakdz/yabandhena bhagavantant bhdskaradevatft stutvd tatprasddama- 
himnd pranaifapdparogah kanakaruciragdtro 'yam mayUrakavih saftiba- 

^ These are the opening lines of the Bhaktdmarastotra. 
2 Quoted by Jhalakikara, Kdvyaprakdia, p. lo-ii. 


bhUvety evatft tdtparyaka itihOso tnerutungdcaryakftaprabandhacintamany" 
Mgranthe sthitafi — iti 

'The cause of the acquisition, by the poet Mayura, of the disease of 
leprosy is set forth in the commentary on the SUryalataka, composed by 
Bhattasrajneivara, as follows: "Formerly, indeed, after one thousand 
plus seventy-eight years had passed away, according to the era of the 
illustrious Vikramarka (i.e. 1022 A.D.), the great poet Mayura, the 
jewel-lamp of the assembly-hall of the illustrious Bhojaraja who had 
obtained his rise [to fame], dwelt in the city of Dhari. And the husband 
of the sister of this (Mayura), the poet Bana, author of the Kudamhafl, 
a prose composition, was very friendly [to Mayura]. 

'"Then once, the poet Mayura, becoming wakeful toward the end of 
night, composed some stanzas of poetry. And noticing that these (stanzas) 
were exceedingly charming by reason of their possessing sentiment, he 
then, indeed, because of being subject to an sirdent longing to communi- 
cate [them] to his own friend, the poet BSLna, went to the place of his 
(Bana's) abode. 

' " There the poet Bana, [seeking] to conciliate his own wife, Mayura's 
sister, who was contaminated by pride, was reciting the following stanza, 
composed on the [spur of the] moment, and lacking one pada : — 
' O slender-bodied one, the night is almost gone ; the moon, as it were, fades ; 
This lamp flickers as if it were subject to the control of sleep; 
Haughtiness is appeased by prostration ; yet thou, alas ! dost not abandon 
thy anger.' 

' " Seeking to arrange the fitting in of the last pdda, he meanwhile kept 
reciting repeatedly [the first three lines]. 

'"At this juncture, upon hearing the voice of Bana, which was deep, 
like heavy thunder, the poet Ma3nira, his mind [working] spontaneously, 
[and being] unable to restrain the current of his own wit, uttered, in a 
voice that was pleasant and sweet, the desired fourth pada in his (Bapa's) 
stanza — z fourth pdda that was very suitable, and like the noise of a 
peacock — 

'Thy heart, O angry one, [has] also [become] hard by reason of its 
proximity to thy breasts.' 

'"Hearing this, the poet Bana, for the sake of conformity to the 
meaning of his own name, like an arrow (hUnd) [sped] quickly from a 
stnmg bow to its mark, instantiy rushed from his pleasure-house, [and 
just outside] came upon the poet Mayura, his best friend, dear to him 
above his life. 

' " Then that poet Ma3nira, cursed full quickly by the power of the con- 
jugal fidelity of that wife of Bana, whose mind was possessed of an 
agitation produced by the interruption of the sentiment, became affected 
[lit. eaten] in all his limbs by the disease of leprosy. 

' " Then the poet Masrura, for [the purpose of] eradicating entirely his 
sin and disease, praised the blessed Light-making god (Surjra) by means 
of the production of a literary composition consisting of most charming 
stanzas amounting to a hundred [in number], and by the greatness of the 


kindness of that (Suiya) came to have his sin and his disease annihilated, 
and his body radiant as gold — such is the gist (tdtparyaka) of the story 
according to the account set forth in the first book of the Prabandha- 
cintHmani composed by Merutunga."' 

Allusion to the Jaina tale in the KavyaprakaSa. A glimpse 
of the Jaina tale, consisting of an allusion to Mayura's miraculous 
cure from leprosy, is found in the KQvyaprakdia of Mammata 
and Allata,^ a rhetorical work composed 1050-1100 A.D.* In 
chapter i of that work, the case of Mayura is cited as an example 
of the power of poetry to remove misfortune or sin : — 

HdityHder mayQrUdlnam ivd 'narthanivCtranam^ 

'The removal of misfortunes [or sin], as in the case of Mayura and 
others, [through the power] of Aditya (Surya) and others.' 

This is explained by the commentator Jayarama, who says* : — 

mayUranama kavih satailokena "dityatp, stutvd ku^fhan nistlrna iti 

'the poet, Mayura by name, having praised Aditya (Surjra) by a hun- 
dred Hokas, was delivered from leprosy — so says common report.' 

1 For the joint authorship of the Kavyapraka^a, see G. A. Jacob, Notes 
on Alatftkara Literature, in JRAS, new series, vol. 29 (1897), p. 282. 

2 For the date of the Kavyaprakdia, see the English translation of that 
work by Ganganatha Jha, introd., p. 16, Benares, 1898; and also Krishna- 
macharya, Sanskrit Literature, p. 164. 

•Text given by B. V. Jhalaldkara, KOvyaprakoJa, cap. i, 2-3, p. 10, 2d 
ed., Bombay, 1901. 

^Jayarama's commentary on the KHvyaprakdia is quoted by Hall, 
Vdsavadattd, introd., p. 8, note. See also other commentaries on the 
Kdz/yaprakiUa, as, for example, the Narasiijihatnanlfa (i.e. the Manila of 
Narasitpha Thakkura; cf. M. A Stein, Catalogue of the Sanskrit ManU' 
scripts of the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, p. 60, Bombay, 1894, and 
Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorum, part 2, p. 19, b, Leipzig, 1896), which is 
quoted by Jhalaklkara, KHvyaprakOia, p. 10^ and which says : mayQranamd 
kavih HokaiatenH "dityam upailokya kuftharogSn nistlrna iti janahutir, 
'the poet, Mayura by name, having praised Aditya (Surya) with a hun- 
dred ilokas, was freed from the disease of leprosy — so says common re- 
port'; and the Udyota of Nagojibhatta (quoted in D. T. Chandorkar's 
edition of the KdvyaprakaJa, ullasa J and 2, p. 5, Poona, 1898), which 
reads: mayUraiarma sUryaiatakena kuffhan nistlrna iti ca prasiddham, 
'Majrura was delivered from leprosy by means of the SUryalataka — so 
says common report' 


This reference in the KSvyaprakdia to Mayura's cure from 
leprosy is of special interest as being the earliest datable allusion 
to any of the incidents narrated in the Jaina tale, being even 
earlier than the PrabhQvakacaritra (1250 A.D.),^ in which, as 
noted above (p. 19), the name of Manatunga is first coupled with 
those of Bana and Mayura. For the very reason of this chrono- 
logical antecedence it is possible that the 'Jaina tale,' as I have 
dubbed it, may not be of Jain origin so far as it relates to Bana 
and Mayura, although its inclusion of Manatunga, and the highly 
embellished form in which we have received it, are, I think, un- 
doubtedly due to writers of the Jaina faith. 

Allusion to the Jaina tale in the Sudhasagara. Again we are 
indebted to Jhalaklkara for supplying us with the following 
passage from the SudhdsSgara,* which describes Mayura's re- 
lease from the thrall of leprosy by the composition of the 
SUryaiataka. As related in this work, the incident recalls Bana's 
feat with the palanquin, described in the Prabandhacintdntani 
(see above, p. 27) : — 

uktatri ca sudhdsagarakarair api—pura kila mayara^armd kuffki kavih 
kle^am asahifnuh [sQryaprasddena kuffhdn nistarami pranan vd tyaj&ml 
*H nUcitya haridvUraiji gatvd gangatafe] atyuccataru^dkhdvalambi iata- 
rajjuHkyam adhirHifhah sUryam astdu^t | akaroc cdikdikapadydnte ekdika^ 
rajjuvicchedam evaifi kriyamdnakdvyaparitu^to ravih sadya eva nJrogdfft 
ratttanlydfn ca tattanum akdrfU prasiddhatjt ca tantnayttraJatakatn (sQr- 
yaJatakdparaparydyam ) — iti » 

' And it is also said by the writers of the Sudhdsdgara — " Formerly, in- 
deed, the poet Mayura, a leper, [becoming] unable to endure his af&iction, 
[having resolved: 'I will gain deliverance from leprosy by the kindness 
of Surya, or I will abandon life/ went to Haridvara^ on the bank of the 
Ganges], and mounted into a swing [formed] of a hundred ropes and 
hanging from a very high limb of a tree. [Then] he praised Surya, and at 
the end of each stanza he cut one rope. Ravi (Surya), satisfied by the 

* See above, p. 17, note 2. 

s The Sudhdsdgara of Bhimasena, a commentary on the Kdvyaprakd^a ; 
cf. Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorum, part i, p. 102, a. 

> Jhalaklkara, Kdvyaprakdia, p. 10. 

^Haridvara, 'Vi$nu's Gate,' is a celebrated town and sacred bathing- 
place, situated where the Ganges leaves the mountains for the plains of 
Hindustan. It is now called Hardvar; cf. Monier- Williams, Sanskrit" 
English Dictionary, Oxford, 1899, s.v. 


poem composed under these circumstances, at once indeed made his body 
free from disease and lovely, and [made] his MayUraiataka (another name 
for SUryaJataka) renowned." ' 

Allusion to the Jaina tale in Jagannatha's commentary on the 
Suryafataka of Mayura. Still another reference to Mayura's 
a£9iction with leprosy is recorded in Jagannatha's commentary, 
from which we have already quoted (p. 8).^ This reference is 
as follows*: — 

MmanmayUrabhatfah pUrvajanmaduradf^fahetukagalitakufthajufto g 
. . . k^amo vUndhavaskandhavalambl bhagavatsUryatnandirasanklrnadvil' 
rdvalatnbanHlaktas tatpaicUd upaviffafi pUrvajanmaduradf^fasf^laku^ihc^ 
rogdpanodanepsur vdndhavUllrvadavyajena ra^mirdjirathaman4ola , . . tn 
eva bhagavantarit stduH jambhUrHtibheti 

'the celebrated Mayurabhatta, having become af&icted with incurable 
leprosy caused by his misfortune in a previous existence . . . [text broken] 
. . . patient, leaning on the shoulder of a kinsman, unable to rest against 
the narrow door of the temple of the blessed Surya, and having sat down 
behind it, striving, under the pretense of the utterance of a benediction' 
on his relatives, to obtain a removal of the disease of leprosy which was 
produced by his misfortune in a previous existence, praises the Blessed 
(Surjra) with the [poem] beginning jambhUrHtibha* [devoting some 
stanzas] to the series of rays, [others] to the chariot, disk' . . . [text 

• • • 

Here, it may be remarked, the cause of Mayura's a£9iction with 
leprosy is not 'the curse of the faithful wife/ but the outworking 
of karma in a previous existence, and the commentator does not 
commit himself to the statement that the leprous spots were 
removed by the composition of the SUryaSataka, but merely says 
that Mayura 'strove (or, desired) to obtain (Ipsu) the removal 
of the disease' by that means. It may even be possible that 
Jagannatha is not drawing from the Jain story at all, for he 

^ Jagannatha probably flourished in the seventeenth century ; cf . above, 

p. 7-fi. 

2 Text given by M. Haraprasada Sastrl, ^o/iV^^ of Sanskrit Manuscripts, 
Second Series, vol. i, p. 411, no. 412, Calcutta, 1900. 

'Every stanza in the SUryaiataka is in the form of an diis, or 
' benediction *. 

^ The opening words of the SUryaiataka ; cf . below, p. 108. 

^The division of the subject-matter of the SUrya^ataka is discussed 
below; cf. p. 84-^5. 


{qUows it only in general outline, and I am the more inclined to 
this view because he gives information — ^namely, the account of a 
literary contest at Benares (see above, p. 8) — ^which no one else 
has recorded for us, thus showing his independence. 

Comments on the Jaina Tale 

Origin of the tale. Having given the story, we are now 
prepared to comment upon it. The reader probably noted in the 
course of the narrative the statement^ that the goddess Qindika 
appeared and restored Bana's amputated limbs at the recitation 
of the sixth syllable of the first stanza of the Candliataka. Now 
in the first stanza of this poem, though not including the actual 
sixth syllable, occurs the following pQda : — 

ity udyatkopaketUn prakrtim avayavSn prspayantyeva devyd^ 

'by Devi (Can^i), who caused by these words, as it were, the parts of 
[her] body that displayed signs of rising anger to resume their normal 

Biihler has cleverly pointed out* that in all probability the story 
of Bana's self-mutilation had its inception in this sentence, the 
Jain commentator taking the words as a reference to the author 
instead of to the goddess. And this suggested explanation of 
Biihler's is very much strengthened by applying the same line 
of reasoning in the case of the BhaktHtnarastotra and the 

Consider first the BhaktQfnarastotra. According to the Jaina 
tale, as the reader will remember,* Manatunga was loaded with 
42 chains which dropped from him successively, one at the con- 
clusion of each stanza, as the BhaktHmarastotra was recited. 
The forty-second stanza* of this stotra reads as follows : — 

1 See above, p. 24. 

2 For the text of the Candliataka, see below, p. 267-357. 

*G. Buhler, On the Chan(fikalataka of Banabhatfa, in I A, vol i, p. 115. 
Peterson agrees with Biihler; cf. Peterson, Kadambari, introd., p. 97, 2d 
ed., Bombay, 1889. 

* See above, p. 24 and 28. 

B Stanza 42 of the edition by Jacobi in Indische Studien, vol 14, p. 359- 
376, Leipzig, 1876; but stanza 46 of the edition in the Kavyamala Series, 


apsdakantham urufynkhalaveffitangH 
giUffio^ bfhan niga^akofinighfffajanghdh 
tvanndmamantram anUatfi manujdh stnarantah 
sadyah svayatfi vigatabandhabhayS bhavanti 

* Mortals whose limbs are clothed from neck to foot in mighty fetters. 
And whose shanks are severely chafed by millions of stout chains, 
Will, by incessantly meditating on thy name as a mantra. 
Become at once, by their own efforts, freed from the distress of [this] 

Here it is even more obvious than in the case of the Candliataka 
and Bana, that the starting-point of the ridiculous story, so far 
as it refers to Manatuhga, is found in this forty-second stanza 
of the Bhaktdfnarastotra, 

Similarly, in the case of the SUryasataka, it is equally obvious 
that the story of Mayura's miraculous recovery from leprosy 
owes its origin to the wording of the sixth stanza of the SUryaia- 
taka, for it was at the recitation of the sixth stanza, according to 
the Jain commentator,^ that Surya appeared in person to relieve 
Mayura's suffering. This sixth stanza runs as follows : — 

ilrnaghrHnanghrip&nin vranibhir apaghandir ghargharHvyaktaghofdn 
dJrghdghratdn aghdughdih punar api ghafayaty eka ulldghayan yah 
gharmdifiios tasya vo 'ntardvigunaghanaghrnanighnanirvighnavrtter 
dattargh&h siddhasafjtghOir vidadhatu ghfuayah Ughram anghovighatam* 

'The Hot-rayed (Surya) alone makes anew and cures those who, because 

long rank with multitudes of sins. 
Have shriveled noses, feet and hands, whose limbs are ulcerous, and who 

make gurgling indistinct noises — 
He alone makes them new, his conduct being free from restrictions, and 

subject [only] to the abundant compassion [that exists] in twofold 

measure in his soul 
May the Hot-rayed (Sur3ra's) rays, to which oblations are offered by 

hosts of Siddhas, quickly cause the destruction of your sins/ 

This Stanza, besides being a masterpiece of the alliteration of 
gh sounds, sufficient in itself to gain the ear and admiration of a 

by Durgaprasad and Panashikar, 3d revised ed., Bombay, 1907. However, 
in the preface (p. i) of the Kavyamala edition, the editors take the ground 
that stanzas 32-35, as printed by them, are almost certainly not the work 
of Manatunga, but were added by a later hand. 

1 See above, p. 24. 

2 See the text of the SUryaJataka, given below, p. 108-225. 


Surya of stone, contains allusions to disfigured limbs and 
features, wound-like ulcers, and a hoarse gurgling voice, which 
are plain references to leprosy.^ And these symptoms Surya is 
here said to cure. Biihler's theory as to the origin of the 
miraculous tale of Bana's recovery from his self-mutilation is 
thus strengthened by the application of a similar line of reasoning 
in the case of Mayura's cure, although it may be argued that the 
story of Mayura's wonderful resuscitation was already common 
property by the time of the Jaina fabricator.^ At any rate the 
latter was doubtless familiar with the SUryaiataka, so that a 
reference to its sixth stanza would be quite apropos for the pur- 
pose of further embellishment. 

The legend of Samba. It must be borne in mind that the 
idea of eflfecting a cure of leprosy by the aid of the Sun was not 
a new one in the Orient. According to Herodotus, the ancient 
Persians believed that affliction with leprosy was the consequence 
of sinning against the Sun. In the first book of his history it is 
recorded* : — 

it Af 8i tQw dtrrQw XirpriP ^ \e6icrip KxVt ^ t6\ip oDrot oO Karfyxfrat oM av/ifdff- 
ytrat rat&i AXKouri II^po^i * fp«url 94 /up is rbp fjXtOF i^taprhpra ri ravra ^x*^^ 

* Whatsoever one of the citizens has leprosy or the white [leprosy] does 
not come into the city, nor does he mingle with the other Persians. And 
they say that he contracts these [diseases] because of having committed 
some sin against the Sun/ 

From this it may be argued that the Persians believed the Sun 
could cure leprosy, for the same god who brought contagious 
diseases upon men must surely have been able to take them 
away again. 

^On Indian medical theories in general concerning leprosy, see Jolly» 
Medicin, in Grundriss der Indo- Arise hen Philologie, p. 96-99, Strass- 
burg, 1901. 

3 It has been pointed out above (p. 17 and 18) that the Jaina tale about 
Mayura and Bana seems to have been first told in the PrdbhOvakacaritra 
(1250 A.D.), but that a reference to Masrura's recovery from leprosy — the 
reference is so regarded, at least, by the commentators— occurs in the 
KOvyaprakaia (1050-1100 A.D.). 

•Herodotus, 1. 138; cf. the edition of H. R. Dietsch, revised by H. Kal- 
lenberg, vol. i, Leipzig, 1899. 


There is some reason for believing that this Persian conception 
of the power of the Sun to inflict and remove leprosy was brought 
by some Magi into the northwest of India, and that the Iranian 
saga dealing with the history of Sam and the hoary Zal was the 
parent of the Indian legend of Samba.^ The latter tale, which 
is, I imagine, the prototype of our Mayura story, is told in the 
closing chapters of the Bhavisya Purina. Since no text of the 
Bhavisya is available for my use, I shall give the synopsis of the 
Samba legend as taken from that Purdna by Wilson* and re- 
corded by the editor of Wilson's Visnu Purdna, It runs as 
follows : * The last twelve or fourteen chapters of the Bhavishya 
Purana are, in fact, dedicated to the tradition, of which a sum- 
mary and not altogether accurate account has been given by 
Colonel Wilford, in the Eleventh Volume of the Asiatic Re- 
searches, and which records the introduction of the worship of 
the Sun into the north-west of Hindusthan, by Samba, the son of 
Krishna. This prince, having become a leper, through the im- 
precation of the irascible sage Durvasas,^ whom he had oflfended, 
and despairing of a cure from hiunan skill, resolved to retire into 
the forest, and apply himself to the adoration of Surya, of whose 
graciousness and power he had learned many marvellous in- 
stances from the sage Narada. Having obtained the assent of 
Krishna, Samba departed from Dwaraka ; and, proceeding from 
the northern bank of the Sindhu (Indus), he crossed the great 
river the Chandrabhaga (the Chinab), to the celebrated grovt of 

^ For a full discussion of this interesting topic, see T. Bloch, Eine in- 
dische Version der iranischen Sage von Sdm, in ZDMG, vol. 64 (1910), 
P- 733-738; cf. R. G. Bhandarkar, Vaifftavtsm, Saivistn (in Biihler's 
Grundriss), p. 151-155, Strassburg, 1913. 

*H. H. Wilson, Vi^nu PurHna (translated into English), vol. 5, Cor- 
rigenda, p. 381, London, 1870. The editor states that the sjmopsis, which 
I here append, was a communication from Wilson to Fere Reinaud, and 
was included by the latter writer in his Memoire gSographique, historique 
et scientifique sur VInde, etc, p. 39i-397« 

» T. Bloch, in ZDMG, vol 64, p. 733, footnote 3, says : * Nach dem Samba- 
Furana war es in Wirklichkeit nur eine Verleumdung von seiten Narada's 
gewesen, der Samba des verbotenen Umgangs mit den 1600 Frauen Kr$na's 
beschuldigt hatte; siehe Rajendralala Mitra, The Antiquities of Orissa, 
Vol. 2, Seite 145.' 


Mitra (Mitravana), where, by fasting, penance, and prayer, he 
acquired the favour of Surya, and was cleansed of his leprosy/ 

It seems to me reasonable enough to suppose that the fabricator 
who first stated that Mayura was cured of leprosy by the power 
of the Sun had in mind this legend of Samba. It cannot, of 
course, be proved that he did, but the suggestion is worthy of 

What was the leprosy of Mayura? Another interesting point 
for speculation and discussion is the nature of the disease from 
which Mayura is said to have suflfered. Was it genuine leprosy, 
or might it possibly have been some form of skin trouble that 
would be benefited by exposure to the rays of the Sun? Bloch 
hazards the suggestion^ that by the word Xcuci; (white leprosy), 
used by Herodotus in the passage quoted above (p. 35), is meant 
the modem leukoderma, a disease that even today in India is 
confused by ignorant people with leprosy. He even goes so far 
as to say that albinos might be regarded as suffering from Xcuci;. 
It has also been suggested to me that Mayura's ' lepra-spots ' 
were perhaps nothing more than the eruption of some venereal 
disease, and, as such, comparable and similar to the 'thousand 
eyes ' of Indra. And it is interesting to note, in this connection, 
that the * thousand eyes/ which were originally bMga,^ were — ^like 
the leprosy of Samba, according to the account supplied from 
the SQmba-Purdna^ — imposed as punishment for illicit amours. 

The real reason for the composition of the SuryaSataka. 
The real reason for the composition of the SUryaiataka is prob- 
ably to be connected with the presumed fact that the cult of the 
Sun was popular or fashionable in the days of Harsa.* We 

^ Bloch, as cited in the note preceding, p. 733, footnote 2. 

'See the discussion of Indra's 'thousand eyes', given below (p. 217), 
under SUryaiataka, stanza 94, note 4. 

• See above, p. 36, note 3. 

^Sorne scholars believe that sun-worship was introduced into north- 
western India from Persia; cf. the article The Sect of SHuras and the 
Northern Sun-Worship, p. 154, in the latest addition to Biihler's Grundriss, 
the volume by R. G. Bhandarkar, entitled Vai^navism, Saivism, Strassburg, 
1913 ; see also Bloch's article cited above, p. 36, note i. 


know, at any rate, from several of Harsa's inscriptions, that that 
monarch's father, and some of his ancestors, were param&ditya- 
bhakta,^ 'devoted to the supreme Aditya (Surya),' a statement 
that finds support in Bana's Harsacarita, which says of Harsa's 
father Prabhakaravardhana that 'the king was by natural pro- 
clivity a devotee of the sun. Day by day at sunrise he bathed, 
arrayed himself in white silk, wrapt his head in a white doth, 
and kneeling eastwards upon the ground in a circle smeared with 
saffron paste, presented for an offering a bunch of red lotuses, set 
in a pure vessel of ruby and tinged, like his ovm heart, with the 
sun's hue. Solemnly, at da^^-n, at midday, and at eve he muttered 
a prayer for offspring, humbly with earnest heart repeating a 
hymn having the sun as its center.'- 

There are, besides, in the Harsacarita a number of incidental 
references to sun-worship,* and Hiian Tsang, the Chinese Bud- 
dhist pilgrim who visited India during Harsa's reign, has left in 
his writings the accovmt of a quinquennial religious festi\'al held 
by Harsa at Prayaga* (Allahabad), and records that on the occa- 
sion when he himself was present at one of these festivals, the 
statues of Buddha, Surya and Siva were made the centers of 
worship on three successive days. Perhaps our poem was written 
because of royal command, like the Carmen Saeculare of Horace, 
and it may have been intended to grace the celebration of some 
such festival as those held at Prayaga. Of course the statement 
made by Anvayamukha — 

* Sec the Madhuban Plate of Harfa, in EI, voL 7. p. 157-159: the Boiix- 
kk*'ra Plate of Harfa, in EI, voL 4. p. 210 ; and Har$a*s Sompat Seal, in C//, 
voL 3. p. J31-432; cf. also Ettinghausen. Harfa rardhana, p. 87, 143-151. 

^Sec Cowell and Thomas, Harfa-carita (English translation), p. I04» 
Cambridge, 1897. 

•Cf. CoweU and Thomas, Harfa-carita, p. 40. 118, 147, 156. 163, 241, 
and 246. 

« Ettinghansen {Harfa Vardhana. p. 48. note 4) refers, for an account 
of this festivaL to St Julien. Histoire de la tie de Hiomem Tsang et d€ ses 
voyages dans TInde, p. 254: see also Samuel Beal Buddhist Records of 
the Western World (translated from the Chinese of Hiian Tsang), voL 
I. P- -2^3. Boston, 1885. See also Ettinghausen, op. cit,, p. 9^, 108; i^ 


mayHro ndma mahakavir antahkaranadisarvavayanirvrtisiddhaye sarva" 
janopak&rdya ca . , , Sdityasya stutitft Hokaiatena pranltav&n^ 

'the great poet named Mayura composed a hymn to Aditjra (Surya) 
in a hundred ilokas, for the attainment of emancipation from all the 
pangs ( ?) of the soul, and for the benefit of all people ' — 

is a statement of an entirely formal nature, containing general, 
and not particular reasons. And the same is true of the assertion 
made in the one hundred and first stanza of the SUryaiataka, to 
the effect that that poem was * composed by Mayura for the good 
of the world.'* 

The real reason for the composition of the Candisataka. By 
a similar line of reasoning, the Candliataka of Bana may owe its 
origin to the prevalence and popularity of Saivism, or Siva- 
worship. Peterson, who accepts Manatuhga as a contemporary 
of Bana and Mayura, is inclined to adopt the view that 'the 
Candik&sataka of Bana, the SuryaJataka of Mayura, and the 
BhaktSmarastotra of Manatuhga are three opposing poems 
written by devotees of one or other of the great forms of 
religion which flourished side by side under Harsa's protection.'* 
Here by ' the great forms of religion ' Peterson presumably means 
Saivism, Sun-worship, and Jainism. Under this ruling, Mayura, 
because of his authorship of the SUryasataka, must be classed 
among the Sauras, or Sun-worshipers, although we shall see 
later* that there is some reason to believe that he also composed 
a poem or literary work in honor of Siva. 

Mayura not a Jain. Ettinghausen states that Mayura was a 
Jain.' I do not agree with Ettinghausen on this point, and I 
cannot see on what grounds he has reached such a conclusion, 

^ This quotation from Anvayamukha's commentary on Mayura's SUrya- 
iataka is given by M. Wintemitz, in A Catalogue of South Indian Sanskrit 
Manuscripts, p. 54 (no. 46), London, 1902. Dr. Wintemitz says that the 
manuscript containing the commentary should be dated about 1775 A.D. 
This is presumably also the date of Anvayamukha. 

* See below, p. 225. 

* Peterson, Kudambari, introd., p. 97. 

* See below, p. 61 and 233, note 2. 

' Ettinghausen, Harfa Vardhana, p. 93 : ' Masrura, quoique jaina, 6tait un 
des pontes favoris de Har$a.' 


for, besides the statement of the Jaina pattdvcUl that ' Manatuhga 
converted the king who was b^^iled by the sorceries of Bana 
and Mayura/^ we have the evidence of our fully embellished 
Jaina tale, which clearly represents Bana and Mayura as opposed 
both to Jainism and to its representative, Manatunga. The only 
reference I have found that could lead anyone to believe that 
Mayura so much as favored the Jains, is a passage in the 
YaiastUaka^ of Somadeva, a Jain writer who flourished 959 
A.D.,* and even this does not claim him as an adherent of the 
sect. In the course of the story* — ^the Yaiastilaka is a quasi-his- 
torical novel — ^the king Yasodhara adopts Jainism, and in de- 
fending his step against the objections of the queen-mother, 
makes the following remark* : — 

kOvyefu tatra tatra 'vasare bharatapranlte kOvyOdhydye sarvajanaprasid' 
dhefu tefu te^U 'pakhyHnefu ca kathafu tadvi^ayH mahati prasiddhih 

'[Don't you see that] in the writings of the great poets Urva, Bh§ravi, 
Bhavabhuti, Bhartrhari, Bhartfrnentha, Kantha, Gvai^4^y2i, Vyasa, Bhasa, 
Vosa, Kalidasa, Bana, Ma3rura, Narayana, Kumara, MUgha, RajaSekhara, 
here and there, when occasion warrants, and in the chapter on kOvya, 
written by Bharata, and in various tales famous among all people [i.e., 
folk-stories], there is great fame in reference to it.'« 

Such a statement, taken from a Jain author,^ should hardly be 

1 See above, p. 19-20. 

2 The Yaiastilaka has been edited by Sivadatta and Parab in the Kavya- 
maU Series ; two volumes, Bombay, 1901 and 1903. 

» Duff, Chronology, p. 74 and 93. Peterson, Search for Skt. MSS, First 
Report, p. 56, gave the date of the Yaiastilaka as Saffivat 881 ; this he cor- 
rected, in Second Report, p. 33, to Saka 881. 

*A lengthy synopsis of the contents of the Yaiastilaka is given by Peter- 
son, in A Second Report of Operations in Search of Sanskrit Manuscripts, 
p. 33-47f Bombay, 1884. 

B See the Kavyamala edition of the Yaiastilaka, vol. 2, p. 113. 

« By the phrase * in reference to it ' is meant * in reference to Jainism ' ; 
cf. the commentary on this passage of the Yaiastilaka', tadvi^ayH digatn- 
barcuaffibandhinl, * in reference to it [means] reference to the Digambara 
[sect of the Jains].' 

^ Somadeva, author of the Yaiastilaka, was a Jain ; cf . Duff, Chronology, 
p. 93 ; Peterson, Search for Skt. MSS, Second Report, p. 33. 


made authority for the belief that Mayura was a Jain, especially 
as it is certain that Bhartrhari, Gunadhya, Kalidasa and Rajase- 
khara were orthodox Brahmans^ ; and as concerns the accuracy of 
the statement itself, I would say that in reading the SUryaiataka 
and the other writings of Mayura, I have not noted, even ' here 
and there,' as Somadeva asserts, any commendation of the Jainas 
or their system. On the whole, the evidence which we have is 
altogether opposed to Ettinghausen's view that Mayura was a 
Jain, and tmtil some new and reliable testimony to the contrary is 
forthcoming, I think we are not warranted in placing our poet 
among the followers of Mahavira. 

King Bhoja. With r^ard to the king Bhoja whom the Jaina 
tale substitutes for Harsa as the patron of Bana and Mayura, 
two of our versions call him vrddhabhoja, or the * elder Bhoja,' 
king of Uj jain* ; but in a third version, the PrabandhacintStmani 
of Merutunga, he is called Bhoja of Dhara.* The last-named is 
a king well-known in later Indian history* both as an author and, 
more especially, as a patron of literature,' and he ruled over 
Malava in the eleventh century of the Christian era.* Since 
Ujjain and Dhara are both cities of Malava, we may fairly con- 
clude that Bhoja of Ujjain is identical with Bhoja of Dhara, the 
more so since Abu-1-Fadl in his A'ltiri Akbari states that Bhoja 
moved his capital from Ujjain to Dhara J 

^This information about Bhartrhari, etc, was given me by Dr. Louis 
H. Gray. 
^ See above, p. 21 and 24-25. 

* See above, p. 29. 

* See Vincent Smith, Early History of India, p. 395-396, 3d ed., Oxford, 
1914; Duff, Chronology, p. 109 and references; Rajendralala Mitra, Bhoja 
RHjH of Dhdr and his Homonyms, in JASB, vol. 32 (1863), P. 91-110; and 
Hoemle and Stark, History of India, p. 73, 90, 4th edition, Cuttack, 1909. 

BAufrecht (Catalogus Catalogorum, vol. i, p. 418) believes that all the 
works attributed to Bhoja's pen — ^he lists more than twenty such — were 
written by authors who lived during Bhoja's reign or some time later. 

* For the date, see the references cited in the second note preceding. 
^ Cf. Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, vol. 3, p. 848, Leipzig, 1858. 

42 general introduction 

The Bhojaprabandha^ 

In this connection it is interesting to note that the literary 
composition Bhojaprabandha, a highly legendary history of Bhoja 
of Dhara, written by Ballala in the sixteenth century,* associates 
Bana and Mayura with that monarch. Like the first anon- 
ymous commentary on the Bhaktdmarastotra, referred to above,* 
it states that these two poets were among five hundred men of 
letters* who received support and maintenance at the hands of 
this generous Malava king, the only difference in the two accounts 
being that in the commentary on the Bhaktdmarastotra the king 
is called Bhoja of Ujjain, while the Bhojaprabandha terms him 
Bhoja of Dhara. This little volume — ^the Bhojaprabandha — 
which may be a work of Jain origin,* is divided into two parts. 
The first part gives a narrative of events, showing how Bhoja 
succeeded his uncle Munja® on the throne of Malava. The 
second part consists largely of a series of anecdotes about Bhoja, 

^ This work has been edited by K. P. Parab, 2d revised edition, Bombay, 
1904; cf. the articles, containing some text, and translations in French, of 
extracts from the Bhojaprabandha, by Theodore Pavie, in Journal Asiatique, 
as follows: Bhodjaprabandha, histoire de Bhodja, vol. 64 (1854), p. 185- 
230; Le Poite Kaliddsa d la cour de Bhodja, vol. 65 (1854), p. 385-431; 
Les Pan4its d la cour du rot Bhodja, voL 66 (1855), p. 76-105. See also 
the monograph, Die Resensionen des Bhojaprabandha, by Ludwig Oster, 
Darmstadt, 191 1. 

3 Of Ballala practically nothing is known. Aufrecht (Catai Cod. Skt. 
Bibl, Bodl,, p. 151, a) determines his date as follows : ' De Ballalae aetate 
haec comperi. Filium Ranganatham, nepotem ViSvarupam habuit, qui as- 
tronomi seculo septimo decimo ineunte vixerunt Ipse igitur exeunte 
seculo sexto decimo floruit.' 

* See above, p. 25. 

* See below, p. 43. 

» Bhau Daji, On the Sanscrit Poet, KalidOsa, in J BRAS, vol. 6, p. 222, 
makes the following statement which has, apparently, not received later 
contradiction : ' According to tradition, the poets Bana and Mayura were 
contemporaries to Bhoja. Some Jain records make them contemporaries 
of a Vfddha, or elder Bhoja; others, such as the author of the Bhojapra- 
bandha, bring them down to the age of Munja and Bhoja, in the eleventh 
century of the Christian era.* 

^This Munja, the Paramara king of Malava, must not be confounded 
with the eighth-century writer Munja, who composed the Gaiitfavaho; cf. 
Haas, Daiarupa, introd., p. 22, note 5, New York, 1912. 


and his relations with the many poets and literary lights that were 
wont to throng his court. Mayura is mentioned a number of 
times, principally in the anecdotes, and it has seemed best to me 
simply to record here these references to him, although I realize 
their probable utter lack of value as real historical and bio- 
graphical data. In perusing them, the reader must always bear 
in mind that Ballala is dealing with fictitious events, possibly 
leavened, here and there, with a germ of truth, and that the 
Bhojaprabandha is tmiversally condemned^ for its anachronisms 
and inaccuracies. The allusions, however, are as here recorded. 

Allusions to Mayura in the Bhojaprabandha 

In the following extracts, taken mostly from the anecdotes con- 
tained in the Bhojaprabandha, I have given text and translation 
of such passages as actually include the name of Mayura. Of 
other parts, introduced merely for the purpose of making clear 
the context, only synopses or abridgments are given. 

A list of poets at Bhoja's court. The text rtms as follows : — 

tatah kramena pancalatani indufSfft vararuci'tdna^mayUra-rephana-hari- 
mukhdh sarvaJMravicakfanah sarve sarvajndh irlhhojarajasdbhUm ahffi' 

'Then there ornamented the court of the illustrious King Bhoja all the 
five hundred omniscient savants, versed in all the Idstras, chief of whom, 
in order, were Vararuci, Bana, Mayura, Rephana, Hari, Satpkara, Kalinga, 
Karpura, Vinayaka, Madana, Vidya, Vinoda, Kokila and Tarendra.* 

The poet Kridacandra joins the court circle of Bhoja. One 
day an unknown poet, clothed in a loin-cloth only, seeks ad- 
mission to Bhoja's presence. Upon being admitted, he takes a 
seat, tmbidden, and recites a stanza. Bhoja inquires his name, 
and after slight demur he confesses — in verse — ^that his name is 

1 Cf . Hall, VdsavadattH; introd., p. 7, note ; Bhau Dajl, On the Sanscrit 
Poet, KdlidOsa, in JBRAS, vol. 6, p. 23, footnote ; M. Sashagiri Sastri, On 
some Eminent Characters in Sanskrit Literature, in I A, voL i, p. 340; A. 
Weber, History of Indian Literature (translated from the German by 
Mann and Zachariae), p. 215, note 225, Boston, 1878; Krishnamacharsra, 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 148. 

2 Parab's 2d edition, p. 14. 


Kridacandra. Kalidasa, who is present, vouches for Kridacan- 
dra's ability and reputation as a poet, and Kridacandra there- 
upon proceeds to justify Kalidasa's opinion of him by reciting 
several stanzas whose purpose is to praise Bhoja and cause the 
royal purse-strings to loosen. One of these stanzas runs: — 

jndyate jdtu ndmH 'pi na rdjnah kavitHtft vtnd 
kaves tadvyatirekena na klrtih sphurati kfitau^ 

* The name even of a king is not ever known without poetry ; 
Without that, the fame of a poet on earth is not manifest' 

On hearing this, Mayura adds as his quota to the conversation 
the following sloka in praise of poets : — 

t€ vandyHs te nMhUtmdnas tefStfi loke sthiratft yaiah 
ySdr nibaddhdni kilt;yam ye ca kOvye praklrtitah^ 

* Those by whom poems are composed, and who are celebrated in the realm 

of poetry, 
Are to be respected, are great-souled, and in the world their fame is 

After Vararuci has likewise uttered a stanza in praise of poets 
and poetry, Bhoja expresses his delight by presenting to Krida- 
candra a quintet of villages and twenty elephants. 

The banishment of Kalidasa.' Some of the pandits, jealous 
of Kalidasa's prestige, and of his influence with the king, seek to 
bring about his tmdoing. They conspire, with the help of a 
female slave, the royal betel-bearer, to discredit the famous poet 
in the eyes of his royal patron. This slave makes the king be- 
lieve that Kalidasa has been having a liaison with the queen. 
Kalidasa is banished, but his reputation is cleared soon after by 
the queen, who, to prove her innocence, tmdergoes the ordeal of 
fire. The king would recall Kalidasa, but cannot discover his 
whereabouts. As a matter of fact the poet is still living in 
Bhoja's capital, in concealment, in the house of a courtezan. 

^ Parab's 2d edition, p. 23, stanza 120. 

^ Parab's 2d edition, p. 23, stanza 121. This iloka is quoted, though 
without mention of the name of the author, in Vallabhadeva's SubhOfi^ 
tovali, stanza 146 of Peterson's edition. See also Ludwig Oster, Die 
Resensionen des Bhojaprabandha, p. 22, Darmstadt, 1911. 

• See Parab's 2d edition, p. 25-32. 


The king mopes, pining for his favorite. One night he com- 
poses a half-stanza. Next day he assembles the poets, recites to 
them the half-stanza, and enjoins them to complete it under pain 
of being banished from the kingdom. They go home and seek 
to compose the missing part, but none of them is successful. 
Finally they send Bana as spokesman to request a delay of eight 
days, promising to give the desired missing part on the ninth day, 
or else to depart. Eight days pass. On the ninth, Bana tells the 
assembled poets, who have meanwhile been unable to complete 
the stanza, that the reason of their failure is the fact that they 
caused the banishment of Kalidasa. 

At this point in the story Mayura is introduced as an active or 
leading spirit, but it is uncertain whether, on the strength of 
mayurHdayah, 'beginning with Mayura,' we are justified in at- 
tributing the following remarks and sloka to the mouth of that 
poet alone. At any rate, I will append them as such, and the 
reader may exercise his judgment in the matter : — 

tatal} sarve gd4hattt kalahdyante sma mayUradayai ca | tatas te sarvSn 
kalahdn nivdrya sadyah prdhuh — adydivd 'vadhih pQrnah \ kalidOsam anta- 
rena na kasyacit sUmarthyam asti samasy&purane 

sangrdme subhafendranSttt kavinSffi ka7nmaft(/ale 
diptir vd diptihdnir vH muhUrtenaiva jHyate 

yadi rocate tato 'dydiva madhyarHtre pramudiiacandramasi nigUdham eva 
gacchdmah sarnpattisatuhharam addya \ yadi na gamyate hfo rHjasevakH 
asmdn balan nihsHrayanti \ tadd deharndtreniUva 'smdbhir gantavyam \ tadd 
*dya madhyaratre gamifySmah \ iti sarve niicitya grham Sgatya batlvarda* 
vyU(/hefu lakafefu satfipadbharam Sropya rdtr&v eva nifkrHntah^ 

'Then all, beginning with Mayura, kept bickering much. Then these, 
suddenly suppressing all their bickerings, said: "To-day, indeed, time is 
up. No one, with the exception of Kalidasa, is able to complete the stanza ; 
[for it is said] : — 

' For Indra-like warriors in the battle, for poets in the circle of poets. 
Fame, or loss of fame, is bom just in a moment' 

' " If it pleases you therefore, just to-day, at midnight, in the gladsome 
moonlight, we will go forth secretly, taking what is needful for our wel- 
fare. If we do not go, to-morrow the servants of the king will cause 
us to leave by force; in that case, we shall verily have to go with our 
bodies only [i.e. without our possessions]. So to-day, at midnight, we 

1 Parab's 2d edition, p. 30-31. The stanza is no. 151 of the Bhojaprabandha, 


shall start" All, having decided [to act] in accordance [with this advice], 
went home, and having placed the bulk of their possessions on ox-drawn 
vehicles, departed in the night.' 

But Kalidasa, who, as noted above, was still in the city, heard 
the noise of their passing wagons, and having learned who the 
fugitives were, determined to find out the reason for their flight. 
So, putting on a disguise, he ran ahead, taking a roundabout 
course, and met them face to face. Having ascertained the 
trouble, he supplied them with the missing half-stanza, and left 
them. They, believing they had met the goddess Sarasvati in- 
carnate, returned joyfully, and recited the missing part of the 
troublesome stanza to Bhoja. The latter was convinced that no 
one but Kalidasa could have supplied the missing part, and con- 
cluded that that poet must be somewhere at hand. He accord- 
ingly made further, and this time successful, efforts to find his 
favorite, with the result that Kalidasa was soon found and re- 
stored to his former position at court. 

The poet Sukadeva joins the court circle of Bhoja. One 
day, when Bhoja was sitting on his lion-throne, a poverty- 
stricken poet, who announced his name as Sukadeva, requested 
admission to the court. Bhoja asked his poet-friends what they 
knew of Sukadeva's reputation. Kalidasa and the poetess Sita 
spoke of Sukadeva in the highest terms, and then Mayura uttered 
the following iloka, which is evidently an adaptation of Pancatan- 
tra I. 32, or, more probably, a quotation with variant readings* : — 

aPfffas tu narah kitncid yo brUte rdjasatfisadi 
na kcvalam asatfimUnattt labhate ca vi4ambandm^ 

* The man who, unasked, says anything in the assembly of the king. 
Gets not only dishonor, but also mockery.' 

This Moka Mayura immediately follows up by the recitation 
of another, and concludes by urging the admission of Sukadeva 
to the assembly : — 

* See edition of the Pancatantra by F. Kielhom, Bombay, 1885. Cf. also 
Indische Spriiche, vol. i, no. 453, 2d ed., St. Petersburg, 1870. 
2 Parab's 2d edition, p. 42, stanza 193. 


deva tathd 'py ucyate 

kd sabha kim kavijnSnattt rasikHh kavayai ca ke 
bhoja kiffi ndma te ddnatfi iukas tufyati yena sah 

tatha 'pi bhavanadvdram Ugatah- iukadevah sabfUtyUm Unetavya eva^ 

* Sire, it is also said : — 

"What court [is there], what poetic knowledge, what esthetic poets, 
And what gift of thine, pray, O Bhoja, by which this Stika can be 


' However, ^ukadeva, since he has come to the door of the palace, must be 
brought into the court' 

Bhoja, following this suggestion of Mayflra, had Sukadeva 
admitted, listened to but one of his stanzas, and gave him four 
hundred elephants and a gold dish full of rubies. 

Mayura in disfavor. It appears, for some tmstated reason, 
that Mayura had fallen into disfavor. The text of the passage 
relating to this occurrence runs as follows : — 

ekadd krUfodydnapdla UgatyOikam ik^udaniff^tfi rHjnah puro mumoca | 
tatjt rSjA kare gfhUavdn \ tato mayUrakavir nitHntatn paricayavaiHd atmani 
rSjnd krtSm avajndtfi manasi nidhdyek^umifend "ha 


kUnto 'si nityamadhuro 'si ras&kulo 'si 
kifft c& 'si pancaiarakarmukam advifiyam 
ikfo tava 'sti sakalatjt param ekam Unam 
yat sevito bhajasi nlrasatatfi kramena 

rUja kavihrdayam jndtva mayUraifi satfimUnitavHn^ 

' Once upon a time, the gardener of the pleasure-garden, going up to a 
single stalk of sugar-cane, broke it off in the presence of the king. The 
king took it in his hand. Then the poet Mayura, relying on [lit. on ac- 
cotmt of] his great intimacy, [and] having in mind the disesteem felt [lit. 
made] by the king towards himself, said, under pretext of [addressing] 
the sugar-cane, [but really referring to the king] : — 

" Thou art lovely, thou art mellifluous ever, thou art filled with syrup ; 
Moreover thou art the incomparable bow of the Five-arrowed (Kama). 
O sugar-cane stalk, everything about thee is of the highest quality ; [but] 

one thing is lacking — 
In that thou, though cultivated, becomest, by degrees, insipid." 

' The king, realizing the feelings of the poet, treated Mayura with respect.' 
Incidental mention of Mayura. Once upon a time, Bhoja 

^ Parab's 2d edition, p. 42, stanza 194. 

^Parab's 2d edition, p. 52, stanza 235. The stanza is written in the 
vasantatilaka meter. I have emended -kartnakam of the text to -karmukain. 


was walking alone at night through the city, and overheard a 
vdiiya saying to his wife : — 

kdUcit stotrapardyanair mayUradikavibhir mahitnUnatft prapito hhojalf^ 

'Bhoja attains greatness by [the help of] certain poets, Mayura and 
others, who are engaged in praising him.' 

In another passage we read that Kalidasa is disobedient, but 
Mayura obeys: — 

tatah kadHcid rdjn tndvadvfndatfi nirgatatfi kdlidCLsatjt cd 'navaratave^ 
lydlampatatfi jndivA vyacintayat — ahaha hUnamayUraprabhftayo tnadiySm 
djndffi vyadadhuh \ ayatfi ca veiyHlampatatayd mamU "jnUm nd "driyate \ 
kiifi kurmah iti^ 

* Then once on a time, the king, noticing the assembled crowd of savants, 
and [knowing] that Kalidasa was constantly lustful after courtezans, pon- 
dered : " Ah, Bana, Mayura and the others have performed my command ; 
but this (Kalidasa), because of his lustfulness for courtezans, does not 
heed my command. What shall I do ? " ' 

Elsewhere we are told that another poet is admitted to the 
court : — 

tatah kaddcit sitithdsanam alatfikurvdne ^rtbhoje kuliddsa-bhavabhuti- 
dan4i - bdna - mayUra - vararuci-prabhftikavitilakakuldlaffikftaydtn sabhayaffi 
dvarapala etya "ha^ 

'Then once on a time, when the illustrious Bhoja was ornamenting his 
lion-throne, and when the court was adorned by the assemblage of poet- 
ornaments, at whose head were Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Da^^in, Bana, 
Mayura and Vararuci, the door-keeper, entering, said ' : — 

Then follows the usual story of a poet being introduced, recit- 
ing verses, and receiving gifts. 

This completes the references to Mayura in the Bhoja- 

Comment on the Bhojaprabandha 

Bhoja not a contemporary of Mayura. Having, with the 
help of the Bhojaprabandha, fixed the personality of the Bhoja 
mentioned in our Jaina tale, we are next face to face with the 

1 Parab's 2d edition, p. 38. 

2 Parab's 2d edition, p. 62. 

• Parab's 2d edition, p. 78. 


chronological difficulty of making Bana and Mayura, of the 
seventh century, contemporaries of Bhoja, who reigned four him- 
dred years later. A search of the historical records^ reveals no 
Bhoja as early as the seventh century, with whom the well-known 
Bhoja of Dhira and Ujjain might have been confounded in the 
minds of Ballala, Merutunga, and the Jain commentators, and 
we are therefore prone to conclude that the association of Mayura 
and Bana with Bhoja is perhaps another of those fabrications of 
the Jains,* who have taken as great liberties with the king of 
Dhara as they did with Manattihga, bringing the one from the 
eleventh century and the other from the third, and making them 
associate as contemporaries in the seventh. 

The Credibility of Jaina Tradition 

Biihler's opinion. As a matter of fact, our Jaina tale and the 
Bhojaprabandha* illustrate so well what Biihler has said of the 
credibility, or rather, incredibility, of the Jain historical works, 
that I cannot refrain from quoting the most pregnant of his 
words in support of some of the conclusions I have here reached. 
* The objects,' he says, * with which the Caritas and Prdbandhas 
were composed, were to edify the Jain community, to convince 
them of the glory and power of the Jain religion, or, in cases 
where the subject is a purely secular one, to provide them with 
an agreeable entertainment. ... In particular, must it be admitted 
that the persons introduced in the older, as well as in the more 
recent narratives, are really historical characters. Although it 
is frequently the case that an individual is introduced at a period 
earlier or later than that to which he really belonged, or that the 
most absurd stories are told with regard to him, yet there is no 
case forthcoming in which we could affirm with certainty that a 
man named by these chroniclers is a pure figment of the imagina- 
tion. On the contrary, nearly every freshly discovered inscrip- 
tion, every collection of old manuscripts, and every really his- 

* Cf. Duff, Chronology, Index. 

*I have given above (p. 42, note 5) my authority for classifying the 
Bhojaprabandha as a Jain work. 



torical work that is brought to light, furnishes confirmation of the 
actual existence of one or other of the characters described by 


§ANKu, Son of Mayura 

Direct allusion to the family of Mayura is confined to the 

statements, already noted, which make him either the father of 

Sana's wife, or the brother of Bana's wife, or the husband of 

Bana's sister — ^that is, Bana's father-in-law or his brother-in-law.* 

There is, however, a possibility that Ma)rura had a son, who was 

also a poet, for in the Paddhaii of Sarngadhara, and also in the 

Saktimuktavali,^ there is found a stanza ascribed to iankukah 

ntayUrasanuh, * Sankuka, son of Ma)rura/ The stanza is lyrical 

in character, written in the SdrdUlaznkfidita meter, and is not 

without poetic merit. It runs as follows : — 

durvdrHh smaratndrgandh priyatatno dure mono 'Py utsukatft 
giUfham prema navaffi vayo 'tikathindh prdndh kulatft nirmalam 
stfftvatrt dhiUryavirodhi tnanmathasuhft kalah kftSnto 'kfatnl 
so4havy(lh sakhi s9tfiprataffi katham ami sarve 'gnayo duhscMh^ 

^This quotation is given by Tawney, in his Prabandhacintdma^i 
(introd., p. 6), and is a translation from the German of Buhler's article, 
Ueber das Leben des Jaina Monches Hemacandra, which is published in 
Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophy 
isch-Historische Classe, vol. 37, p. 171-258, Wien, 1889. 

^ See above, p. 21, 26, and 29. 

* See the references in the note following. 

*The text quoted above is that given by Peterson in his Paddhati of 
SHrngadhara, no. 3753; cf. Aufrecht in ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 91, where text 
and German translation are given. The stanza is also quoted in the 
SubhUfitHvali (Peterson's edition, no. 11 56 — it is there ascribed to SaAkuka, 
but without mention of the latter's relationship to Mayura), in the 
KOvyaprakaia, 10.507 (edition of Jhalakikara,p. 835), in Parab's SubhOfi" 
taratnabhUfufiigAi'ct, P> 458, stanza 34, and also, according to Peterson 
(SubhOfitavali, introd., p. 127), in the Suktimuktavali. The following 
variants occur: (a) KHvyaprakdia, SubhOfitavali and SubhOfitaratna': 
mano 'tyutsukatfi, (c) Kdvyaprakdia and SubhOfiiOvali : kftdnto 'kfamo. 
(d) KOivyaprakaia and SubJu^itOvali: no sakhyai caturdh kathaffi nu 
virahah soifhavya itthatfi Jafhah ; SubhOfitaratna- : the same except that at 
the end it reads itthatfi mayH instead of itthatfi ^afhah. 


'Irresistible are the arrows of Kama; my dearest is far away; my heart 

is repining; 
Strong is my love; fresh is my youth; [yet] my life is exceedingly hard. 

My family[-name] is spotless; 
My womanly nature is opposed to constancy ; the time is ripe for amorous 

passion; death is impatient. 
O friend, how are all these unendurable fires now to be endured ? * 

As regards the date of this author, whom we may assume to 
have been the son of our Mayura, it can only be said that the 
stanza just cited is found in the Kdvyaprakaia and must there- 
fore be earlier than 1050-1100 A.D., which is the date, as we 
have seen above/ of the composition of the KHvyaprakdsa. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that we have records of the 
existence of two other poets bearing the name Sahkuka or Sanku, 
who may, or may not, be the same as the author of the durvdrdh 
stanza just cited. One of these is described in the RHjataranginP 
as the author of a poem entitled Bhuvandbhyudaya, and his date 
is fixed by Jacob' as about 816 A.D., a date that would preclude 
his being a son of our Mayura. In the Subhdsitavali^ several 
stanzas are ascribed to him, even including our durvdrdh verse. 
The Paddhati of Sarngadhara places one stanza (ed. Peterson, 
no. 3894) under his name,' and the Kdvyaprakdia cites him as a 
rhetorician and an authority on kdvya,^ 

The remaining, or third, Sanku was likewise a poet, and his 
name is listed in the astrological work Jyotirviddbharana (22. 8, 

* For the date of the Kavyaprakdia, see above, p. 30, note 2. 
^Kalhana's Rajataranginl, 4.705 (edited by Durgaprasada, Bombay, 

1892), has the following Jloka: — 

kavir hudhamanahsindhuiaiUnkah iankukUhhidhah 
yam uddiiyd 'karot kdvyaffi bhuvanabhyudayabhidham 

'With reference to that (battle), the poet named Sankuka, the moon of 
the ocean of learned minds, composed a poem entitled Bhuvanllbhyudaya' 

* G. A. Jacob, Notes on AlahkOra Literature, in JRAS, new series, vol. 

29 (1897), p. 287. 

* Peterson, Subhdfit&vali, introd., p. 127. 

^In the SubhOfitavali, this stanza (ed. Peterson, no. 1787) is ascribed 
to Mudraka. 

<See Kavyaprakaia, 4.28-29 (edition of Jhalakikara, p. 104-105); cf. 
Auf recht, Catalogus Catalogorum, vol. i, p. 629. 


10, 19), as one of the 'nine gems' that graced the court of the 
celebrated Vikramaditya. The stanza of the Jyotirvidibharana 
that refers to Sanku is as follows : — 

dhanvantarih k^apanako 'tnarasitfihtJankU 
khyHto vardhamihiro nrpateh sabhUyStti 
ratnOni vQi vararucir nova vikramasya^ 

' Dhanvantari, K$apanaka, Amarasiqiha, ^anku, 
Vetalabhatta, Ghatakarpara, Kalidasa, 
The celebrated Var§ha Mihira, and Vararuci 
Are the nine gems at the court of Vikrama, Lord of Men.' 

Chronological considerations would, of course, forbid the pla- 
cing of a son of our Mayura either in the ninth century or in the 
age of Vikrama.* Therefore, if the author of the durvdrdh 
stanza be the son of our poet, he cannot be identified with either 
of the other two writers who bear his name. The whole matter, 
however, is little more than guesswork, and whether the author 
of the durvHrHh stanza is a son of Mayura, or a 'gem' of 
Vikrama, or the author of the Bhuvandbhyudaya can, in the 
present state of our knowledge, be only food for conjecture.* 


To make complete the tale of references that I have gathered 
on the subject of Mayura, I append a list of seven stanzas by 

* Cited by A. Weber, Ueber das Jyotirvidabharanam, in ZDMG, 22. 

^Hoernle and Stark, History of India, 4th edition (Cuttack, 1909), p. 
60, make Vikrama a near predecessor of Har^a's father on the imperial 
throne, and give his date as 529-585 A.D. Vincent Smith, Early History 
of India, 3d edition (Oxford, 1914), p. 290, identifies Vikrama with 
Chandragupta 2d, who came to the throne about 375 A.D. 

>The HariharQvali of Harikavi contains a stanza beginning mayUrdd 
asatno jajne mdnyah kulicurih katnh, * from Mayura there sprang the 
unequaled, revered poet Kulicuri ' (cf. Peterson, Report of Operations in 
Search of Skt. MSS, vol. 2, p. 59). From this it was supposed that 
Mayura had a son, or a descendant, or perhaps a pupil, by the name of 
Kulicuri. This supposition vanishes, however, in the light of a revised 
reading of the line, which should run : mdyUrajasamo jajne nd 'nyah kara- 
culih kavih, 'no other poet of the Karaculi family was bom equal to 
Masrur&ja'; cf. Bhattanatha Svamin, Mayura ja, in I A, vol. 41 (1912), p. 
139; and also Thomas, Kat/lndravacanasatnuccaya, introd., p. 87, foot 


various authors who testify to his ability as a poet, and who show 
that, in the estimation of later generations, he was deemed worthy 
to be classed with such names as Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Subandhu, 
and the ever-present Bana. Two of these stanzas have already 
been given (p. 5 and 12), but for convenience they may be re- 
peated here. The list follows. 

The Stanzas Ascribed to Trilocana^ 

hfdi lagnena bdnena yan mando 'pi padakramaft 
bhavet kavikurangandtfi capalatfi tatra kOranam 
tOvat kavivihangdnaffi dhvanir lokefu iasyate 
yOvan no vUati irotre tnayUramadhuradhvanih* 

* When slow is the step of deer-like poets by reason of the arrow (Bana) 
Clinging in their hearts, agitation is the cause of it. 
The noise of bird-like poets is praised in the world until 
The honied notes of the peacock (Mayura) enter our ears.' 

^ Of Trilocana but little is known. A poet of that name is said, in the 
JyoHrtHdabharaita (Weber, in ZDMG,22.722), to have adorned the assem- 
bly-hall of Vikramaditya, but if this statement is correct, it must have been 
a different Trilocana who praised Ba^a and Mayura, since Vikram§dit3ra 
antedates (cf. above, p. 52, note 2) the seventh century, according to the 
conclusions of modern scholars. Besides the stanzas hfdi, etc, here cited, 
the Paddhati of Sarngadhara ascribes to Trilocana a stanza beginning 
ucc(U^ sthana- (Peterson, Paddhati, no. 764) ; so also the Subhdfitarat" 
nabhan^agHra, p. 332, stanza 37. He is also said to have composed a work 
entitled P&rthavijaya, as the following stanza of Rajasekhara testifies: — 

kartufft trilocandd anyah kah part havi jay atft kfamah 
tadarthah Sakyate dra^tuffi locanadvayibhiJk katham 

* Who else but Trilocana is able to compose a Parthatnjaya? How can 
its purport be perceived by the two-eyed?' [i.e., if it took a three-eyed 
(trilocana) man to compose it, how can a two-eyed mortal understand it?] 

This stanza is ascribed to RajaSekhara in the SuktimuktOvali (cf. 
Peterson, in JBRAS, vol. 17, part i, p. 58) and in the Harthdrdvali of 
Harikavi (cf. Peterson, Search for Skt. MSS, vol. 2, p. 63). Concerning 
the date of Trilocana, it can only be said that he antedates Rajasekhara^ 
900 A.D. (cf. above, p. 5), who mentions him in the stanza just cited. 

^ These stanzas are ascribed to Trilocana in the Paddhati of ^arngadhara 
(cf. Peterson's edition, no. 186-187, from which I quote the text here 
given, and Aufrecht, ZDMG, vol 27, p. 32), and in the SubhOfitaratna- 
bhan^Ogara (p. 53, stanzas 24 and 34). In the Suktimuktavali (cf. Peter- 
son, in JBRAS, vol. 17, part i, p. 59, no. 17), the first stanza, referring 
to Ba^a, is ascribed to RijaSekhara. Ettinghausen cites the second iloka. 


The Stanza Ascribed to Rajasekhara, 900 A.D.^ 

darpatft kazHbhujangdndfn gatd iravanagocaram 
tn^avidyeva mHyUri mdyUrf vdn nikftitati 

'The voice of Mayura» when it reaches the range of hearing, 

destroys the < conceit > of poets, 
As Mayura's knowledge of poison destroys the < pride > of snakes.' 

The Stanza Ascribed to Vamanabhattabana, 1441 A.D.* 

• • ■ 

praHkatnbhedanabdnah kavitHtarugahanaviharattamayUraJji 
Mhfdayalokasubandhur jayati MbhadabanakavirAjah^ 

'An arrow (Bana) for piercing hostile poets, a peacock (Mayura) for 

wandering through the forest of the trees of poetry, 
A goodly kinsman (Subandhu) for all connoisseurs, is the noble Bhattsi- 
bana, king of poets. Glory to him I ' 

The Stanza of Jayadeva, 1500-1577 A.D.* 

yasyOi corai cikuranikarafi karnapuro mayHro 
bhSso fULsah kavikulagurufi kaliddso vildsah 
har^o har^o hfdayavasatih pancabUnai ca b&nah 
kcfitn naifd kathaya kavitHkHminl kduiukdya^ 

referring to Ma3rura, from the SubhUfitaratnakoia, giving as authority 
Bhandarkar, Report on the Search for Skt. MSS, 1883-1884, p. 360; cf. 
Ettinghausen, Har^a Vardhana, p. 124, notes 2-3. For other stanzas attrib- 
uted to Trilocana, see the list given by Thomas, in his edition of the 
Kavindravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 42, Calcutta, 191 2. 

^ For the date of RajaSekhara the dramatist, and for the ascription to 
him of this stanza, see above, p. 5, note i. 

* The date of this author is given by Krishnamacharya, Sanskrit Litera- 
ture, p. 104. Krishnamacharya also states (loc. cit.) that V§mana prob- 
ably received the cognomen of Bana because his work, the VlranOrdyana" 
carita, was modeled on Bana's Harfocarita. He is sometimes called 
Abhinavabhattabana, 'the modern Bhattabana/ to distinguish him from 
his more illustrious namesake, Mayura's rival. 

> I cite this stanza from L. H. Gray's Vdsavadatta (introd., p. 5, New 
York, 1913). Dr. Gray refers it to the Vlranar&yanacarita of Bhattabai)ia, 
on the authority of Krishnamachariar's edition of the Vdsavadattd (introd., 
p. 41, ^nrangam, 1906-1908). 

*This date for Jayadeva is given by Paranjpe and Pause, in the intro- 
duction (p. 7-1 1 ) of their edition of Jayadeva's Prasannar&ghava, Poona, 
1894; cf. Krishnamacharya, Sanskrit Literature, p. 108. 

^This stanza is found in Jayadeva's Prasannaraghava, act i, stanza 
22; cf. edition by Parab, Bombay, 1893, and that by Paranjpe and Pause, 
Poona, 1894. It is quoted by Aufrecht {Catal Cod. Skt. Bibl Bodl, p. 
142, a), by the Subhd^itaratnabh6n(f^gara (p. 56, stanza 67), and by Etting- 
hausen (Harfa Vardhana, p. 99, note i). 


'Oh, say, to whom would not Poetry as a mistress be an object of 

Since she has Cora (Bilhana) as her mass of hair, Mayura as her 

Bhasa as her laughter, Kalidasa, guru of the race of poets, as her grace, 
Har$a as the joy dwelling in her heart, and Bana as her god of love? ' 

The Stanza Supplied by Jayamangala 

nartakl 'va narinartti sabhUmadhye sarasvatl^ 

* Sarasvati, abiding in the arrangement of the verses from the lotus mouth 

of the beloved Mayura, 
Sports in the midst of the assembly-hall, like a dancing-g^rL' 

An Anonymous Stanza 

tnHghal coro tnayUro muraripur aparo bhUravih sdravidyah 
Mharfah kalidOsah kavir atha bhavabhutydhvayo bhojarajah 
Mdanifl (finifimSkhyah ^rutimukufagurur bhallafo bhatiabSfiah 
khyaM cd 'nye subandhvOdaya iha krtibhir vUvam dhlddayanti* 

'Magha, G>ra, Mayura, the second Muraripu* (i.e. Murari), Bharavi 

whose knowledge is renowned, 
The illustrious Har^a, Kalidasa, and also the poet named Bhavabhuti, 

The illustrious Dan^in, called 'the Drum', Bhallata, weighty with the 

diadem of fame, Bhattabana, 
And other celebrities, chief of whom is Subandhu, gladden the universe 

here by [their] compositions.' 

^ Ma3rura is called Poetry's ' earrings ' simply because, in the Sanskrit, 
karnapUro rhymes with mayUro, So also, harfo harfo, for 'Har$a' and 

* joy,' etc 

^ See above, p. 12, note i. It is probable that Jayamangala is quoting 
this stanza from some other writer. 

*This stanza is found in the Subha^taratnabh(in(fiigHra (p. 56, stanza 
70), where it is given anonymously. It is cited and translated by Gray, 
Vdsavadatta, introd., p. 5. 

^ The dramatist Murari is doubtless meant, but murarih would not suit 
the meter, which is sragdhard. The first Muraripu was, of course, Viwu 
(Kr$na) who slew the demon Mura. I need hardly add that ripu and 
ari both mean ' foe,' so that Muraripu and Murari may both be rendered 

* Foe of Mura.' 



The traditions concerning Mayura fall into two classes : tradi- 
tions separate from the Jaina tale, and traditions in the Jaina 
tale itself. 

If we are to construct even a tentative biography, it seems 
justifiable to accept as facts any reasonable statements that are 
made in the former of the two classes, provided that we always 
bear in mind that there is no evidence contemporary with Mayura 
himself, except Bana's statement that Mayuraka was a friend of 
his youth. Furthermore, as regards the Jaina tale, we must 
reject at once palpable fabrications, such as the miracles and the 
gross anachronisms which associate Mayura with Manatunga and 
Bhoja. On the other hand, I am inclined to accept as credible 
data for our poet's biography all those statements in Jaina tradi- 
tion which relate to events that may in all likelihood have oc- 
curred, especially when such statements receive support from 
evidence external to the tale. 

To come now to the actual summary. On the evidence of the 
Harsacarita, which mentions Ma3ruraka as the friend of Bana's 
youth, and also from the fact that the names of Bana and Mayura 
are so often associated in literature, I believe that we are justified 
in fixing Mayura's Blutezeit as the first half of the seventh cen- 
tury. Of his birthplace and early life no one, so far as I have 
been able to discover, has given us even a hint, and we first meet 
him on the threshold of his public career. It is Madhusudana 
who tells us that he was summoned to court because King Harsa 
was pleased with some verses that he had delivered at a public 
recital, and we saw that a possible support of this statement was 
found by identifying with the public recital a literary contest at 
Benares, in which, as we learn from Jagannatha, Mayura came 
off the victor. The evidence, however, on this point is not alto- 
gether convincing. We are not sure that the literary contest at 
Benares is the same as the public recital described by Madhu- 
sudana, and we must also take into account the fact that Madhu- 
sudana, though he makes no mention of Manatunga, and though 


most of his statements are entirely reasonable, nevertheless de- 
scribes Mayura's miraculous manner of recovery from leprosy, 
and must therefore be r^arded with suspicion. 

Even if we cannot be sure as to the exact way in which Mayura 
gained the emperor's favor, we stand on firmer ground in saying 
that he actually became one of Harsa's courtiers, for this is 
attested for us not only by the commentator Madhusudana, 
but also by the much more reliable statement of Rajasekhara to 
the effect that Bana, Ma3aira, and Divakara were all in attendance 
at Harsa's sabhU. There can also be no doubt that the king who 
became Mayura's patron was Harsa, and not Bhoja of Dhara, as 
the Jain writers would have us believe. Bhoja may be elimi- 
nated, because he belongs in the eleventh century, whereas Harsa, 
besides being especially mentioned in the Harsacarita as the 
patron of Bana, belongs, as is certain, in the seventh. Still 
further confirmatory evidence on this point, if any be needed, 
may be found in the stanza quoted above (p. 13) from the 
NavasQhasQnkacarita of Padmagupta, which speaks of intimate 
relations existing between Harsa and the poets Bana and Ma)aira. 

The statement that Bana and Mayura were rivals in the literary 
field is found in all three of the Jain accotmts of our story,^ as 
well as in the commentary of Madhusudana, and is moreover con- 
firmed by the stanza of Padmagupta just referred to in the pre- 
ceding paragraph, where it is explicitly stated that Harsa was the 
cause of their rivalry in connection with disputes of a literary 
nature. Nothing, indeed, seems more likely than a jealous 
falling out between the two poets who were both striving for the 
royal favor, and the existence of such a feeling in the case of 
Bana and Mayura may, on the evidence adduced, be set down as 
an accepted fact. 

On the other hand, the tradition that one of the two rivals was 
related by marriage to the other is not so well attested. One of 
the Jain commentators, as already shown, states that Mayura was 
Bana's father-in-law, and this is supported by a similar statement 

^ YajneSvara's version of the PrabandhacintSmatii (see above, p. 29), 
however, represents Bana and Mayura as the firmest of friends. 


in Madhusudana's account. The Prabandhacintdmani, which has 
thoroughly confused the details of the story, in one version repre- 
sents Mayura as married to Bana's sister, and in the other makes 
Bana out to be the husband of Ma)rura's sister. It is, of course, 
not unlikely that Mayura may have given a daughter in marriage 
to his friend, and some later discovery may prove the truth of 
the Jaina record, but at present, in the light of the evidence we 
have, the statement must be regarded as belonging to the class of 
unproved possibilities. Nor, as regards other suggested ties of 
relationship, can it be proved that Sanku was a son of Mayura. 

It is very likely that Ma)aira engaged in literary contests, for 
besides the testimony of Jagannatha, to which we have already re- 
ferred, and which makes him a victor at Benares, we have put 
forward several allusions to affairs of this kind in which he is 
said to have participated. For example, the statement of the 
Samksepaiamkarajaya that he and Bana were defeated in philo- 
sophical discussion by Samkara, though in itself false, is prob- 
ably based on the fact that the poets of Harsa's court were wont 
to exhibit their literary prowess in public competition. Then, 
too, the whole Jaina tale may preserve, tmder its guise of fable 
and miracle, the record of some kind of contest in which the 
popular religious systems of the age were championed by their 
respective devotees. On such a hypothesis, Ma)aira represented 
the Sauras, or Sun-worshipers, with the SUryaiataka, Bana, the 
Saivites, with his Candiiataka, while Manatunga, with his 
Bhaktdmarastotra, was added by the Jains for the glorification 
of their religion. Though this theory of Peterson's, and the 
assumption we have drawn from the statement of the Satnksepa- 
iamkarajaya, may seem to some too speculative, there is no good 
reason for rejecting the testimony of Jagannatha that Mayura 
entered at least one contest, that at Benares, where he was victor. 

As regards the story of Ma)aira's affliction with leprosy, we are 
compelled to acknowledge that the tale of his miraculous recovery 
from that disease is probably not of Jaina origin, for it is re- 
ferred to in the KSvyaprakdia, which, as we saw above, antedates 
by a century or more the Prabhdvakacaritra where the Jaina ac- 


count of the tale is first told. Bana's miracle is not mentioned in 
the KdvyaprakdSa, though it, as well as Mayura's, may with equal 
fairness be ascribed to the 'effects of poetry/ Yet it is by no 
means impossible, I fancy, to infer from this that Mayura's sup- 
posed cure was the kernel from which grew the whole Jaina 
tale. As a confirmation of this suggestion, the Jaina commentary 
translated above (p. 21-24) clearly implies that the miracle of our 
poet was the central point of the theme, and that the miracles of 
Bana and Manatunga were mere adjuncts. If we accept the 
supposition that Mayura's allied cure was the starting-point of 
the Jain legend, it is quite possible to conceive that the story of 
this cure may trace its origin to the fact that Mayura really was 
a leper. Moreover, Jagannatha, whose statements about Mayura 
are most sanely put, and whom we have no special reason to 
discredit, teUs us that Mayura was aflSicted with this disease, and 
tried to effect a cure by praising the sun with a htmdred ilokas. 
It may possibly be that Jagannatha has preserved a true account 
of the matter, and that what Ma3aira attempted to do was mag- 
nified by someone of a later generation into actual achievement. 
Our evidence on this point is, however, not altogether convin- 
cing, and the most we can say is that the reality of Mayura's 
aflSiction with leprosy lies somewhere between the realms of the 
possible and the probable, the balance inclining, in my judgment^ 
to the latter. 

It need hardly be added that Mayura actually wrote the 
SUryaiataka — tradition and the manuscripts prove this — but we 
cannot say with certainty that the poem was written with any 
particular object in view. That the MayUrd^taka also is attribut- 
able to our poet there can be little question, as I have shown 
below (p. 71), nor is there any reason to doubt the authenticity 
of the various stanzas that appear under Mayura's name in 
the anthologies. That Ma3aira ranked high in literary merit is 
proved by the testimony of later writers who class him with 
Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Bana, and the other names that compose 
the honor-roll in the history of Sanskrit literature. 

A summary in a paragraph would be as follows: Mayura 


flourished in the first half of the seventh century A.D. Of his 
birthplace and early life nothing is known. His earliest voca- 
tion seems to have been that of a jangulika, * snake-doctor.' His 
poetical ability, exhibited at a public recital, attracted the attention 
of the reigning emperor, Harsa, and Mayura was summoned to 
court, where he seems long to have enjoyed the favor of his royal 
patron. He became the rival of Bana, and may have been the 
father-in-law of that poet. Other details of his family life are 
lacking, nor can it be proved that * Sankuka, son of Ma)aira,' was 
his son. It is likely that he engaged in literary contests, and at 
one of these, held at Benares, he is said to have carried off the 
first honors. He wrote the SHryaiataka and the MayUrdstaka, 
and several scattered stanzas in the anthologies are attributed to 
him. His literary qualities are highly praised by later poets. It 
is possible that he may have been a leper. He was not a Jain, but 
probably a Saura, or Sun-worshiper. 


The Mayurastaka 

We must not leave Mayura without taking note of what he 
has written. Perhaps the earlier of his two complete poems that 
have come down to us is the little poem MayUrHstaka, consisting 
of eight stanzas and presenting the charms of a certain young 
woman who, according to the statement of a Jain commentator 
(see above, p. 25), was Mayura's own daughter. The work 
exists, so far as I have been able to discover, in but a single manu- 
script, which is in the library at Tubingen. A special interest 
attaches to this poem, because it is popularly supposed to be the 
cause of Mayura's afiliction with leprosy, having roused his 
daughter's anger to such an extent that she cursed him with that 
loathsome malady (see above, p. 25). Since in the l^end the 
Mayur&staka caused the leprosy which the SUryaiataka cured 
(see above, p. 24), it may be tentatively regarded as chrono- 
logically antecedent to the SUryaiataka, For the text and a 
translation of the Mayxirasiaka, see below, p. 72-yg, 

general introduction 6 1 

The Suryasataka 

Mayura's principal contribution to the literature of his day 
was, so far as present knowledge goes, the SUryaSataka, It has 
come down to us in a goodly number of manuscripts/ and com- 
prises, as its name implies, a century of stanzas in praise of 
Surya, the Sun-god, The author, however, or else some editor 
or commentator, has added an extra stanza, promising all kinds 
of prosperity to anyone who, in the proper spirit of devotion, will 
take the trouble to read the poem through. 

An analysis, together with text and translation, of this composi- 
tion of Mayura will be found on pages 108-225 of this volume. 

Scattered Stanzas in the Anthologies 

Scattered through the anthologies {Subhllsiiavali, Paddhaii of 
Sarngadhara, Pady^vall, Suktimuktiivali, PadyChnrtataranginl, 
Sdrasaifigraha, SubhUsitarainakoia and Saduktikarndmrta) are 
found, (partly) under Mayura's name, besides quotations from 
the Suryasataka, seventeen different stanzas dealing with miscel- 
laneous subjects.^ Of these, the most interesting are the seven 
stanzas, forming one group, and illustrative of vakrokti, or 
'punning in dialogue.'* They picture Siva and Parvati playing 
with dice, and perhaps formed the introduction to some work by 
Ma3aira, now lost.* 

Another stanza is of interest from a historical point of view, as 
it probably contains an allusion to King Harsa, Mayura's patron, 
and forecasts, apparently, one of Harsa's campaigns. This I 
have called the * Stanza in Praise of Harsa.' 

Three other stanzas, which from their content I have entitled 
' The Cow and her Calf,' * The Traveler,' and * The Two Asses,* 

^ See the list of manuscripts of the SUryaJataka, given below, p. 101-102. 

2 The anthology stanzas attributed to Mayura have been grouped by 
F. W. Thomas, in his edition of the Kavlndravacanasamuccaya, introd., 
p. 67-68, Calcutta, 1912. 

»In vakrokti, according to KSvyaprakiUa, 9.1 (78), the words of one 
person are, either through paronomasia or intonation, construed in a 
manner different from that intended by the speaker. 

* See below, p. 233, note 2. 


are descriptions of genre scenes. They are veritable word-pic- 
turesy characterized by the usual Hindu wealth of detail, and are 
excellent specimens of descriptive poetry. 

The twelfth stanza, for lack of a better name, I have called 
the * Maxim on Separation.* 

Four of the five remaining stanzas deal with mythological sub- 
jects. They are found in the Saduktikarndmrta^ (one of them 
is found as well in the PadySvatl and in the Krsnakarnamrta) , 
and the names I have given them are in keeping with the titles 
of the Saduktikarnamrta chapters in which they are included. 
I have called them ' The Burning of the City of Tripura,' * The 
Anger of Uma,' 'The Claws of Narasimha,' and * The Dream of 

• • • 

The sixteen stanzas just mentioned will be found reproduced 
and translated on pages 229-242 of this voltune. The seventeenth 
stanza is found in the hitherto unpublished Suktiniuktavali of 
Jalhana, and I have, unfortunately, been unable to secure a copy 
of it. 

The Aryamuktamala Wrongly Ascribed to Mayura 

A work entitled ArydmuktHmdld has been ascribed to Ma)aira's 
pen by Btihler*; and Aufrecht and Ettinghausen, evidently ac- 
cepting Buhler's statement, have included the ArydmuktHmQld in 
the lists which they have given of Ma)aira's writings.' This 
view is, however, certainly incorrect, for the AryQmuktdnUUd is, 

^ The SaduktikarnHmfta, an anthology, compiled by ^rldhara Dasa, and 
completed by him in 1205 A.D. (cf. Rajendralala Mitra, Notices of Ski. 
MSS, vol 3, p. IJ4, no. 1180, Calcutta, 1876), has been partially edited 
(376 out of 2380 stanzas) by Ramavatara Sarma, in the Bibliotheca Indica 
Series, Calcutta, 1912. Thomas (Kavindravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 
67-68) shows that only the four stanzas I have cited are ascribed to 
Mayura in the SaduktikarnHmfta, 

•Buhler, Catalogue of Skt, MSS contained in Private Libraries of 
Gujarat, etc., Fascicle 2, p. 72, Bombay, 1872. 

•Ettinghausen, Har^a Vardhana, p. 96, 124; cf. Aufrecht, Catalogus 
Catalogorum, vol. i, p. 432. 


in the catalogue of the India Office library/ ascribed to a certain 
Ramanandana Mayura or Moropant (i.e. Mayura Pandit), a 
Marathi writer of the eighteenth century (i 729-1 794), who wrote 
both in Marathi and in Sanskrit.^ In like manner Bamett makes 
Moropant the author of the MuktdfnalQ^ (ed. by Vaman Daji 
Oka, Bombay, 1896) — doubtless the same as the AryamuktQmQld 
— and places him under the heading *Ma)aira,' the Sanskrit 
equivalent of his Marathi name Moro(pant). This identity of 
name probably led Biihler wrongly to ascribe the AryHmuhtdntdlii 
to our Mayura — ^ view which I find is also held by Mr. F. W. 
Thomas, librarian of the India Office, London.* I therefore con- 
clude that the AryamuktQntlllQ must be stricken from the list of 
Mayura's works. 

A Commentary Ascribed to Mayura 

There is also attributed to Ma3aira the composition of a prose 
commentary (tlkS) on a work of Dhanamjaya. The commentary 
is entitled SabdalingOrthacandrikH. The ascription of this work 
to Mayura is, however, made by William Taylor, in his Catalogue 
Raisonni, a work not altogether reliable,* so that it is somewhat 

* See Catalogue of the Library of the India Office, vol. 2, part i, Sanskrit 
Books (London, 1897), p. 14, s.v. An edition (Poona, 1882) of the 
Aryamuktamdla is there recorded. 

* See G. A. Gnerson, Linguistic Survey of India, vol. 7, p. 14, Calcutta, 


8 L. D. Barnett, Supplementary Catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit 
Books in the Library of the British Museum, p. 385, 391, London, 1908. 
For an edition (Bombay, 1892) of Moropanfs Kffnavijaya, see OB, vol. 
6, no. 1909; for an edition (Bombay, 1899) of his KekQvaU, see OB, vol 
13, no. 4271. 

*In reply to an inquiry on this point, Mr. Thomas wrote: 'Curiously 
enough, I had m3rself quite recently noted for verification Mayura's sup- 
posed authorship of an AryHmuktamUla, Btihler's catalogue contains no 
further information, and I have no doubt that what his ms really con- 
tained was Moropanfs work of that name, often called MuktamOlU 

« William Taylor, Catalogue Raisonni of Oriental MSS in the Govern^ 
ment Library, vol 2, p. 131, no. 862, Madras, i860. Aufrecht, in compiling 
his Catalogus Catalogorum, used neither vol. 2 nor vol 3 of Taylor's 
work, and of vol i he remarks (Cat, Cat, vol i, introd., p. 6) : ' This book 


doubtful if Mayura can rightfully be credited with the author- 
ship of such a composition. 


In the course of my investigation into the life of the seventh- 
century poet Mayura, I have discovered the existence of a ntunber 
of kings, princes and writers bearing this name. It does not seem 
amiss to make brief mention of them here. The list is as follows. 

Mayura, a prince or chieftain, living in the ninth century. He 
is mentioned in an inscription recorded in JRAS, new series, vol. 
26 (1894), p. 3 and 8; cf. EI, vol. 5, appendix, p. 47, no. 330. 
The inscription states that Mayura defeated Nandavalla, and was 
himself afterwards defeated and slain by Bauka, one of the 
Pratihara chieftains, in a battle that was fought near Bhuakupa. 

Mayura, father of Sankuka. Of this Mayura nothing is cer- 
tainly known, as has been pointed out above (p. 52), though I 
have there suggested the possibility of his being identified with 
our seventh-century poet. 

Mayura, author of the PadacandrikS, a collection of synonyms ; 
cf . A. C. Bumell, A Classified Index to the Skt MSS in the Palace 
at Tanjore, p. 48, a, London, 1880. In the index to this catalogue, 
Bumell distinguishes between this Mayura and Mayura kavi, the 
author of the SUryaiataka, but he does not state on what grounds 
he makes the distinction. It is interesting to note that in the 
opening lines of the PadacandrikQ — Bumell supplies the text of 
the beginning and ending of the work — ^there is found a list of 
synonyms, or rather epithets, of Surya. 

Mayurabhatta, author of a commentary on one of the works of 
Laksmana Giri ; cf . Ernst Haas, Catalogue of Sanskrit and Pali 
Books in the British Museum, p. 72 and 88, London, 1876. 

is almost useless without the assistance derived from the Alphabetical 
Catalogue of the Oriental MSS in the Library of the Board of Examiners, 
by T. S. Condaswami Jyer, Madras, 1861 '. This Alphabetical Catalogue 
is not available, and I have been unable to get any light from other 
sources on the reliability of Taylor's work. 


Mayuraksaka, a minister of king Visvavarman. He is men- 
tioned in an inscription dated 424 A.D. ; cf . CII, vol. 3, p. 74, and 
EI, vol. 5, appendix, p. 2, no. 2. The inscription, which belongs 
to the Gupta period, records that he built a temple of Visnu, and 
also a temple of the divine Mothers. 

Mayuravarman, a name applied to three kings belonging to the 
Kadambas of Hahgal, who flourished in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, and perhaps much earlier ; cf . I A, 4. 203 ; 6. 23 ; 10. 249, 
253-254 ; EI, 5. 259 ; 6. 82-S3 ; 7, appendix, p. 37, no. 210 ; JBRAS, 
vol. 9, p. 233-234, 317, 325; and vol. 12, p. 302, 304-305, 307; 
Aufrecht, Catalogus Caialogorum, vol. i, p. 432; Lewis Rice, 
Mysore Inscriptions, p. 53, 59, and introd., p. 37-38, Bangalore, 
1879; Duff, Chronology, p. 117, 146, 292. 

Mayurasarman, a Kadamba king, earlier than the sixth cen- 
tury A.D. — ^perhaps identical with one of the Ma3ruravarmans ; 
cf. £/, vol. 8, p. 28-31, especially footnote 6 on p. 28; and vol. 7, 
appendix, p. 105, no. 603, and footnotes. 

Mayurapada Thera, the well-known Sinhalese writer, who 
flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century and wrote 
the Pujavaliya and the Yogdrnava ; cf . I A, 35. 166 ; JRAS, new 
series, vol. 26, p. 555, and vol. 28, p. 215; Orientalische Biblio- 
graphic, vol. 18, no. 3653, and vol. 19, no. 3663 ; Wickremasinghe, 
Catalogue of Sinhalese Printed Books in the Library of the 
British Museum, p. 125-126, London, 1901; Wickremasinghe, 
Catalogue of Sinhalese MSS in the British Museum, p. 31 and 
188, London, 1900; W. Geiger, Litteratur und Sprache der 
Singhalesen, in Biihler's Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie, 
p. 5 and 8, Strassburg, 1901. 

Mayurapanta or Moropant (1. e. Ma)aira Pandit) the well- 
known Marathi writer of the eighteenth century, author of the 
Kekavatl, AryHmuktamUld, etc. He has been discussed above, 

p. 63. 

Mayuravaha, author of the KalpakHrikOsCtra, a work dealing 
with Vedic subjects. A manuscript of this work is recorded by 
Kavyatlrtha and Shastri, in their Catalogue of Printed Books and 


Manuscripts in Sanskrit belonging to the Oriental Library of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 37 and 121, Calcutta, 1904. 

Ma3airadhvaja, a king ; of. JASB, vol. 69, p. 78. Mayuresvara, 
father of Khandabhatta ; and Mayuravacaspati, also called Vacas- 
patimisra; cf. Aufrecht, Catalogus, vol. i, p. 432-433. Mayura- 
posaka, father of Candragupta ; cf . Monier- Williams, Skt.-Engl. 
Diet. s. V. mayUra. 



• • 





The reader will probably remember that in one version of the 
Jaina tale about Bana, Mayura, and Manatuhga, it is recorded 
how Mayura once wrote, in verse, a licentious description of the 
charms of his own daughter, Bana's Mrife.' The lady, enraged, 
cursed her father, who, in consequence of the curse, became a 
leper and was banished from court. One version of the l^end, 
namely, that given by the first anonymous commentator on the 
Bhaktdmarastotra, tells us that the name of this obnoxious poem 
was the MayUrdstaka.^ In the course of my study of the life and 
writings of Mayura, I noted that a poem of this name was listed 
in Professor Garbe's catalogue of the Sanskrit manuscripts at 
Tiibingen University.* Through the kindness of Professor 
Garbe and of Dr. Geiger, the librarian at Tubingen, the manu- 
script containing the MayUrdstaka was forwarded to Professor 
Jackson for my use. The material is birch-bark, folded in book 
form, each leaf being 7f by 6| inches, Mrith i6 lines of writing to a 
f uU page. The writing is in the IdradH script, and the date should 
probably be placed in the seventeenth century.® 

^This account and translation of the MayUrilflaka is here reprinted, 
with some minor changes, from JAOS, vol. 31, p. 343-354, where I pub- 
lished it in 191 1, under the title, The MayQrC^taka, an unedited Sanskrit 
poem by MayUra, 

* See above, p. 25. 

2 See above, p. 25. 

♦Richard Garbe, Verseichniss der indischen Handschriften der konig' 
lichen Universitats-Bibliothek, Tubingen, 1899, no. 182, F. 

•The ms, 182 F in Garbe's Verseichniss (see note preceding), was one 
of those purchased in 1894 by Marc Aurel Stein at iSrinagar in Ka^mir 
(Verseichniss, p. 3), and the date is according to the Saptar^i era (ibid., 
p. 5, n. I ; personal letter from Prof. Garbe, April 4th, 1911). * At the end 
of the DurgO^faka [one of the pieces in the collection contained in the 
manuscript in question] the copyist gives the date (Ulukika) saffivat 87, 



The MayUrdstaka, which covers one full leaf and parts of 
two other leaves, consists, as its name implies, of eight stanzas. 
Of these, the first and the sixth are incomplete, owing to a 
tear in the manuscript. Stanzas i, 2 and 4 are in the sragdhard 
meter, the others in iCtrdUlavikrldita, The dedication is to Hari 
and Hara (Visnu and Siva), and at the end is the colophon iii 
irlmayUrdstakam samdptam. After the colophon comes a kind 
of diagram, which may be something astrological, though I have 
been unable to decipher anything from it except the words 
safftvat 2. 

The theme of the poem is the description of a girl or yotmg 
woman, and at times, especially through the double entendres and 
puns, the sentiment is decidedly erotic, and might very well have 
given oflfence to the person portrayed. In a general way the 
style is not unlike the style of other compositions ascribed to 
Mayura. For example, the puns and double entendres, already 
referred to, besides other Kav)ra elements, are common to it and 
to the SUryaiataka, and that Mayura did not disdain the erotic 
sentiment elsewhere is shown by a perusal of the descriptive verse 
on two asses, which is found under his name in the SubhdsitSvaJi 
of Vallabhadeva and also in the Paddhati of Sarhgadhara.^ It 

crUvati 5, ganHu' (Stein, in Garbe, Verzeichniss, p. 78), and, as Prof. Garbc 
writes me, 'die Ahnlichkeit der ausseren Beschaffenheit aber zeigt, dass 
die beiden darauf folgenden Stucke [Vetdlastotra, MayUrO^laka] in an- 
nahemd derselben Zeit geschrieben sein miissen.' 

The Saptar$i era began B.C. 3076 (Biihler, in Weber, Indische Studien, 
vol 14, Leipzig, 1876, p. 407-408). During the centuries which, in 
consideration of the average age of birch-bark manuscripts (see Buhler, 
Indische Palaeographie, Strassburg, 1896, p. 88), can alone be here taken 
into account, the fifth of Sravana fell on Saturday in the year 87 of 
any century of this Saptar$i era only in 4687 and 4487 — Saturday, 
Sravana 5, 4687 corresponding to Aug. 13, 161 1 (Gregorian calendar), 
and Saturday, Sr&vana 5, 4487 to July 25, 141 1, of the Julian calendar 
(as reckoned according to Robert Schram, Kalendariographische und 
chronologische Tafeln, Leipzig, 1908). Since of these two dates the former 
is the more likely, we may ascribe the completion of our manuscript to 
Aug. 13, 161 1. (On the Saptar$i era, see Sewell and Dikshit, The Indian 
Calendar, London, 1896, p. 41 ; Ginzel, Handbuch der tnathematischen und 
technischen Chronologie, Leipzig, 1906, voL i, p. 382-384; A. Cunningham, 
Book of Indian Eras, (Calcutta, 1883, p. 6-17.) 

^ This stanza will be found edited and translated below, p. 237-238. 


may count for something, too, that the meter of three of the 
stanzas is the sragdhard, the same as that in which the SUryaia- 
taka is composed, as well as a number of the anthology stanzas 
attributed to Mayura. 

In view of all the facts and circumstances as set forth, it seems 
not unreasonable to believe that the poem MayUrdstaka, contained 
in the Tubingen manuscript, is a creation of the poet Mayura, 
although it must be acknowledged that the evidence is not espe- 
cially strong. It might be argued, for example, that the name 
MayUrHstaka may mean ' the asiaka on the peacock,' or that the 
commentator on the Bhaktdmarastotra ascribed it to Mayura 
merely because of its name, or that it is the composition of another 
Mayura, not the seventh-century poet of that name. 

But on the. other hand stand the facts that the name irf- 
mayUrdstakam is found in the colophon of the manuscript, that 
the subject-matter of the manuscript poem harmonizes with the 
content of the MayUrdstaka described by the commentator, that 
there is not the faintest allusion to a peacock in any of the 
stanzas, and that there is a general similarity in point of style 
between the manuscript poem and the known writings of Mayura. 
The pros are, on the whole, stronger than the cons, and it can at 
least be said that there is no direct evidence to show that Mayura 
did not write the MayUrdstaka contained in the Tubingen manu- 
script. Until such evidence is adduced, I am inclined to accept 
it as his work. 

Text and Translation 

om namah finhariharabhyam 

esa^ ka prastutamgf* pracalitanayana hamsalila' vrajanti 

dvau hastau kunkumardrau kanaka viracita* . . u 

. . 'um[gam]gegata sa bahukusumayuta baddhavina hasanti 
timbulam* vamahaste^ madanavaSagata giihya" £alaxn pravista* 

Om ! Reverence to the illustrious Hari and Hara ! 

Who is this (maiden), with beautiful limbs and wandering glance, 

approaching with the gait of a hamsa? 
Her two hands are moist with saffron, her composed of 


She has on her [body] ; she is decked with many flowers, 

girt with a lute, and is smiling. 
G}ncealing betel in her left hand, and having yielded to the 

power of love, she enters the [private] chamber. 

Notes. X. The meter is jra^d/kirA. a. In the matter of transliterating 
nasals, I have faithfully followed the manuscript, which is inconsistent, 
sometimes writing anusvUra instead of the appropriate nasal consonant 
Compare, for example, ktgnatitga (2a), priyUffiga (3d), and gaganHtfi' 
gana (8d), with hhrUhha^gam and ananga (7 b). Note also aiptals for 
antah (3 c), ca^paka with lingual nasal, instead of campaka (8 b), and 
satfipakva for sampakva (5b). In the use of the nasal before k, there 
appear to be no irregularities except iatfikayantl for iankayantt (2 b) ; 
cf. kunkutna (i b), and panka (7 c). 3. The word A/d is one of the stock 
terms used to define the natural graces of the heroine; cf. DaiarUpa, a 
Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, tr. Haas, New York, 1912, 2. 60, ' Sport- 
iveness (Jlld) is the imitation of a lover in the actions of a fair-limbed 
maiden.' 4. One, possibly two consonants must come between the a and 
the A ; the syllable containing the a must be heavy, and six syllables must 
be supplied after the fl. 5. One syllable is missing. 6. Betel was as much 
an adjunct of love-making among the ancient Hindus as candy and con- 



fections are to-day. Usually it was brought by the man to the girl, but 
here the girl appears to be carr3ring it as a gift to her lover ; cf . Schmidt, 
Beitrage sur indischen Erotik, Leipzig, 1902, p. 728. 7. Was the left hand 
the erotic one, as implied, for example, in the epithet ' left-handed,' when 
used to denote the obscene form of tiie Tantra cult? 8. I take guhya to 
be a gerund (cf. Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 992 c), but the author doubtless 
intended that it should be read also, though with short u, as first member 
of a compound with iflAlifi — guhyainUlm, 'private chamber'; cf. guhya- 
deiHn (4d). 9. In iHradd, the same ligature represents both ^^a and ^^Ao. 
Prof. Barret, who has transliterated part of the Paippalada Manuscript 
of the Atharvaveda, which is in iaradu (cf. JAOS, vol 26, 2d part, p. 
197-295), writes me: 'about ^ta and ^tha; as far as I have seen, there is 
no difference made, the same sign serving for both.' 


esa^ ka bhuktamukta pracalitanayana sveda'lagnamgavastra 
pratjmse yati bala' mrga iva cakita sarvatafi &unka]ranti 
kenedam vaktrapadmam sphuradadhararasam satpadenaiva^ 

svargah' kena *dya bhukto haranajfanahato manmathah' ka83ra 


• • • 

Who is this maiden that has been enjoyed and [then] let go, and 

who, with wandering glance, and with garments clit^ng 

to her limbs with perspiration, 
At dawn goes here and there, timid [and] distrustful, like a 

How is this? Has this lotus face, with its lower lip's welling 

nectar, been sipped by a bee? 
By whom has heaven been enjoyed to-day? With whom has 

Kama, [once] slain by Siva's eye, been pleased? 

Notes. X. The meter is sragdharH. a. For perspiration as a mark of 
love, see Sappho, frag. 2, v. 4, d a^ liUftm micxitrai. 3. In erotics, bald means a 
young girl under sixteen, who wishes to be loved in darkness, and delights in 
betel (Schmidt, p. 243-246; especially the citation (p. 244) from Ananga- 
ranga, fol 5b). She is also a mrsf^, 'gazelle' (cf. mrga 2b; harinl, 3b), 
and has high-set breasts ; cf . Schmidt, p. 212. 4. Saipada suggests hhramara, 
which means both ' bee ' and ' lover.' 5. In the ligature here transliterated by 
hk, I have taken the first element to be the sign for jihvdmUtiya, the surd 
guttural spirant ; cf . Whitney, Skt Grammar, 69, 170 d, 171 c Prof. Bar- 
ret, however, in his transliteration of the PiippaUida Manuscript of the 


Atharvaveda, adopted fk as the transcription of the character; compare, 
for example, JAOS, vol. 26, 2d part, New Haven, 1906, p. 218 foot, v. 18, 
vo/ kama, and p. 224 foot, v. 25, jatof kaJyapo, with the Paippalada fac- 
similes, folios 6 a, line 3, and 7 b, line 12, respectively. But he has since 
written me : ' The signs which I transliterated fka and fpa are not exactly 
representatives of lingual ^, but that seemed the best rendering.' 


esa^ ka stanapinabharakathina^ madhye idaridravati' 
vibhranta harinl^ vilolanayana samtrasta'yuthodgata 
atntah8v[e*]idagajendragandagalita^ samHlaya^ gacchati* 
drstva rupam idam priyamgagahanam^® vrddho^^ 'pi kama- 

Who is this timid gazelle, with a burden of firm, swelling breasts, 
With roving glance, and slender of waist, gone forth from the 

frightened herd? 
She goes like as she were fallen from the temple of a rutting lord 

of elephants. 
Seeing this form, with its adornment of beautiful limbs, even an 

old man becomes a Kama. 

Notes. X. The meter is J(ird1llavikr%4ita. 2. Perhaps, ' stiff with the 
burden of her swelling breasts'; i.e. she must walk very upright, or the 
weight of her breasts would make her stoop-shouldered. 3. There may 
be an obscene pun in tnadhye daridrdvafi; for the passionateness of the 
f^rffh see Schmidt, as cited in stanza 2, n. 3. For daridravatl, not found in 
the lexicons, cf . Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 1233 d. 4. For harinl, * gazelle,' 
see mrg%, stanza 2, n. 3. 5. The reading of the manuscript is samtrastha, 
6. The manuscript is broken above the sv ligature, but the restoration of 
the e is tmquestionably correct 7. According to folk-belief, even in modem 
India (cf. W. Crooke, The Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern 
India, 2d ed., Westminster, 1896, vol 2, p. 240), there is in the forehead 
of an elephant a magic jewel, the gajamukta, which grants to him who 
possesses it his every wish. The author seems here to be comparing his 
heroine to this magic jewel 8. I have rendered satitHlaya as ' like'; cf. 
St Petersburg Worterhuch, unabridged ed., s.v. Ula, 3. The compound 
of /l/ft and sam is not found in the lexicons, but occurs twice in this poem ; 
cf . 8 c. 9. The whole of pilda 3 may be read with a second rendering, con- 
taining an obscene pun : ' She goes, possessed, through her wanton sport 
with [her lover], of that which falls from the temple of the rutting lord 
of elephants,' i.e. possessed of the mada, which also means semen virile 
and d^poiiffla writ; this latter, in the case of the mfgJ, has the odor of 


flowers (Schmidt, p. 213), and would therefore attract bees (or lovers; 
of. St. 2, n. 4), just as the mada of a must-elephant does. [Prof. Jack- 
son takes this second rendering to be the correct interpretation, as opposed 
to that presented in the text and in notes 7 and 8.] 10. The compound 
priydffigagahanafjt may be read in two ways. In the first way, take 
gahanatn as from gahanH, * adornment,' and the second reading, which is 
obscene, may be found by taking gahanatfi as ' place of concealment,' and 
priyaffiga as a tatpurufa compotmd, priya denoting the lover. 1 1. Is vfddho 
a reference to Bana, the husband of Mayura's daughter? Bana may have 
been of the same age as Mayura, and so considerably older than his wife. 
X2. The regular causative of the root kam is kdmayate. 1 therefore take 
kdmdyate to be a denominative from KAfna\ cf. Whitney, Skt Grammar, 
1059 c, and Brugmann, VgU Gram, der idg. Sprachen, Strassburg, 1892, 
2.769 (p. 1 107). The meter requires that the second syllable of kdniHyate 
should be long. 

vamena^ "vestayanti praviralakusumam ke^bharam karena 
prabhrastam cottariyam ratipatitagunam mekhalam daksinena 
tambul^m codvahanti vikasitavadana* muktakeSa naraga' 
niskranta guhyade^n madanava^agata marutam prarthayanti 

With her left hand doing up her heavy hair, on which few 

flowers [now remain], 
And with her right holding up her upper garment, her girdle, 

whose cord had slipped down 
During love, and her betel ; with blooming face, with disheveled 

hair, with passion sated. 
Coming forth from the private chamber, having yielded to the 

power of love, she longs for the breeze. 

Notes. I. The meter is sragdhard. 2. * With blooming face,' or, pun- 
ningly, ' with open mouth,' ' yawning.' 3. The word naragd is not found 
in the lexicons, but on the analogy of naroga, * not ill,' I have taken it to 
mean ' not passionate,' i.e. ' with passion sated.' 


esa^ ka navayauvana fiaiimukhi kanta ''pathi' gacchati 
nidravyakulita vighurnanayana sampakvabimbadhara 
keSair vyakulita nakhair vidalita' dantaifi ca khandikrta^ 
kenedam ratiraksasena ramita iardulavikridita 


Who is this lovely one advancing along the path, moon-faced, 

in the bloom of youth, 
Bewildered with sleep, her eye rolling, her lower lip like a ripe 

bimba fruit. 
Bewildered by her [disordered] locks, scratched by finger-nails, 

and torn to pieces by teeth ? 
How is this ? By a demon in love has she, imitating tiger-sport, 

been beloved ! 

Notes. I. The meter is iiirdiilavikfi4ita. Note the pun possibly implied 
in idrdfl/ovtArrf^tM, line 4. a. 1 resolve zs kUntH Upathl, G>mpare the Vedic 
apathyo (RV, 1.64. 11), which evidently means, as Gcldner (Der Rig-Veda 
in Auswahl, Stuttgart, 1909, vol. i, p. 23) says, ' auf der Strasse fahrend ' 
(cf. also Bezzenberger, in Tipat, Ahhandlungen zur idg. Sprachgeschichte 
Aug, Pick . . . gewidmet, Gottingen, 1903, p. 175-176), a connotation 
which is also supported by Sayana's commentary ad. loc. Or perhaps we 
should read kUntd pathl, with pathl as fem. nom. sing, of *patha (*pathi), 
with which compare the epithets of the Maruts — upathi, vipathi, antcu- 
patha, anupatha, RV, 5. 52. 10 ; yet note tripathd, 3. The manuscript 
reads vitftdalitd, 4. References to scratching and biting, as concomitants 
of indulgence in rati, are found throughout Sanskrit erotic literature. 
For nakhacchedya (scratching with the nails), see Schmidt, p. 478-496, 
and for daianacchedya (biting with the teeth), ibid., p. 496-508. Is there 
not also in khan^lkfta a possible punning allusion to the i&/kit»^a6AraiEra 
(' broken-cloud ') bite on the breast, in the form of a circle, with uneven 
indentures from the var3ring size of the teeth (Schmidt, p. 504) ? The 
reference to his daughter's disheveled appearance, as being due to the 
scratches and lacerations, may have been responsible for that lad/s anger 
and her consequent curse of Mayura (see Introd., p. 25). And in this 
connection it may be added that the obscene puns in stanza 3 would prob- 
ably not tend to lessen her displeasure. 


esa^ ka paripurnacandravadana gaurimrga^ ksobhim' 

inamattagajendrahamsagamana^ e . .' 

n[i*]h£vasadharagandha£italamukhi vaca mrdullasini 
8a ilaghyah purusas sa jivati^ varo yasya priya hi "drSi 

Who is this frantic tigress, with a face like the full moon. 
With the gait of the hamsa, or of the lordly rutting elephant in 

[tj^^a^'S " ffTOTvT^^ 




»^ * w 


With her face cooled by the perfume of her sighing lower lip, 

and gently mirthful in her speech ? 
That man is to be envied, that lover [really] lives, who has such 

a one as his beloved. 

Notes. X. The meter is iirdilknnkri4ita. 2. I take gHurimrga to 
mean 'beast of Gauri' (with a pun on mfgd [of. above, stanza 2, note 3] 
as the sort of girl the heroine is), and the beast of Gaur! (in her incar- 
nation as Durga) is the tiger. As Parvati also, Gauri's vehicle is the tiger ; 
cf. Moor, Hindu Pantheon, London, 1810, plates 20, 21, 24. My interpre- 
tation as ' tigress ' seems also to be strengthened by the allusion to * tiger- 
sport ' in the last line of the preceding stanza. 3. The word k^obhinl is 
not recorded in the lexicons except, with lingual nasal, as the name kfobhiftl 
of a certain Jruti in SatitgUasirasatftgraha, 23 (cf. St Petersburg Worter- 
buck, abridged ed., s.v. k^obhifi^) ; it is here probably best regarded as the 
feminine of k^obhana or of *k^obhin, 4. In Manu, 3. 10 (hatfisavdrana- 
pdmmfm), the gaits of the hatfisa and of the elephant are mentioned as 
among the desirable graces of women. 5. Seven syllables are needed 
to fill out this p&da, 6. The manuscript is broken here, but part of a 
vertical stroke can be seen, and the restoration of an t seems certain. 7. 
The manuscript reads jlvatih. For the sentiment expressed in flvaH com- 
pare the well-known line of Catullus (5. i), Vivamus, tnea Lesbia, atque 


esa^ ka jaghanasthali sulalita^ pronmattakamadhika 
bhrubhangam kutilam tv anahgadhanusah' prakhyam prabha- 

rakacandrakapolapankajamukhi ksamodari sundari 
vinidandam^ idam vibhati tulitam^' veladbhujam^ gacchati 

Who is this lovely one that goes, with rounded hips, with an 

excess of ecstatic love — 
Her curving frown like the bow of the Bodiless (Kama), and 

like the moon in splendor — 
With cheeks like the full moon, and a lotuslike face, and she 

[herself] slender-waisted and beautiful? 
This neck of her lute seems like a raised quivering arm. 

Notes, z. The meter is JdrdUlaznkfUfita. a. Lalita is one of the 
stock terms used to define the graces of the heroine; cf. DaJarUpa, tr. 
Haas, 2.68, 'Lolling (lalita) is a graceful pose of one of fair form.' 3. 
In the ligature here transliterated by J^p, I have taken the first element 


to be the sign for the upadhmdhiya, or surd labial spirant; cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Grammar, 69, 170 d, 171 c. In Prof. Barret's transliteration of the 
Paippalada Manuscript, this same ligature is transcribed by 4P (cf. JAOS, 
vol. 26, 2d part, New Haven, 1906, p. 213 foot, devHf pitaro, and vof pari-, 
with the Paippalada facsimiles, folio 4 b, lines 11 and 12), though Prof. 
Barret says (see above, st. 2, n. 5) that it does not exactly represent fp. 
4. The accusatives in line 2 are hard to explain, unless they may pos- 
sibly comprise an extension of the simple adverbial accusative, on which 
see Carl Gaedicke, Der Accusativ im Veda, Breslau, 1880, p. 171-175, 215- 
233. Or perhaps bhrQbhangaffi is to be regarded as neuter (cf. note on 
bhuja below), though it is not found as neuter elsewhere. If it is neuter, 
it probably becomes the subject of an asii understood. 5. The form 
vinldanifa is not given in the lexicons; the regular spelling is vlnCtdan4a, 
though the word is given only by the lexicographers, and is not found in 
the literature. 6. In tulitatu, the manuscript shows only the upper part 
of the f, the vertical stroke being missing. 7. Bhuja is not found as 
neuter elsewhere, but for neuters of this class of compounds (including 
tilnidan4am) t see Wackemagel, AlHndische Grammatik, Gottingen, 1905, 
II. I. 15 b (p. 39) ; and on the interchange of masculine and neuter (cf. 
dan4ah and dandam), see Delbriick, Vgl. Synt, der idg. Sprachen, Strass- 
burg, 1893, 1.37 (p. 130). 


esa^ ka ratihavabhavaMlasaccandrananam bibhrati 
gatram canpakadamagaurasadrSam* pinastanalaxnbita 
padbhyam samcarati pragalbha^harini saxnlTlaya svecchaya 
kim caisa gaganamgana bhuvitale sampadita brahmana 

iti irimayurastakam samaptam 

Who is this with her moonlike face shining through her <incite- 

ment to> and her <state of > amorousness, 
Drooping from [the weight of] her full-rounded breasts, with a 

body like the yellowness of a garland of champaka flowers, 
A wanton ' gazelle,' going on two feet, in dalliance as she feels ? 
Surely this is a celestial nymph, produced on earth by Brahma. 

Here ends the illustrious MayUrdstaka, 

Notes. I. The meter is sardulavikri^ita. 2. I have rendered bhdva 
in two ways, 'incitement to' and 'state of.' 3. The manuscript reads 
mdurasadriaffi, which is unintelligible. I have emended to gdurasadrJam, 
at the suggestion of my friend, Dr. C. J. Ogden, who referred me to the 
compounds kanakacampakadamagaufim (Bilhana's Cdurapahcdiikd, v. i), 

fr ^- ^^-^^ 




and campakad&magHufi (cf. MdhObhirata, 15.25.13). 4. PrctgaWhd is 
another of the stock terms (cf. tila, 1 z, and lalita, 7 a) defined in Hindu 
rhetorical treatises ; it is translated ' experienced ' by Haas, in his transla- 
tion of the DaSatUpa, 2.29. For pragalbhd as a type of heroine, cf. 
Schmidt, p. 26^266. 




Order of the Stanzas 

As has been pointed out in the General Introduction, the 
SUryaiataka comprises loi stanzas. But the order of the stanzas 
is not the same in all of the editions. In the preparation of my 
translation, I have used five editions, and have adopted as the 
norm the second edition of Durgaprasad and Parab, in the Kavya- 
mala Series, Bombay, 1900. The other four are: (a) the edi- 
tion included in John Haeberlin's Kdvya-sangraha, p. 197-216, 
Calcutta, 1847; W t^^ anonymous edition, probably edited by 
its publisher,^ in the library of the India Office, Calcutta, 1874; 
(c) the edition included in Jivananda Vidyasagara's K&vyor 
satngrahah, Calcutta, 1886; and (d) the partial edition, compris- 
ing stanzas 1-75 inclusive, published in the Vidyodaya, or San- 
skrit Critical Journal, vol. 25, June-September, Calcutta, 1896. 
In these four last-named editions, I have noted the following de- 
partures from the order of the stanzas as given in the edition of 
Durgaprasad and Parab : — 

Jivananda's edition publishes stanzas 24-30 of Parab's edition 
in the following order : 24, 25, 29, 26, 27, 28, 30. 

Jivananda, Haeberlin, the Vidyodaya, and the anonymous edi- 
tion in the library of the India Office present the following order 
of stanzas 61-70 of Parab's edition: 61, 62, 68, 63, 64, 66, 67, 
69, 65, 70. 

Form of the Stanzas 

Each stanza is in the form of an U^, or 'benediction,' invoking 
the aid, protection or blessing of Surya, or of his rays, his horses, 

^ Sec below, p. 104. 



his chariot, his charioteer, or his disk, upon an unnamed plural 
*you,' who, according to Jagannatha's commentary on the SUr- 
yasataka, were the poet's relatives.^ The only stanza that omits 
the 'you' is the 44th, where the benediction reads: 'May the 
horses of Patahga (Surya) protect the worlds!' 

The favorite request is for protection, which is invoked in 30 
stanzas, viz. 3, 16, 19, 29, 30, 37, 44, 46, 5o, S3» 57, 58, 59, 61, 65, 
69, 71, 75, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 91, 92, 96, 97, 99. DeUver- 
ance from sin is invoked in 17 stanzas, viz. 6, 10, 11, 21, 27, 35, 
36, 39, 47, 48, 51, 56, 63, 64, 67, 68, 74; prosperity, in 15 stanzas, 
viz. 2, 4, 25, 40, 42, 66, 72, 73, 79, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 94 ; happiness, 
in 7 stanzas, viz. 8, 15, 18, 41, 49, 55, 62; joy, in 6 stanzas, viz. 
9, 23, 26, 34, 70, 78; removal of all troubles, misfortunes and 
distresses, in 11 stanzas, viz. 5, 7, 14, 17, 22, 31, 32, 45, 54, 60, 
98; bestowal of blessings, wealth, welfare, and the satisfaction of 
desires and requests, in 11 stanzas, viz. i, 12, 13, 20, 24, 28, 33, 
43, 52, 95, 100; cessation of rebirths, in stanzas 38 and 77; and 
purification, in stanza 76. 

The Qiis is regularly expressed by the precative, or by the im- 
perative, and it is perhaps worthy of note that the imperative in 
-/a/* occurs 21 times, the list being given below (p. 96), under 
the Grammatica Notabiliora. 


In general, the subject-matter of the SUryaiataka is the praise 
of Surya, but the following subdivisions of the main theme, pre- 
sumably based on manuscript authority, are indicated in some of 
the editions and are referred to, in a general way, in Jagannatha's 
commentary.* Stanzas 1-43 are devoted especially to the de- 

1 See above, p. 32. 

*For the imperative in -tat, see Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 570-571. 
Whitney there states that the formation is not rare in the early language, 
but is rather uncommon in the later period, only one example being 
quotable from the MahUhhdrata, and one from the RdmAyana. He also 
says that no instance of its use with benedictive implication, as prescribed 
by the native grammarians, is quotable. 

« Sec above, p. 32. 


scription and praise of Surya's rays ; stanzas 44-49, to the horses 
that draw his chariot; stanzas 50-61, to Aruna, his charioteer; 
stanzas 62-72, to the chariot itself; and stanzas 73-80, to the 
solar disk. The remaining stanzas are miscellaneous in char- 
acter. In some of them (viz. 91, 92 and 93), Surya is compared 
to Siva, Visnu, and Brahma respectively, and in stanza 88 he is 
shown to be superior to those divinities in the matter of con- 
ferring blessings upon the universe. Stanzas 85, 95 and 96 
picture conditions on the earth when Surya is absent at night, and 
stanza 87 gives the opposite picture, describing how all nature 
moves smoothly in its accustomed channels as long as Surya con- 
tinues to shine. In stanza 94 is attested Surya's universal 
supremacy ; in 99, he is identified with the principal gods of the 
Hindu pantheon ; and stanza 100 states the incomprehensibility of 
his nature. 

Among the ideas that a perusal of the SUryaiataka conveys 
with more or less emphasis to the reader, may be mentioned the 
following : Surya is a reservoir of water which is drawn up from 
the earth and afterwards poured down again in the form of rain 
(stanzas 9, 14, 30, 73, 91, 93) ; emancipation from rebirth may be 
obtained through Surya (stanzas 9, 10, 11, 29, 73, 80, 86, 89) ; 
Surya drives away sin (cf. above, p. 84, where the Qiis is dis- 
cussed) ; Surya is the life of the world and the benefactor of the 
universe (stanzas 59, 77, 80, 87, 88, 97, 100) ; the nature of Surya 
is incomprehensible, except to yogins (stanzas 29, 65, 100) ; 
Surya is responsible for his acts to no one except himself (stanzas 
6, 19, 84, 97) ; he is identical with the Vedas (stanza 89) ; his 
twelve personalities will eventually destroy the worlds (stanza 94). 

Of passing interest, too, is the 6th stanza, in which Surya is 
said to cure what are apparently the symptoms of leprosy; also 
stanza 13, which is a kind of play on the numerals from i to 10; 
stanza 38, showing the tmusual doubling of a series of syllables 
at the beginning and end of each pUda ; and stanza 50, which con- 
tains a rather elaborate simile drawn from the realm of the 

86 THE sijryaSataka of mayOra 

Mythological Allusions 

The SUryaiataka is replete with m3rthological allusions drawn 
from the whole range of Hindu m)rthology. Among them — ^to 
name only a few — ^are included references to the churning of the 
ocean, and to all the objects produced by the churning; to 
Brahma's birth from the lotus of Visnu's navel ; to the mundane 
egg, Visnu's ' three steps/ and Garuda's enmity to the snakes ; to 
Mts. Mem, Asta, Lokaloka and Kailasa; to Krsna's conquering 
of the Kaliya snake, and the slaying of Taraka by Karttikeya ; to 
the Aurva fire, Narada and the other sages, Aruna's mutilated 
condition, the semi-divine beings, and so on. The wide range and 
great number of these allusions make it very evident that 
Mayura — as Sarasvati said in the Jaina tale — was well versed 
in the sQstras,^ 

Most of the mythological allusions may be readily traced to 
their source in the Vedas, Epics and Puranas. In most cases I 
have given such sources in the notes to the stanzas, omitting, how- 
ever, reference to some of the better-known legends, and indica- 
ting the few instances where I have been tmable to trace an anec- 
dote to its starting-place in SruH or iOstra. 

In the matter of the references to Surya, it seems almost cer- 
tain that Mayura must have been familiar with the hymns to 
Surya, or with the accotmts of that god, found in the Mahdbhdrata,^ 
in the MOrkandeya Purdna,^ and in the Visnu Purdna,^ for so 
many of the things that are there said about Surya find their echo 
in the stanzas of the SUryaiataka. The author, however, by no 
means confined himself to these hymns and accounts, for the 
reader will find scattered through the notes references to other 
Sanskrit works, including other Puranas, the Rdmdyana, the 
Vedas, the SUrya Upanisad, etc. 

^ See above, p. 22. 

* Mahabharata, 3. 3. 15-79. 

^ Markan(feya Purana, 107-110; cf. Pargiter's translation, p. 572-587. 

* Vifnu Purana, 2.8-11 ; cf. Wilson's translation, vol. 2, p. 237-298. 

introduction 8/ 

Epithets of Surya 

In every stanza save one^ of the SUryaiataka, Surya is men- 
tioned under some one of his many epithets. These epithets are 
most frequently descriptive of the beauty or power of his rays, 
or of his ability to bring heat and the daylight; less often, they 
refer to his function as stimulator and maintainer of the universe, 
to his ruddy color, his seven steeds, his overlordship of the 
planets, etc. I append a full list, as follows, including adjectives 
derived from the epithets proper. 

Epithets of Surya containing reference to his rays. Can- 
darcis (40), Candamsu (78) , Candabhanu (yg) , Candarocis (12) y 
Tigmarocis (4), Tigmabhdnu (18), Tlvrabhdnu (5, 11, 69), 
Tiksnatvis (26), Tiksnabhanu (42), Ghanndtniu (6), Gharmatvis 
(15), Kharamiu (8, 41), Usnatvis (23), TaptOmiu (82), Ahi- 
fnStnsu (37), Ahimaruci (71), AiiSiramahas (43), AHHrakirana 
(72), SltetarQmiu (56), which all mean * Hot-rayed One.' To 
this group may be added DlptQmiu (9, 75, 94), which means 
' Flashing-rayed One.* 

In close relationship to the above are Amiumat (67, 90), which 
signifies * Ray-possessor ' ; Sahasratvis (17), Daiaiataruci (52), 
Daiaiatdbhlsu (100), all meaning 'Thousand-rayed'; BhasSm 
lla (73), *Lord of Rays'; and Arcisdm Akara (93), 'Mine of 

Epithets of Surya as the maker of iday. Dinakara (10), 
Dinakrt (70, 89), Divasakrt (36), which mean 'Maker of Day'; 
Divasasydikdhetu (95), meaning 'Sole Cause of Day'; Dinapati 
(20, 22, 38), Divasapati (57, 66), AhnOm Pati (92), AharpaH 
(25), signifying ' Lord of Day ' ; and Hetur Ahnam (97), ' Cause 
of Days.' 

Epithets of Surya as the bringer of heat and light Arka (28, 
30» 3i» 34, 35» 49, 83, 85, 86), the adjectives Tapana (19) and 
Tapani (47) , which signify ' Shining One ' or ' Heater ' ; BhOskara 
(2), and the adjective Vdibhiikarl (33), meaning 'Maker of 
Light' or 'Maker of Splendor'; Dhdmadhipa (54), 'Lord of 

^ In stanza 51, Aruna, Surya's charioteer, takes the place of his master. 

88 THE suryaSataka of mayura 

Light'; Bhdsvat (21, 60, 63, 88), 'Possessor of Light'; BhSnu 
(13), and the adjective Bh&navlya, 'Splendor'; and Timiraripu 
(16), 'Foe of Darkness.' 

Epithets of Surya as the maintainer and stimulator of the 
universe. These include only Savitar (27, 29, 62), and the 
adjective Sdvitra (64), signifying 'Stimulator' or 'Vivifier'; 
and PUsan (53, 58, 61, 74), meaning 'Prosperer.' 

Miscellaneous epithets of Surya. Bradhna (3, 24, 32, 46, 
65, 80), signifying, perhaps, 'Ruddy' or 'Yellowish'; Patanga 
(23), and the adjective Patanga (44), perhaps from roots pat 
and gam, meaning 'He who goes flying'; Ravi (59, 68, 77, 81, 
96), possibly signifying 'Ruddy One'; M&rtanda (14) and the 
adjective Mdrtandiya (76), said to be from tndritam andam, 
'destroyed egg' (cf. SUryasataka, stanza 14, note 2) ; Ina (97), 
and the adjective Ainl (39), signifying 'Master' or 'Mighty'; 
Grahagrdmanl (98) , ' Lord of the Planets ' ; Eka (99) , ' the One ' ; 
Saptasapti (45), 'Possessor of Seven Steeds'; Asatnahari (48), 
'Possessor of Matchless Steeds'; the adjective HUridaiva (7), 
' Possessor of Tawny Steeds ' ; Aryaman (63, 84), seemingly con- 
nected with arya, ' Favorable ' or ' Master ' ; Aditya (90), ' Son of 
Aditi ' ; and last, SHrya (50, 87, 89, 91, 99, loi), and the adjective 
Saura (55). 

Of the hundred and eight names of Surya given in the 
MahabhSrata (3. 3. 16-28), only the following eight appear in the 
stanzas of the Suryasataka: SUrya, Aryaman, PUsan, Arka, 
Savitar, Ram, Dlptamiu and BhSnu, But of the list, containing 
seventy-two names of Surya, given by Hemacandra in his Abhi- 
dhatiacint&mani (95-98),^ 20 can be paralleled in Mayura's poem ; 
viz. Aditya, Savitar, Aryaman, KharQmsu, Ravi, M&rtanda, Bhdnu, 
Surya, Arka, Piisan, Patanga, Tapana, Bradhna, Saptasapti, 
Dinakara, Vibhdkara, Bhdskara, Ina, Haridasva and Bhdsvat. 

1 Edited by Sivadatta and Parab, in part 3, no. 6, of their Ahhidhdna- 
Sangraha, Bombay, 1896. In this connection, see also J. Burgess, Mis- 
cellanea, in I A, 33, p. 63, where a long list of Surya's names has been col- 
lected, including those found in the MahdbhUrata (3. 3. 16-28) and those in 
the AbhidhdnacintHmani, 

introduction 89 


The rlti, or 'style/ of the Suryaiataka is the Gdudl, which is 
characterized by strength (ojas) and grace (kanti), and abounds 
in compounds and alliteration (anuprOsa).^ A perusal of the 
poem shows that it meets these required conditions. The com- 
potmds are evident to even the casual observer, and that the 
language is vigorous, and yet at the same time graceful, no care- 
ful student will deny. A list of the more noteworthy cases of 
alliteration is given in one of the following paragraphs (p. 91). 
Furthermore, according to Dandin,^ the G&udl style is apt to affect 
obscure words that need to be explained etymologically, as e.g. 
abjanman, 'water-bom,' meaning 'lotus.' The SUryaiatakd 
contains many such words ; compare, e. g., the epithets of Surya, 
ahimdfftsu (stanza 37), oHsiramahas (stanza 43), ahimaruci 
(71), and oHHrakirana (72), which all mean 'he whose ray is 
not cold'; see also ambhoruha (3), 'water-growing,' for 'lotus'; 
visadhara (47), 'poison-bearer,' for 'snake'; hemddri (49), 
' golden mountain,' for ' Mt. Meru ' ; pathyetarQni (60) , ' things 
other than wholesome,' for 'troubles'; kstndbhrtah (87), 'earth- 
bearers,' for ' mountains ' ; and so on — ^very many instances might 
be given. Still another characteristic of this rlti i^ the running 
together of harsh-sounding syllables,* and illustrations of this are 
seen in Suryasataka, stanzas 6 and 98. Besides, the Sdhitya- 
darpana^ says that the GQudl style is ddambara, 'resonant 
arrangement (of words),' as though it were, as Regnaud puts it,' 
'le tambour [ddambara] de la poesie,' and this quality of it is 
exemplified in stanzas 33, 36 and 70 of the SUryaiataka, where 
there is a noticeable prevalence of bh, dy and nd sounds re- 

1 For these characteristics of the Gdudl style, sec P. Regnaud, Rhitofique 
Sanskrite, p. 253-255, Paris, 1884; also L. H. Gray, Vdsavadattd, introd., 
p. 16, and the references cited there. 

2Dan(}in's Kdvyadaria (ed. O. Bohtlingk, Leipzig, 1890), 1.46. 

* Sec KavyHdaria, i. 72. 

^See Sahityadarpana (ed. Jiv^anda Vid3rasagara, Calcutta, 1895), 9. 627. 

** Regnaud, RhHorique Sanskrite, p. 255. 


Rhetorical Devices 

In addition to the Qiis or ' benediction/ already mentioned as a 
characteristic of each stanza,^ I have noted in the SUryaiataka in- 
stances of the following figures or devices. 

First, the rUpaka. This is among the most elementary and 
oldest devices, and is of more or less frequent occurrence in most 
of the so-called classical Sanskrit works.* It corresponds most 
nearly to our ' metaphor/ As examples of one of the most com- 
mon types, there may be cited from the SUryaSataka such com- 
pounds as tksanakamalavanam (stanza 58), 'the lotus-cluster of 
thine eyes'; khuramusalah (stanza 61), 'with club-like hoofs'; 
dhuhstambhe (stanza 67), 'pillar-shaped axle-pin'; bahulatama- 
tamahpanka (stanza 79), 'very thick pitchy darkness/ 

Another elementary device is the dlpaka, or ' illuminator,' which 
is said to exist when one noun is found as subject, or object, etc., 
of many verbs, or when one verb is connected with many nouns 
in the same case or construction.' As examples from the 
SUryaiataka, take stanza 37, where 'the dawn-splendor of the 
Hot-rayed (Surya) ... is inferred to be near, because of the 
drying up of the moonstones, the dimness of the stars, . . . and 
the withering of the plants ' ; or stanza 81, where ' Ravi (Surya) 
is praised by the Siddhas, ... by the gods, ... by the Glranas, 
... by the Gandharvas, ... by the Serpents, ... by the Yatu- 
dhanas, ... by the Sadhyas, ... by the Rsis, . . . and by the 

The ilesa, 'pun' or 'paronomasia,' is of very frequent occur- 
rence in the SUryaiataka.^ In some stanzas only a single word 

1 See above, p. 83. For a definition of the Jiif, see KavyOdarla, 2. 357. 

^Johannes Nobel, Beitrage sur dlteren Geschichte des Alafftkilralllstra 
(Berlin, 191 1), p. 9, groups the rUpaka, dlpaka, yamaka and upanUt as 
among the earliest devices. See also Kdvyaprak(Ua, 10.6 (92-93), or 
in the edition of Jhalakikara, p. 718. 

' See Nobel, as cited in preceding note; and KHvyaprakOla, 10. 15 (103), 
or in the edition of Jhalaldkara, p. 775. 

^On the Mefa, see KdvyaprakOia, 9.4 (84), or Jhalakikara's edition, p. 
615; KdvyOdarla, 2.310 and 2.363; Vamana's KQvy&lafftkarasUtrdni (ed. 
Durgaprasad and Parab, Bombay, 1889), 3.2.4; and references cited by 
Gray, VasavadattH, introd., p. 17. For Vamana's date (eighth or ninth 
century A.D.), see G. A. Jacob, Notes on Alankdra Literature, in JRAS, 
new series, vol. 29 (1897), p. 288. 


may be found capable of a double rendering ; in others, a ntunber 
of words, and occasionally practically the whole stanza may be 
translated in two ways. The more noteworthy instances in the 
SUryasataka of this form of rhetorical embellishment occur in 
stanzas 4, 9, 10, 15, 18, 20, 24, 25, 28, 32, 35, 42, 47, 52, 53, 64, 
68, 72, 79, 92, 93. In my translation of the slesas, the two Eng- 
lish words that translate a single Sanskrit word are indicated by 
their inclusion between the symbols < > ; and if a second San- 
skrit word in the same pQda is also capable of a double rendering, 
the two English words by which it is translated are inclosed by the 
same symbol doubled, viz. € > ; similarly, « » is indicative of 
a third ilesa, €€ » of a fourth, and so on. As an example of 
ilesa, the following may be cited from stanza 25 of the 
SUryaiataka : — 

* The light of the Lord of Day also <scomfully> ceclipses [the 
brilliance of] iire» and the «glittering splendor of the 

Whereas Guha <in sport> crides on a peacock> «which is re- 
splendent with the flashing tips of the eyes in its tail*.' 

Here the Sanskrit word ttlayd is rendered by <sconi fully > 
and <in sport> ; kurvdno . . . adhah Mkhinam by ceclipses fire> 
and crides on a peacock>; and lasaccandrakdntQvabhdsam by 
cglittering splendor of the moonstone* and «which is resplendent 
with the flashing tips of the eyes in its tail*. 

The anuprOsa,^ 'alliteration,' is also of common occurrence in 
the SUryaiataka. See especially stanza 6, where the letter gh 
occurs 23 times, and stanzas 12 {c, 26 times), 33 (bh, 29 times), 
36 (dy, 20 times), 94 {d, 25 times, and i, 27 times), and 98 
(^,25 times). 

Closely connected with anuprOsa is yamaka* 'assonance,' de- 
scribed by Dr. Gray as * repetition ' or ' chiming.' It consists in 

ipor anuprasa, cf. Kavyaprakaia, 9.2 (78), or p. 597-599 of Jhalald- 
kara's edition; KSvyHdaria, 1.55-59; KOvyalaffikarasUtrani, 4. 1.8; and the 
references cited by Gray, Vdsavadatta, introd., p. 23. 

2 For yamaka, see KOvyaprakOia, 9.3 (82), or p. 605 of Jhalakikara's 
edition ; KavyOdaria, i. 61 ; KdvyHlaft^kHrasUtrani, 4. 1. 1 ; and the refer- 
ences cited by Gray, Vdsavadatta, introd., p. 20. 


placing in juxtaposition words or syllables similar in sound but 
different in meaning. Scarcely a stanza of the SUryaiataka but 
has instances of the occurrence of this form of literary adorn- 
ment. For example, see stanza 71 : — 

cakri cakrHrapanktifjt harir apt ca harin dhUrjatir dhUrdhvajdntan 
ak^affi nakfatranatho 'runam apt varunafi kubaragratft kuberah 

As other good examples, stanzas 81 and 94 may be cited; and 
note especially also the exaggerated yamaka in stanza 38, where 
the first two and the last three syllables of each pdda are repeated. 
Another device that is far from uncommon in this poem of 
Ma)rura is utpreksQ,^ * poetic fancy ' — the imagining of one object 
in the guise of another. It is usually indicated by the presence, 
in the text, of an iva, ' as if.' Without attempting to make an ex- 
haustive list, I have noted examples of utpreksa in stanzas i, 2, 
3, 5, 14, IS, 16, 22, 24, 25, 42, 49, 52, 54, 55, 63, 68, 72, 74, 79. 
An instance may be cited from stanza 5, as follows : — 

pak^acchedavrandsrksruta iva dffado dariayan prdtaradrer 

' causing the rocks of the Dawn Mountain to appear as if streaming with 
blood from the wounds [caused by] the cutting off of its wings.' 

Here the streaming red light of dawn, flooding the sides of 
Mt. Meru, is imagined to be the blood of the wound resulting 
from Indra's amputation of the wings of the mountain. 

The figure called vyatireka,^ 'contrast' or 'distinction' — ^the 
placing of two objects in antithesis and the noting of the differ- 
ence between them — is found in stanzas 21 and 23 of the SUrya- 
sataka, and there is also an implied vyatireka in stanza 43. 
Dandin, in the KdvySdarsa (2. 180), defines vyatireka as 
follows : — 

iabdopdtte pratlte v& sddfJye vastunor dvayoh 
tatra yad bhedakathanam vyatirekah sa kathyate 

iQn utpreksa, see Kavyaprakdia, 10.4 (91), or edition of Jhalakikara, 
p. 707-712; KSvyddarJa, 2.221-234; KavyalatfikarasQtrani, 4.3.32. Other 
authorities are cited by Gray, Vdsavadatta, introd., p. ig.^ 

2 For comment on and definition of vyatireka, cf. Anandavardhana's 
Dhvanyaloka, 2.23-24 (ed. Durgaprasad and Parab, p. 91-92, Bombay, 
1891) ; Jacobi's translation of the DhvanySloka, in ZDMG, 56.613-614; 
KavyQdarla, 2. 180 ; KavydlamkarasUirani, 4. 3. 22 ; KQvyaprakOia, 10. 17 
(104), or ed. of Jhalaklkara, p. 783. 


This Bohtlingk, in his edition of the KdvyOdarsa (Leipzig, 1890), 
renders as: 'Wenn bei der ausgesprochenen oder bdcannten 
Gleichheit zweier Dinge ihr Unterschied angegeben wird, so 
nennt man dieses Vyatirdca.' In stanza 21 of the SUryaiataka, 
Surya, as the eye of the world, is placed in antithesis to an ordi- 
nary eye, and stanza 23 notes the distinction between a lamp-wick 
and Surya's splendor. In stanza 43, there is drawn, by implica- 
tion, a distinction between the goddess Sri and the iri (splendor) 
of Surya. 

There are also found in the SUryaiataka examples of the 
figure virodha,^ ' apparent contradiction,' which consists in repre- 
senting as antithetical objects which are really not so. The in- 
congruity is often merely verbal, depending at times on a slesa. 
The presence of the figure is often denoted by api, 'although.' 
As an example, see SUryaiataka, stanza 80, where the disk of 
Surya is placed in antithesis to the eye of Siva : — 

cakfur dak^advifo yan na tu dahati purah purayaty eva kdmatft 

'[Sunra's disk], which, [although it is] the eye of (Siva), Foe of Dak$a, 
does not bum < Kama > [standing] before [it], but verily fulfils < desire >.' 

Other examples of virodha occur in this same stanza 80, and also 
in stanza 86. See the notes to those two stanzas. 

So far as I have noted, only a single instance of the kUkQksi- 
golakany&ya, or 'maxim of the crow's eyeball,' occurs in the 
SUryaiataka — in stanza 57. This figure, to quote Apte,^ 'takes 
its origin from the supposition that the crow has but one eye, 
and that it can move it, as occasion requires, from the socket on 
one side into that of the other.' It consists in allowing a word 
which appears but once in a clause or sentence to be translated 
twice — ^both times with the same meaning. It is thus different 
from the ilesa, where the word that is rendered twice always 
has two different meanings. In stanza 57 of the SUryasataka, 

^On the virodha, see KavyaprakOJa, 10.23 (109-110), or ed. of Jhalaki- 
kara, p. 807-808 ; KdvyOdarda, 2. 333-339 ; KdvyalaffikarasUtrani, 4. 3. 12 ; 
Gray, VHsavadattd, introd., p. 18 ; Apte, Skt-Engl Diet, s.v. virodha, 

^Apte, Skt'Engl, Diet, s.v. nydya; a number of the popular maxims, 
including the kakdkfigolakanydya, are there grouped and explained. 

94 THE suryaSataka of mayura 

the word sapta, 'seven/ though occurring but once, must be 
rendered twice, first as a modifier of aSvdn, 'horses,' and again 
as a modifier of kaksdh, 'apartments.' 

There is also in the SUryaiataka at least one instance of the 
rhetorical figure tulyayogitd, ' grouping together of similar things,' 
or, as described by Apte,^ 'the combination of several objects 
having the same attribute.' In stanza 94 this figure is exemplified 
by the phrase s&dridyHrvinadlia daia diio, ' the ten quarters, with 
the mountains, sky, earth and oceans.' 

Last, but by no means least, either in interest or importance, 
among the rhetorical figures which I. have noted in the SHrya- 
iataka, is the upamd,^ or ' simile.' It exists in our poem in con- 
siderable numbers. Some of the instances, such as the ' drama ' 
simile (stanza 50), the simile of the 'painter's brush' (stanza 
26), of the 'antidote' (stanza 31), of the 'garden and trench' 
(stanza 34), of the 'thirsty man' (stanza 14), are quite elabo- 
rate, and are discussed in the notes to the stanzas where they 
occur. Others, not so elaborate, but still worthy of notice, will 
be found in stanzas 4, 15, 38, 49, 52, 54, 55, 57, 74, 79, 82. 
There are, besides, many of minor import which I have not 
attempted to list. 

Before leaving this topic of the rhetorical devices, I would say 
that I have by no means attempted to give an all-inclusive list 
of those that grace the stanzas of the SUryaiataka, but have 
merely appended instances of the occurrence of some of the 
more familiar ones, or of such as have been pointed out by the 
commentator, or otherwise called to my attention. I frankly con- 
fess that I do not readily recognize many of the more obscure 

*Apte, Skt-Engl, Diet s.v. tulyayogitH. For other definitions and ex- 
amples, cf. KHvyOdaria, 2.330-331; Suhityadarpafta (ed. Jivananda Vi- 
d3rasagara, Calcutta, 1895), 10.695; KdvyaprakiUa, 10.16 (104), or ed. of 
Jhalaldkara, p. 780; KOvyHlatfiklirasiltrlini, 4.3.26; and especially the 
admirable monograph of Johannes Nobel, Beitrdge eur alteren Geschichte 
des AlatfikdralOstra, p. 25-31, Berlin, 191 1. 

2 Nobel, Beitrdge etc., p. 9, states that the upatnd is one of the oldest 
rhetorical devices, being mentioned by Bharata, ^J^yoiAr^ra (16.41), along 
with the dipaka, rupaka and yamaka; see also KOvyaprakdia, 10. i (87), or 
edition of Jhalakikara, p. 653. 


alarnkdras, and subdivisions of the alamkQras, that are set forth, 
with characteristic Hindu fondness for detail, on the pages of the 
Sanskrit works dealing with this subject. I have not attempted 
an exhaustive treatment or discussion, because it seems to me 
that such would fall rather within the province of a specialist in 
this department of Sanskrit studies. 


Bemheimer, by way of comment on vibhavatu (stanza 33), 
points out that the use of bhU in the active, with prefix vi, is 
almost exclusively Vedic* 

The combination of final and initial vowels in caturarcdtft 
(stanza 40), instead of the more usual caturarcdm, is also Vedic,* 
and is doubtless employed to meet the requirements of the meter. 

The indeclinable particle Sam, 'prosperity,* found in stanza 
94, is common in the Veda, but rare in the later language.* 

To these there may also be added the rather extensive use — 21 
instances — of the imperative in -W^ This has been discussed 
below among the Grammatica NotabUiora,* where it is shown 
that such forms are not of uncommon occurrence in the Vedic 
literature, though rare in the so-called classical period. 

Grammatica Notabiliora 

In the notes to each stanza I have called attention to whatever 
might seem of interest to students of Sanskrit grammar, but for 
convenience my findings in this line will be grouped together 

In case-constructions I have noted, as possibly worthy of 
mention, the instnmiental of qualification without preposition, 
apaghanSir and kamdharOrdhdir (stanzas 6 and 48 respectively; 

^ Carlo Bemheimer, II SUryaiatakam di MayUra, p. 19, footnote i, Li- 
vomo, 1905. His comment is: 'Si noti Tuso quasi esdttsivamente vedico 
di bhu attivo con vi.' 

* Sec Whitney, Skt Grammar, 127, a. 

* See Monier-Williams, Skt-EngL Diet, s.v. Sam, 

* Sec below, p. 96. 


cf. bhayacakitadrsd in CandUataka, stanza 100), the genitive of 
agent with gamy a (stanza 23; cf. Ca^tifiiataka, stanza 42), the 
locative {davlyasi) to express the limit of motion (stanza 22), 
the locative (cakre trsndm) to express the object of a feeling 
(stanza 59), the avyaylbhdva compound adhijaladhi (stanza 88), 
and the locative absolute with an adverb — ^usually yatra — forming 
one member (stanzas 20, 76, 83, 85, 88, 95). There is also the 
accusative dtlm (stanza 38), apparently used as a sort of object 
of the peculiar OtldhapUrvH. 

Among the verb forms may be noted the combination vitara- 
titar&m (stanza 28), in which the comparative suffix is added to a 
personal form of a verb; iuska (stanza 83), 'dried,' used with 
the force of a participle; and the imperative in -tdt. This last- 
named form is said by Whitney^ to be of rather rare occurrence 
in the later language, but there are 21 instances of it in the 
SHryaiataka, and 17 in the Can4^iataka. In the SUryaSataka the 
commonest example is stdt, ' may it be,' which occurs in stanzas 
5, 16, 21, 27, 35, 51, 70, 78, 87 (v. 1. syat), 93. The other cases 
are: avatdt (stanzas 30, 59, 71, 83, 85, 99), upanayatat (stanza 
26), apaharatQt (stanza 31), upacinutdt (stanza 40), vyasyatdt 
(stanza 48), and punltdt (stanza 76). There is also the impera- 
tive jahihi (stanza 59; cf. Candliataka, stanza 34) with short 
penult, a form allowed by the grammarians and doubtless used 
here to fit the meter; and the denominative participles, vetrdya- 
mdndh (stanza 11), sUtradhdrdyamdtuih (stanza 50), and pad- 
mardg&yamdnah (stanza 56). 

To the above list I would add also the double negatives 
(stanzas 23, 38, 59, 87) ; the absence of ya as correlative to sa 
(stanzas 33 and 98) ; the absence of sa correlative to ya (stanza 
24; cf. Candliataka, stanza 9); the adverb rucimat (28) — ^an 
adverb with suffix -mat being, seemingly, a rare occurrence* ; the 
long compounds gadyapadyavyatikaritavacohrdyam (36) and 
aksunnahemopalapatalam (44), used as adverbs; the compotmd 
atldhapUrvd (38), the -pttrvd having the force of an adverb; 

* See Whitney, Ski. Grammar, 570, b ; and see also p. 84, note 2. 

* Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 1235, e. 


and netrdhlnena {72), an example of the iQkapdrthiva com- 
pound — ^a species of compound that omits its middle member. 


The meter of the SUryaiataka is the sragdhard, in which are 
also composed some of the stanzas of the MayHrdstaka and a 
number of the anthology stanzas attributed to Mayura. It con- 
sists of 21 syllables, with caesural pauses after every seventh 
syllable, the scheme being as follows : — 

This is not among the most widely-used meters,^ although em- 
ployed by Mayura in the SUryaiataka, and by Bana in the 
Canifiiataka. Kalidasa has occasional recourse to it, as for 
example in the Sakuntala, act i, stanzas i and 7, and in the 
Malavikagnimitra, act i, stanza i, and act 2, stanza 12. Bhar- 
trhari also employs it 22 times in his three Satakas, as noted by 
Dr. Louis H. Gray, in his article The Metres of Bhartrihari, ap- 
pearing in JAOS, vol. 20, first half (1899), P- ^ 57-159- 

For comment on, and discussion of the sragdhara, see the 
article La metrica degli Indi, parte 2, La poesia prof ana, by A. 
Ballini, published in Pulle's Studi Italiani di Filologia Indo- 
Iranica, vol. 8, puntata i a, 2 a, 3 a, Firenze, 1909, 1910, 1912; 
especially puntata 3 a, p. 132. See also Pihgala's Chandahsastra, 
7. 24 (in the edition by Kedaranatha and Panashikar, Bom- 
bay, 1908, in the Kavyamala Series), and Albrecht Weber's 
monograph Ueber die Metrik der Inder, published in Indisclie 
Studien, vol. 8, especially p. 400-401, Berlin, 1863. 

In the SUryaiataka I have not noted any metrical irr^^arities 
in the text of Durgaprasad and Parab's second edition, which I 
have adopted as the standard. Biihler {I A, vol. i, p. 115, foot- 
note) and Max MuUer {India: What Can It Teach Usf, p. 330, 
note 3) are wrong in stating that the meter of the SUryasataka 
is SdrdUlaznkr^ita. 

^ For a list of the occurrences of the sragdhara meter in the principal 
works of classical Sanskrit poetry, see Kuhnau, Metrische Sammlungen 
aus Stenslev^s Nachlass, in ZDMG, vol. 44 (1890), p. 1-82; especially p. 82. 


98 THE suryaSataka of mayura 



As indicated in the notes to the various stanzas, I have dis- 
covered quotations from the SUryaiataka in the following San- 
skrit works which belong, for the most part, to the alamkSra 

The DhvanySloka of Anandavardhana (855-S84 A.D.)^ cites 
stanza 9 as exhibiting a type of Slesa/ and stanza 23 as an illus- 
tration of the rhetorical figure called vyatireka} 

The Kavikanthibharana of Ksemendra (1025-1075 A.D.)* 
cites stanza 18 as an example of a bit of poetry that contains 
faults as well as excellences.*^ 

The KdvyaprakaJa of Mammata and AUata (1050-1100 A.D.)* 
quotes stanza 6, seemingly as an illustration of harshness in 
sound,^ where harshness is neither a fault nor an excellence, 
and stanza 71 as an example of a stanza wherein facts are dis- 
torted in order to effect a desired alliteration.® 

The Ganaratnamahodadhi (2. 149) of Vardhamana (1140 
A.D.)'* quotes the first pdda of stanza 79 to illustrate the use of 
the dyu stem (for div), signifying *sky.* 

^ For the date of the DhvanyHloka, see G. A. Jacob, Notes on Alankara 
Literature, in JRAS, new series, voL 29 (1897), p. 289; DuflF, Chronology, 
p. 77; Krishnamacharya, Skt. Literature, p. 162. 

3 The Dhvanyaloka, 2.25-26; cf. ed. by Durgaprasad and Parab, p. 99, 
Bombay, 1891. See also Jacobi's translation of the Dhvanydloka, in 
ZDMG, vol. 56 (1902), p. 764. 

8 The Dhvanyaloka, 2.23-24; cf. Parab's ed., p. 92; and Jacobi's trans- 
lation in ZDMG, 56. 613-614. 

^ For the date of the KazHkanthUbharana, see J. Schonbierg, Ksemendra* s 
Kavikanthahharana, in Sitsungsb. PhiL-Hist. Classe der kais, Akad, der 
Wissensch., vol. 106, p. 477, Wien, 1884; cf. Biihler, Kaimir, an Account 
of some MSS, in J BRAS, vol. 12 (extra number, 1877), p. 46. 

^The Kaznkanfhabharana, 4.1. 11; cf. ed. by Durg§pras§d and Parab, 
in Kavyamala, part 4, p. 133, Bombay, 1887. 

« For the date of the KHvyaprakaia, see above, p. 30, note 2. 

7 The KHvyapraklUa, 7, stanza 301 ; cf. edition of Jhalakikara, p. 507. 

« The Kavyaprakaia, 10, stanza 580 ; cf . edition of Jhalakikara, p. 938. 

*See J. Eggeling's edition of the Ganaratnamahodadhi, part i, p. 185, 
London, 1879. For the date of the Ganaratnamahodadhi see G. A. Jacob, 


The Rasikajlvana of Gadadhara, an alamk&ra work in lo 
books (prabandhas) , of the 17th century, cites stanzas i and 
2, but in what connection I have been unable to determine, since 
no complete copy of the text of that work has been published, 
so far, at least, as I have been able to learn/ 

Stanzas i and 2 of the SUryasataka are also cited in Sarhga- 
dhara's anthology, the Paddhati (1363 A.D.).* 

The SUryaiataka is also said to be quoted in the Tikdsarvasva, 
Sarvananda's commentary on the NdmalingSnuiOsana of Amara- 
simha, which is dated by M. S. Sastri as 1417-1431 A.D.' 

The Kat/lndravacanasafnuccaya (stanza 53), an anthology of 
unknown authorship, consisting of 525 stanzas, and dated earlier 
than 1200 A.D., cites SUryaiataka, stanza 34, in its chapter 
entitled SUryavrajyd.* And Thomas authorizes the statement 
that stanzas 19, 42 and 71 of the SUryaiataka are cited by 
Ujjvaladatta, on UnQdisUtra (Aufrecht's edition, p. 19), 4, 51, 
4. 233, and 4. 213 respectively.* 

Among the modem anthologies, it should be noted that the 
Subhdsitaratnabhdnddgara quotes stanzas i, 2 and 6 of the SUrya- 

Notes on AlankHra Literature, in JRAS, new series, voL 29 (1897), p. 300; 
c£. T. Zachariae, Die indischen Worterhucher (in Biihler's Grundriss der 
IndO'Arischen Pkilologie), p. 21, Strassburg, 1897. 

^The Rasikajlvana exists in several manuscripts, which ascribe it to 
Gadadhara; cf. Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorum, vol. i, p. 497, and vol. 
2, p. 116; Buhler, Two Lists of Skt. MSS, in ZDMG, vol. 42 (1888), p. 554- 
The first 46 stanzas of the first book of the Rasikajlvana have been edited, 
from manuscript no. 217 of the collection in the Bibliotheque Nationale 
in Paris, by P. Regnaud, and published by him, under the title Stances 
Sanskrites Inidites, in Annuaire de la Faculti des Lettres de Lyon, fasci- 
cule 2, p. 201-223, Paris, 1884. Stanza i of the SUryaiataka appears as 
stanza 32 of the first book of the Rasikajlvana, and stanza 2 as stanza 31 
of the same book. Regnaud, in the introduction, states that the Rasika- 
jlvana is an anthology and consists of 11 prabandhas. Aufrecht (loc, cit,) 
states that Gadadhara's work is an alatfikdra consisting of 10 prabandhas, 

* See Peterson's edition of the Paddhati, nos. 137 and 138. For the date 
of the Paddhati, see Aufrecht in ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 2. 

» See M. S. Sastri, Report on a Search for Sanskrit and Tamil Manu- 
scripts for the Year 1893-1894, no. 2, p. 23, 24, 32 (no. 184), Madras, 1899. 

^ See Thomas's edition of the KaiAndravcicanasamuccaya, p. 18, -and 
introd., p. 1-5 and 67. ^ - : 

^ See Thomas, Kavlndravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 68. 


sataka,^ but that no citation from Mayura's writings seems to be 
found in Bohtlingk's Indische Spriiche (2d ed., St. Petersburg, 

Among the grammatical works; I have noted that the Dur- 
ghatavrtt? of Saranadeva cites portions of stanzas 2, 3, 25 and 
52 of the SUryaiataka, in connection with comment on certain 
grammatical peculiarities recorded by Panini. These citations 
have been discussed in the notes to the stanzas where they occur. 

As regards lexicographical works, it may be noted that odd or 
unusual meanings and uses of certain words employed by 
Mayura have caught the attention of more than one investigator. 
For example, see Theodor Zachariae, Der Anekarthasatngraha 
des Hemachandra, herausgegeben mit Aussiigen aus dem Com- 
mentare des Mahendra (published by the Vienna Akaderaie der 
Wissenschaf ten as Band i of the series entitled Quellenwerke der 
altindischen Lexikographie, Wien and Bombay, 1893), where are 
given Mahendra's comments on the following words of the 
Suryasataka: stanza i of the SUryaiataka, the word jatnbha (see 
page 47 of the commentary, in Zachariae's volume) ; stanza 2, 
kalya and bhaskara (p. 53 and 143) ; stanza 4, yatM (p. 193) ; 
stanza 6, argha, ghrdna, ghrnd, ghrni, gharma (p. 12, 24, 49) ; 
stanza 8, khara (p. 61) ; stanza 9, go (p. 3) ; stanza 71, aksa, 
kubara (p. 79 and 139). 

See also Theodor Zachariae, Der Mankhakoia (published as 
Band 3 of the series cited in the preceding paragraph, Wien and 
Bombay, 1897), the commentary on which cites the following 
words from Mayura's poem: SHryaiataka, stanza i, the words 
bhdnu, jambha, udaya (see pages 59, 76, 91 of the commentary, in 
Zachariae's edition) ; stanza 2, kroda (p. 24) ; stanza 3, garbha 
(p. 75) ; stanza 4, vita (p. 36) ; stanza 8, udgSdha (p. 25) ; stanza 
II, rdi (p. 94) ; stanza 12, prSc (p. 16) ; stanza 23, varti (p. 37) ; 
stanza 36, gandharva (p. 75) ; stanza 37, vQna (p. 60) ; stanza 
71, dhur (p. 95). 

^ See Subht4itaratnabhiin4ilg(ira, p. 40, stanza 11 ; p. 41, stanzas 12 and 16. 
* 'vThe Durghatavrtti was composed in 1172 A.D.; see the edition by T. 
*:€r2^apati Sastri, in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, preface, p. 2^ Trivan- 
'.d'rum, 1909. 


To the above may be added the word udghdtanam (SUryar- 
iataka, stanza 2), cited on page 134, line 8, of Der DhatupQtha 
des Hemachandra, edited by Joh. Klirste, and published as Band 
4 of the series entitled Quellenwerke der altindischen Lexiko- 
graphic (see second paragraph preceding), Wien and Bombay, 


Aufrecht, in his Catalogus Catalogorum (vol. i, p. 732; vol. 2, 
p. 175; vol. 3, p. 150), has listed 33 references to manuscripts of 
the SUryaiataka — or MayQraiataka, as some of the manuscripts 
call it — ^and I have been able to add 6 other manuscripts that are 
mentioned in catalogues issued subsequently to the Catalogus, or 
else were omitted by Aufrecht.^ These 6 are as follows. 

A Sanskrit manuscript listed by Cecil Bendall, in his Catalogue 
of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the British Museum, p. 1 00-101, 
no. 257, London, 1902 ; this is accompanied by a verbal explana- 
tion, in Sinhalese, by Parakramabahu Vilgam-mula. 

A manuscript listed by M. Rang^carya in A Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the Skt. MSS in the Government Oriental MSS Library, 
Madras, vol. 5, p. 2135, no. 2886, Madras, 1909. This manu- 
script is described simply by the title SUryaSataka, without men- 
tion of the author's name. I have taken it for granted that 
Mayura's SUryaiataka is meant. 

A manuscript listed by H. Sastri and S. C. Gui in A Descrip- 
tive Catalogue of Skt. MSS in the Library of the Calcutta San- 
skrit College, vol. 6, p. 108, no. 159, Calcutta, 1903. 

A manuscript listed by Wintemitz and Keith in their Catalogue 
of Skt. MSS in the Bodleian Library, vol. 2, p. 178, no. 1257, 
Oxford, 1905. It is accompanied by a Sinhalese commentary. 

Two manuscripts which Aufrecht has not included — ^perhaps 
purposely — in his Catalogus. They are listed by William Taylor, 

^Two of the manuscripts listed by Aufrecht have been described in 
subsequent catalogues; Hultzsch 90 (Cat. Cat., vol. i) in Wintemitz and 
Keith, Catalogue of Skt. MSS in the Bodleian Library, vol. 2, p. 178, no. 
1256, Oxford, 1905; and Oxf., p. 343 b (Cat. Cat., vol. i) in Keith's Appen- 
dix to Vol. I (Aufrechfs Catalogue) , p. IQ3, no. 819, Oxford, 1909. 


Catalogue Raisonne of Oriental MSS in the Government Library, 
vol. 2, p. 212 and 370, Madras, i860. The one mentioned on 
p. 212 IS accompanied by the commentary of Gopinatha ; the other 
(p. 370) is described by Taylor as * Bdnuvlyam, By Mayura 
cavi ; 100 slocas, complete. Praise of the sun.' Since the sub- 
ject-matter, and also the number of slokas, of this BanuvJyam 
coincide with the subject-matter and number of stanzas of the 
Suryasataka, and since the word bhSnavlya occurs in stanza i 
of Mayura's poem, it seems almost certain that we have here a 
manuscript of the SUryasataka, Hence my inclusion of it in this 
list. However, I would add that I have been unable to determine 
whether Taylor's Catalogue Raisonne has been supplemented, or 
wholly supplanted, by the later and more elaborate Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Skt. MSS in the Government Oriental MSS 
Library, Madras. It is worthy of note, in this connection, that 
Aufrecht, when compiling his Catalogus, used neither vol. 2 nor 
vol. 3 of Taylor's work, and his opinion of vol. i is not, as was 
remarked above (p. 63, note 5), very flattering. It may be that 
these two manuscripts mentioned in Taylor's second volume are 
the same as the ones Aufrecht (Catalogus Catalogorum, vol. 2, 
p. 175) lists from the Alphabetical Index of MSS in the Gov- 
ernment Oriental MSS Library, Madras, p. 65 and 109, Madras, 

I am unable to say whether the three manuscripts used by 

Durgiaprasad and Parab in preparing their edition of the Surya- 
iataka (second edition, Bombay, 1900), and mentioned by them 
in the introduction of that volume, are included among those re- 
ferred to by Aufrecht or enumerated above, but it seems likely 
that they are. And the same problem faces me in the matter of 
the manuscript used by Kalikrsnabahadur when he edited the 
Suryasataka in Haeberlin's KSvya-sangraha (Calcutta, 1847.) 
According to Weber (Indische Studien, vol. i, p. 472, Berlin, 
1850), this manuscript included a commentary in Bengali, but in 
Haeberlin's Kavya^sangraha the commentary has not been edited. 



Aufrecht, in the Catalogus Catalogorum (s. v. SHryasataka) , 
lists 7 references to manuscripts of anonymous commentaries and 
18 references to commentaries by known authors. The following 
commentators are mentioned by name: Jayamangala, Tribhuva- 
napala, Madhusudana, Yajfiesvara, Vallabhadeva, Srirahgadeva, 
Lihgaya, Gafigadhara Pathaka, Balambhatta, Harivamsa, Gopi- 
natha, Anvayamukha, Jagannatha, and Ramabhatta. To Auf- 
recht's list I would add the anonymous Bengali commentary 
mentioned by Weber (Indische Studien, vol. i, p. 472) ; the 
Sinhalese verbal interpretation by Parakramabahu Vilgam-mula 
(cf. Bendall, Cat, of Skt. MSS in the British Museum, p. 100, 
no. 257), probably identical with the Sinhalese commentary 
attached to manuscript no. 1257 of the Bodleian Library (cf. 
Wintemitz and Keith, Cat. of Skt. MSS in the Bodleian Library, 
vol. 2, p, 178) ; and the flkd of Gopinatha, listed by Taylor^ in 
his Catalogue RaisonnS of Oriental MSS in the Government 
Library, vol. 2, p. 212. 


I have succeeded in finding record of thirteen editions of the 
SUryaSataka, and there have doubtless been more. These thir- 
teen are as follows. 

An edition of 1848, or probably much earlier. In a List of 
Books in the Pali and Singhalese Languages, read Feb. 26, 1848, 
by the Rev. R. S. Hardy, and published in JCRAS, vol. i, no. 3 
(1848), p. 200, the name ' Suya-satake, Sans[krit] ' appears as 
the title of vol. 441 of the list. Nothing further is said of the 
work, so it is barely possible that not Mayura's SUryaiataka, but 
another composition bearing the same name, is meant. 

^See above (p. 63, note 5), where the question of the reliability of 
Taylor's work has been discussed. This commentary of Gopinatha is 
perhaps identical with the commentary of Gopinatha listed in tiie Alpha' 
hetical Index of MSS in the Government Oriental MSS Library, Madras, 
p. 65, Madras, 1893 (see Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorum, vol 2, p. 175). 


An edition, without commentary, by Kalikrsnabahadur, in- 
corporated in John Haeberlin's Kdvya-sangraha: A Sanscrit 
Anthology, p. 197-216, Calcutta, 1847. There is a copy of this 
work on the shelves of the Harvard University Library. See 
also Ernst Haas, Cat, of Skt. and Pali Books in the British 
Museum, p. 41-42, London, 1876; cf. Indische Studien, vol. i, p. 

Anonymously edited, in both octavo and duodecimo editions, 
in a Satakdvatl comprising the AmaruSataka, the Sdntiiataka, the 
SUryaiataka and the three iatakas of Bhartrhari. In Bengali 
character, and published at Calcutta, in 1850; cf. Catalogue of 
the Library of the India Office, vol. 2, part i, Sanskrit Books, 
p. 180, London, 1897. 

An anonymous edition, without commentary, probably edited 
by its publisher, Babu Bhuvanacandra Basak, and published at 
Calcutta, in 1874. The volume is entitled SHryaiataka by 
MayUra Bhatta ; cf . Catalogue of the Library of the India Office, 
vol. 2, part I, p. 214. 

An edition in Sinhalese characters (with Sinhalese paraphrase 
of Vilgammula Maha Thera) by Don A. de Silva Devarakkhita 
Batuvantudave, Colombo, 1883; cf. C. Bendall, Cat. of the Skt. 
MSS in the British Museum, p. loo-ioi, no. 257, London, 1902; 
Wickremasinghe, Cat. of the Sinhalese Printed Books in the 
Library of the British Museum, p. 125, London, 1901 ; Wick- 
remasinghe, Cat. of the Sinhalese MSS in the British Museum, p. 
23, loi, 102, London, 1900; JRAS, new series, vol. 26 (1894), 
p. 555, and vol. 28 (1896), p. 215-216. 

An edition by Yajiiesvaraiastri. It is mentioned by Btihler 
{I A, I. 115, footnote) in 1872 as being then in course of publica- 
tion. It was to be equipped with a commentary by its editor, and 
in this regard the editor s6ems to have fulfilled his intention, for 
the commentary is mentioned in Auf recht's Catalogus and in the 
introduction to the Kavyamala edition of the SUryaSataka, and is 
quoted, as we saw above (p. 26, note i), in Jhalakikara's edition 
of the K&vyaprakaia. 

Edited, without commentary, by Jivananda Vidyasagara, in 


his Kdvya-samgrahah, p. 271-290, second edition, Calcutta, 1886 
(cf. Kavyatirtha and Shastrl, Catalogue of Printed Books and 
MSS in Sanskrit belonging to the Oriental Library of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, p. 43-44, 227, Calcutta, 1904). There is a 
copy of this in the Harvard University Library. The first edi- 
tion appeared in 1872; cf. Ernst Haas, Cat. of Skt. and Pali 
Books in the British Museum, p. 42, top. A third edition, in 
three volumes, appeared in 1888 (Calcutta) ; cf. OB, vol. 2, no. 
766, and vol. 3, no. 3018. 

Edited, with the commentary of Tribhuvanapala, by Durga- 
prasad and Parab, as vol. 19 of the Kavyamala Series, Bombay, 
1889. A second edition, revised, appeared in Bombay in 1900. 
This last is the one I have used in preparing my translation of the 

A partial edition, comprising the first 75 stanzas, without 
commentary, appeared serially in the Vidyodaya, or Sanskrit 
Critical Journal, vol. 25 (1896), June-September, published at 


I have discovered only three translations of the SUryaiataka. 
One is a translation into Italian, with introduction and notes, by 
Doctor Carlo Bemheimer. It is entitled // SUryagatakam di 
MayUra, and was published at Livomo, in 1905. The notes are 
not very full, and the translation, so far as my poor knowledge of 
Italian will permit me to judge, is not intended to be a literal one. 
I have found this volume a help in many stanzas, though I have 
not always agreed with its renderings. 

The second is a translation into Telugu verse. It is entitled 
Andhra-sUryoriatakamu, and is described as ' a century of stanzas 
to the Sun, rendered into Telugu verse from the Sanskrit of 
Mayura by V. S. Subba-rayudu.' It appeared serially in the 
monthly periodical Saraswati, vol. i, nos. 1-5, Rajahmundry, 
1898; cf. L. D. Bamett, A Catalogue of the Telugu Books in 
the Library of the British Museum, p. 121, London, 191 2. 


The third is a Sinhalese translation, found, with text and Sin- 
halese commentary, in a manuscript of the SHryaiataka. The 
manuscript is now in the Bodleian Library, and is recorded, 
together with mention of the translation, by Wintemitz and 
Keith, in their Catalogue of the Skt. MSS in the Bodleian 
Library, vol. 2, p. 178, no. 1257, Oxford, 1905. 


Besides Mayura's poem, we have record of five other composi- 
tions bearing the name of SUryaiataka, Three of these are 
listed in Aufrecht's Catalogus Catalogorum (vol. i, p. 732, and 
vol. 2, p. 235), one in Taylor's Catalogue Raisonni, and one in 
Bamett's Catalogue of Telugu Books in the Library of the 
British Museum. These five are as follows. 

A SUryaiataka, or hymn to Surya, composed by GopalaSarman, 
sumamed Upasani, who describes himself in the edition of his 
work as * First Master of Sanskrit at the Jay Narain College at 
Benares.* The edition referred to was published at Calcutta in 
1871 ; cf. Ernst Haas, Cat. of Skt. and Pali Books in the British 
Museum, p. 39, London, 1876 ; cf. Catalogue of the Library of the 
India Office, vol. 2, part i, p. 214, London, 1897. A manuscript 
of this SUryaiataka is recorded by Gustav Oppert, Lists of Skt. 
MSS in Private Libraries of Southern India, vol. 2, p. 489, no. 
8421, Madras, 1885. 

A SUryaiataka, or hymn to Surya, composed by Srisvara 
Vidyalamkara. A manuscript is recorded by Rajendralala Mitra, 
Notices of Skt. MSS, vol. 7, p. 113, no. 2340, Calcutta, 1884. 
According to Aufrecht (Cat. Cat., vol. i, p. 675), Srisvara was 
still alive in 1884. 

A SUryaiataka by Raghavendra Sarasvati, composed in 1593 
(cf. Aufrecht, Cat. Cat., vol. 2, p. 220, s. v. Raghavendra), a 
manuscript of which is recorded by Peterson in his Catalogue of 
the Skt. MSS in the Library of His Highness the Mahdrdja of 
Ulwar, no. 2438, and Extracts, no. 676, Bombay, 1892. 

A SUryaiataka by Linga Kavi. A manuscript of this is re- 


corded by Taylor, Catalogue' RaisonnS of Oriental MSS in the 
Government Library, vol. 2, p. 370, no. 523. Taylor there de- 
scribes the poem as ' 100 slocas with a tica: description of the 
Sun, and praise, as to a deity.' ^ 

A SUryaiataka in Telugu, composed by K. R. Lachchana. The 
work is entitled SUryaSatakamu, and consists of 105 verses ad- 
dressed to the Sun. Meter, kanda. It was published at Madras, 
in 1897 ; cf . L. D. Bamett, A Catalogue of the Telugu Books in 
the Library of the British Museum, p. 96, London, 1912. 

I have been told that the g^oup of 108 names of Surya, found 
in Mahdbhdrata, 3. 3. 16-28, is sometimes called SUryaiataka, but 
I am inclined to think that this is more commonly known as 
SUryastotra, the name by which it is called, for example, in 
Auf recht's Katalog der Sanskrit-Handschriften der Universitats- 
Bibliothek zu Leipzig, p. 37, no. 175, Leipzig, 1901. 

^The statements of Taylor must always be accepted with caution (see 
above, p. 102). It is possible that this is merely the commentary on 
Mayura's SUryalataka by Lihgaya, as noted in the Alphabetical Index af 
MSS in the Government Oriental MSS Library, Madras, p. 109, Madras, 



jambharatibhakumbhodbhavam iva dadhatah sandrasindura- 

raktah sikta ivaughair udayagiritatidhatudharadravasya 
ajrantya tulyakalam kamalavanaruceva 'runa vo vibhutyai 
bhiiyasur bhasayanto bhuvanam abhinava bhanavo bhana- 


The^ new rays of Bhanu (Surya) bear dense particles of ver- 
milion like that [which] appears on the frontal globes of the 
elephant* of (Indra), Foe of Jambha,' 

And are red as if moistened by floods of the liquid of the stream 
of metals on the slope of the Mountain of Sunrise,* 

And glow as if with the luster of the clusters of lotus — a luster 
that appears simultaneously [with the advent of the sun].* 

May these rays of Bhanu (Surya), which illumine the earth, exist 
for your welfare* ! 

Notes. X. This stanza is quoted in the Paddhati of iSarAgadhara, 4. 51 
(no. 137 of the edition by Peter Peterson, Bombay, 1888; cf. the partial 
edition by Th. Aufrecht in ZDMG, voL 27, p. 70) ; in the Rasikaftvana 
(book I, stanza 32), an alatftkdra Sanskrit work by Gadadhara (cf. Th. 
Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorutn, vol. i, p. 497, and vol. 2, p. 116), par- 
tially edited from manuscript no. 217 of the Bibliotheque Nationale de 
Paris, with French translation, by P. Regnaud, under the title Stances 
Sanskrites Inidites (published in Annnaire de la Faculti des Lettres de 
Lyon, fasc. 2, Littirature et Philologie, p. 217, Paris, 1884) ; and in the 
modem anthology, Subh(lfitaratnabhan<fdgCira, p. 40, stanza 11 (ed. byK.P. 
Parab, 3d ed., Bombay, 1891). a. The painting of elephants for pur- 
poses of adornment or display is still in vogue in India. 3. Accord- 
ing to the commentary, the 'Foe of Jambha' was Indra, and this is 
supported by Mahdhhdrata, 12. 98. 49 (Bombay edition, 1862-1863; cf. the 
translation by P. C. Roy, Calcutta, 1883-1895), where Indra daims the 
honor of having slain that demon. Indra's elephant was Airava^a or 



Airavata, a product of the famous churning of the ocean ; cf . Mahobhirata, 
1. 18. 40. For a picture of Indra mounted on Airavata, cf. Edward Moor, 
Hindu Pantheon, pi 46, p. 176, Madras, 1864, 4. The 'Mountain of 
Sunrise' (Udaya-giri) was Mt. Mem, from behind which the sim was 
said to rise. This was a mythical mountain of gold, 84,000 yojanas high, 
and the central point of all the dvipas. On its summit Visvakarman, the 
artificer of the gods, erected a splendid palace, where dwelt the celestials, 
both devas and asuras. On it were situated the points of the compass, 
and so, of course, the seats of Indra and of the other seven lokapulas, the 
guardians of the eight points of the compass. It contained wonderful 
lakes, and rivers, and forests full of golden-plumaged birds, and the 
Ganges was said to flow forth from its summit. The sun, moon, winds, 
and planets revolved about it as a center, and it contained the court of 
Brahma, the Creator, and was the source of all gems and precious stones. 
The personified Meru was the father of Mena, and so the grandfather of 
Parvati (Can<}!) and father-in-law of Himala3ra. Cf. MahObhUrata, i. 
17. 5-10; 3. 163. 12-33; 6. 6. 10-31; Ramdyana (Bombay edition by the 
Lak$mivenkatesvara Press, 1895; cf. ed. by Gaspare Gorresio, Parigi, 
1843-1858; French tr. by Alfred Roussel, Paris, 1903), 1.35. 12-17; 4.42. 
36^46; MQrkan4eya Purana, 45.65; 54; 55; 56 (tr. F. Eden Pargiter, p. 
223, 275-283, Calcutta, 1904) ; Vi^nu Purana, 2. 2 (tr. H. H. Wilson, Lon- 
don, 1864-1877, vol. 2, p. 109-126). In the SHryaiataka, Mt Meru is 
referred to in no less than 27 stanzas, viz., i, 5, 12, 27, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 
44, 46, 48, 49, 50, 56, 61, 62, 65, 68, 69, 74, 75, 82, 83. 93, 97, and 98. In 
a few of these stanzas mention is made of some of the features of Meru 
as noted in the Epics and Puranas; for example, the trees on the stunmit 
of Meru are spoken of in stanza 38; its golden composition in stanzas 
41 and 82; its crystal, ruby and emerald slopes in stanzas 46, 56 and 65; 
and its relation to the dtnpas in stanza 97. 5. This appears to be the 
idea of the commentary, which says: *With Savitar (Surya) comes the 
splendor of the clusters of lotuses.' 6. Note the alliteration (anuprOsa) 
in the 4th poda, and the assonance or chiming (yamaka) in sdndrasindUra, 
raktah sikta, kalan^ kamala-, etc. Both of these rhetorical figures arc 
exemplified many times in the stanzas of the SHryaiataka, so hereafter 
only the more noteworthy examples will be called to the reader's attention. 
The rhetorical figure known as 'Poetic Fancy' (utprekfa), the imagining 
of one object under the guise of another, is here illustrated by conceiving 
the red of the sun to be either glowing streams of molten metal, or ver- 
milion, or the reflected luster of the lotus. Other instances of utprekfi 
are found in stanzas 2, 3, 5, 14, 16, 22, 42, 49, 52, 54, 55, 63, 64, 68, 72, 74, 
79. For further explanation and discussion of all these rhetorical figures 
and devices, and also for the Ohs, or ' Benediction,' see the Introduction, 

p. 90. 

Variae Lectiones. [In the Variae Lectiones, which will be found 
grouped together after the notes of each stanza, the letter V indicates the 
readings of the Vidyodayah edition; J, the readings of the edition by 
Jivananda Vidyasagara; H, those of the edition included in Haeberlin's 


anthology; B, those of the anonymous edition (presumably, as is not an 
uncommon practise in India, edited by its publisher, BUbu Bhuvanacandra 
Basak) of Calcutta, 1874, a copy of which was kindly forwarded to 
America for my use by the India Office; and K, the variants that are 
griven in the footnotes of the Kavyam^ edition. For further data on 
these editions see the Introd., p. 104-105. Where variants from other 
sources are cited, the titles of the works in which they occur are usually 
griven in full The symbols (a), (b), (c), (d) indicate the pudas of each 
stanza, taken in order.] For the first stanza the variants are as follows : 
(a) and (b) Rasikaflvana (see note i) reads -renuraktoh, (b) JHBK 
saktdir ivOughOir, V saktair ivoghoir, Peterson and Parab (see note i) 
raktaih sikta ivdughOir, (c) Rasikaflvana (see note i) reads upatya 


bhaktiprahvaya datuxn mukulaputakutikotarakrodalinam 
laksmim akrastukama iva kamalavancxlghatanam kurvate ye 
kalyanam vah kriyasuh kisalayarucayas te kara bhaskarasya 

The* rays of (Surya), Maker of Light, cause the unfolding of the 
clusters of lotuses, as if desirous to take away the <splendor> 
and the <wealth>* 

That cling to the hollow interior of the cup-like bud [which con- 
stitutes] their house— desirous to take away this wealth, in 
order to bestow it on the [worshiper] prostrated in devo- 

[And they also] are able to destroy [any] fear that the universe 
has fallen into the maw of a darkness that has the guise of 

And they possess the beauty of young sprouts. May these rays 
of (Surya), Maker of Light, bring about your prosperity* ! 

Notes. I. This stanza is quoted in the Paddhati of ^arngadhara, 4.52 
(stanza 138 of ed. by Peterson; cf. Aufrecht, ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 70) ; in 
the Rasikaflvana, book i, stanza 31 ; and in the SubhOfitaratnabhan^igilra, 
p. 41, stanza 12; for the editions of these works, cf. stanza i, note i. a. 
The yellow rays of the sun, by their superior brightness, dim the luster 
of the yellow interior of the lotus, and rob it of its splendor (lakfml). 
The idea, however, that the interior of a lotus contains wealth, is not 
real, but rests upon a word pun, Lakftnl—* Wealth * personified— being the 
appellative of the goddess of good fortune, who appeared at the Churning 


of the Ocean, resting on the expanded petals of a lotus ; cf . Vifnu PurHna, 
1. 9 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 144-145) ; Mahdbharata, 1. 18. 34-37- But in order 
to give sense to bhaktiprahv&ya datutu, *to bestow on the [worshiper] 
prostrated in devotion/ lakftnl must here be rendered as 'wealth/ the 
picture presented being that of the sun robbing the lotus of its ' wealth/ 
in order to bestow this 'wealth/ as a reward, on some sun-worshiper. 
This imagining of the rays as robbers stealing wealth is an instance of 
the rhetorical figure known as 'Poetic Fancy' (Utprekfa) ; for a list of 
stanzas of the SUryaiataka where this figure occurs, cf. stanza i, note 6. 
3. The long a in udghafanaffi (pada b) is noticed as a grammatical pecu- 
liarity by Saranadeva, in his Durghafavrtti (1172 A.D.), in connection 
with comment on Paftini, 6. 4. g2 (cf. the edition of the Durghafavftti by 
T. Ganapati iSastri in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, p. 105, line 18, 
Trivandrum, 1909). 

V.L. (a) V 'kutikaufa-. (b) VJHB akar^tukama, Rasikaftvana (see 
stanza i, note i) reads akrffukama, (c) V kaldkal&ndhakHril'; Rasika' 
flvana reads -dhvafftsakalpah, B 'jagatsddhycuadhvafttsakalydh, 


garbhesv ambhoruhanam Sikharisu ca Sitagresu tulyam 

prarambhe vasarasya vyuparatisaxnaye caikarupis tathiiva 
nisparyayam pravrttas tribhuvanabhavanaprahgane pintu 

iismanam samtataicUivaSramajam iva bhrSam bibhrato bradh- 


The rays of Bradhna^ (Surya) fall alike on the sharp-peaked 

mountains and on the interiors of the lotuses^ ; 
And are verily also of one form [both] at the banning of the 

day, and at the time of [its] ending; 
And are diffused all at once* on the courtyard of their dwelling, 

the three worlds, 
And bring [with them] an excessive heat, produced, as it were, 

by the toil of their continuous journey.* 
May the rays of Bradhna (Surya) protect you"! 

Notes. I. The epithet Bradhna, of doubtful origin, appears to mean 
'ruddy' or 'mighty'; cf. Monier- Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 
Oxford, 1899, S.V. a. In this stanza, the rays (poda) of the sun are 
contrasted, by implication, with the feet (poda) of mortals. For example, 


the feet of mortals, by choice, are placed only on the soft places, but the 
rays of the sun fall alike on the soft lotuses and on the sharp-peaked 
summits of the mountains ; cf. the conmientary, which says : ' For the feet 
(pdda) of any other [person] step on grotmd that is covered with green 
grass plots, and not on that which is stony and thorny, but [the rays 
(pada)] of Bradhna (Surya) fall alike on the interiors of the lotuses, 
which are endowed with exceeding softness, and on the sharp-peaked 
mountains.' 3. Lit * come forth out of order,' or * come forth not alter- 
nately.' A human being, as he walks, moves his feet (pdda) alternately, 
but the rays (puda) of the sun alight all at once on a given spot On this 
the commentary says: 'For the feet of any other move (lit go forth) 
alternately in the courtjrard of his dwelling, but of this [Surya, the rays] 
verily [come forth] at the same time.' 4. The meaning is that the rays 
(pdda) of the stm, by reason of their constant exercise in moving con- 
tinuously through space, become warm, just as the feet (pdda) of a 
mortal become warm when he journeys by walking. This imagining of 
the rays in the guise of human feet is an instance of 'Poetic Fancy' 
(utprekfd) ; cf. stanza i, note 6. 5. The lingual n in prdngane (pdda c) 
is noted as a grammatical peculiarity by Saranadeva in his Durghafavrtti 
(cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 2, note 3), when commenting on Pdnini, 8.4.32 
(cf. Sastri's edition of the Durghatavrtti, p. 130, line 10). 

V.L. (b) HB cdikarupds, (c) J patantas tribhuvana-; ^ara^adeva (see 
note 5) prdngane. (d) V u^mdnatn, JHB u^mdnatn, 


prabhraSyaty uttariyatvisi tamasi samudviksya vitavrtin prag 
jantums tantun yatha yan atanu vitanute tigmarocir imaricin 
te sandribhuya sadyah kramavi&idada$asada$afivi$alam 
&iiSvat sampadayanto 'mbaram amalam alam mahgalam vo 

The^ Hot-rayed (Surya), upon seeing mortals without covering 
at dawn, when darkness, whose guise is that of an upper 
garment,* is slipping away. 

Spreads wide his rays, just like threads [spread by a weaver]. 

And these [rays], <becoming dense>, creveal at once the ever 
spotless sky> cwhich is extended by the series of its fringes 
that are the ten* quarters [of the sky] successively coming 
into view**, 

[Just as the threads], <on being close[-woven]>, cfashion at 
once an ever spotless garment> «which is extended by the 
row of fringe on its ten divisions that are duly displayed*. 


May these rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bestow upon you 
abundant prosperity ! 

Notes. I. The picture presented in this stanza is as follows: The sun 
beholds the nakedness of the world, whose garment, night, has been 
removed by his arrival, and, like a weaver, he spreads out his thread-like 
rays, and fashions the sky for its garment — a garment whose fringe is 
composed of the ten quarters of the sky, or directions of the compass. 
a. The commentary glosses by afftiukanibhe timire, * darkness like an upper 
garment' 3. The 'ten quarters [of the sky]' doubtless mean the eight 
points of the compass, together with the zenith and nadir. The Mahobha- 
rata (3. 134. 17) allows the existence of 'ten quarters' {diio daloktUfi), 
and likewise the V et&lapahcaviffiiati, i, in the prose between stanzas 25 
and 26 (cf. the edition by Heinrich Uhle, Leipzig, 1881). In SHryaiataka, 
stanzas 13 and 58, the 'quarters' are specified as being eight in number, 
but in stanzas 7, 17, 85, and 94, they are again referred to as being ten. 
4* Lit ' broad by [reason of] the row of fringe [which is] the ten quarters 
manifested in due order.' The idea to be conveyed by the phrase 'mani- 
fested in due order' is that the quarters become visible one after the 
other, as fast as the rays of the rising sun fall upon them and the earth. 

nyakkurvann o^dhiie musitaruci iucevausadhih prositabha 
bhasvadgravodgatena pratfaamam iva krtabhyudgatih pava- 

paksacchedavranasrksruta iva drsado darSayan prataradrer 
atamras tivrabhanor anabhimatanude stad gabhastyudgamo 


The ruddy rising of the rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) humbles 

the [splendor^ of the] plants, whose beauty is effaced as if 

through their grief at the Moon's* being robbed of his 

And offers at first a greeting of welcome^ <as it were>, with a fire 

<like> that which proceeds from the sun-stone," 
And causes the rocks of the Dawn Mountain* (Meru) to appear 

as if streaming with blood from the wounds [caused by] the 

cutting off of its wings.^ 
May the rising of these rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) exist* 

for removing whatever is not to your liking* ! 


Notes. X. The commentary says: 'By the word ofodhi is meant the 
splendor reposing in plants.' a. Lit ofadhUa means 'Lord of Plants,' 
an epithet applied to the Moon, because as Soma he presides over and 
feeds the plants ; cf . V. S. Apte, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Poona, 1890^ 
S.V. 3. Even before the sun rises, the night-blooming lotuses close, and 
the glory of the moon begins to fade; cf. K^lidasa's SakuntalA, 4.2-3. 
4. Lit 'makes at first a rising,' but abhyudgati is glossed by abhyudga^ 
tnana, 'rising from one's seat to do honor,' and also by vihitasvSgata, 
'making (or, offering) a greeting.' 5. The first peep or glint of the 
sun above the horizon is comparable to the tiny flash from the jewel called 
the sun-stone. This tiny flash is the sun's greeting. On the sun-stone 
(sUryakanta), see Narahari's Riijanighanfu, varga 13.205-207, as pub- 
lished (with German translation) by Richard Garbe, under the title Die 
indischen Mineralien, p. 27, 88, 89, Leipzig, 1882. Eight Sanskrit names 
of this gem are recorded by Garbe, who identifies it with the modem sun- 
stone, which is a species of feldspar (adularia). 6. On Mem, see stanza 
I, note 4. 7. The commentary says: 'Formerly indeed the mountains 
were winged ; Indra cut off these [wings] of theirs.' This familiar legend 
is recorded in the Moitrdyanl Saffihitd (ed. by L. von Schroeder, Leipzig, 
1881-1885), 1. 10. 13; cf. C. R. Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, p. 393, Boston, 
1898, for references to the myth in the later literature. The imagining 
of the streaming dawn-light to be blood is an instance of utprek^S, ' Poetic 
Fancy'; cf. stanza i, note 6. 8. For a list of the imperatives in -tUt 
which are found in the SUrya^ataka, see the Introd., p. 96. 9. The com- 
mentary says that ' what is not to your liking ' may mean either ' sin ' or 
'an enemy.' 

V.L. (c) B pakfacheda-, V pakfacchedanHsrk ; BH driado. 


tirnaghranafighripanin vranibhir apaghanair ghargharivyak- 

dirghaghratan aghaughaih punar api ghatayaty eka ullaghayan 

gharmam§os tasya vo 'ntardvigunaghanaghmanighnanirvigh- 

dattarghah siddhasatnghair vidadhatu gfarnayah fiighram 


The^ Hot-rayed (Surya) alone* makes anew and cures' those 
who, because* long rank' with multitudes of sins, 

Have shriveled noses, feet and hands,* whose limbs are ulcerous,' 
and who make gurgling indistinct noises — 


He alone makes them new, his conduct being free from restric- 
tions, and subject [only] to the abundant compassion [that 
exists] in two-fold measure in his soul. 

May the Hot-rayed (Surya's) rays, to which oblations are offered 
by hosts of Siddhas,^ quickly cause the destruction of your 

Notes. I. This stanza is quoted in Mammata's KOvyaprakiUa, 7.301, 
in the chapter dealing with ' Defects in Poetry ' ; cf . 2d ed. of Jhalakikara, 
p. 507; and cf. also tr. by G. Jha, Benares, 1898, p. 153. Under the sub- 
heading ' Exceptions to Defects in Sense/ the author says (I quote from 
Jha's translation, p. 151, 153) : * In accordance with the speciality of the 
speaker, etc, sometimes even faults become excellences, and sometimes 
they are neither. . . . Where there is no Rasa, the faults cease to be either 
faults or excellences ; e.g., Hrnaghr&nH, etc' Just what estimate the author 
of the KOvyaprakilia would place upon this stanza is not made clear to 
me by the above quotation, but it is fairly obvious, as Jha points out, that 
importance seems to be placed upon mere alliteration — the letter gh 
occurs 23 times — rather than on the kindness of the sun. But perhaps the 
alliteration of gh is due to a striving for onomatopoeia, for lepers (see 
note 6) speak with harsh, gurgling notes, and the word gha means 'a 
rattling or gurgling sound'; cf. Monier- Williams, Skt.-Engl, Did. s.v. 
This stanza is also quoted in the Subhafitaratnabh&n(fOgilra (cf. stanza 
I, note i), p. 41, stanza 16. a. On eka, 'alone,' the commentary says: 
' Rudra, and others also, assuming the incarnation of Surya, verily make 
[a man] free from disease.' 3. According to the legend, Mayura's mi- 
raculous recovery from leprosy was the happy consequence of the recita- 
tion by him of this stanza; cf. Introd., p. 24. 4. The commentary 
regards the ' multitudes of sins ' as the cause of the affliction, with leprosy, 
of hands, feet, throat, etc It explains: 'In the disappearance of nose, 
etc., and in the ulcerous condition of neck, lip, etc., he (Mayura) says, 
describing the cause: "They are long rank with multitudes of sins.'" 
5. The term aghrdta, * smelled at,' I have rendered as * rank ' ; cf . Hamlet, 
3.3.36: *0, my offence is rank, it smells to heaven.' 6. The shriveled 
limbs, the ulcers, and the raucous voice are concomitants of leprosy. 7. 
With vranibhir apaghanHir, 'ulcerous (lit. wounded) limbs,' the commen- 
tary supplies upalakfita, 'characterized [by ulcerous limbs].' Grammati- 
cally, apaghandir may be regarded as an instrumental of qualification 
without a preposition; cf. above, Introduction, p. 95; J. S. Speijer, 
Sanskrit Syntax, 67, Leyden, 1886. 8. The Siddhas were semi-divine 
beings of great purity and holiness, and possessed the eight supernatural 
powers called siddhis (cf. Wilson, tr. of Vi^nu PurHna, vol i, p. 91, 
footnote); according to MUrkandeya Purdna, 63.25 (Pargiter, p. 403), 
the chief of the Siddhas was Vasi$tha. Monier-Williams, Skt.-EngL 
Diet, S.V. siddha, states that according to Vi^ifu Purina the Siddhas, 


88,000 in number, live in the sky (Bhuvarloka) , north of the sun and 
south of the seven R$is. I have been unable to locate the passage in the 
Vifnu Pur&na, The Siddhas are mentioned again in SUryaiataka, stanzas 
20, 52, 67 and 81, and it is recorded in stanzas j6, 48, 72 and 81, that Surya 
is praised by various of the other semi-divine beings, viz., the Caranas, 
Gandharvas, Ahipatis, Yatudhanas, Sadh3ras, and Kitnnaras. Btihler also 
calls attention to the fact that in the PraJasti of Vatsabhatti* a metrical 
inscription on the temple of the Sun at Mandasor, dated 47y-474 A.D. 
(cf. CI I, vol. 3, p. 80), as well as in the SHryaiataka, it is stated that 
Surya is praised by the semi-divine beings just mentioned; cf. G. Btihler, 
Die indischen Inschriften und das Alter der indischen Kunstpoesie, in 
Sitzungsherichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der kaiserlichen 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol. 122, part 11, p. 1-97, Wien, 1890; sec 
especially p. 8-17. 

V.L. (a) J, and Jhalakikara (see note i) in a footnote, read ghrnibhir 
apaghandir. (b) Jha (see note i) reads aghoghHih punar api. (c) I 
have adopted tasya vo, the reading of VJHB; the Kavyamala text reads 
yasya vo; Jha reads -ghrndvighna-, V -nighnamivighna-; VB -vrttHir, 
(d) B siddham anghHir, J siddhasankhdir vadadhatu ; the Kavyamala text 
reads Hghram affiho-, but I have adopted ilghram angho-, which is the 
reading of VJHB. 


bibhrana vamanatvam pratfaamam atha tathaiva 'm^vah 

pram^vo vah 
krantaka§antaralas' tadanu da^ di$ah purayantas tato 'pi 
dhvantad acchidya devadvisa iva balito vi§vam a$v aSnuvanah 
krcchrany ucchrayahelopahasitaharayo harida^va harantu 

The^ rays of (Surya), Possessor of Tawny Steeds, at first are 
dwarfish,* but afterwards indeed are long ; 

They traverse the intermediate space of the sky, and then also,' 
afterwards, fill the ten directions; 

And they quickly pervade the universe, wresting it from dark- 
ness, as if <from Bali>,* the <mighty>" Foe of the (jods; 

And they mock Hari (Visnu) by reason of their contempt at the 
height [to which he attained] . 

May these rays of (Surya), Possessor of Tawny Steeds, destroy 
your* troubles I 

Notes. I. All through this stanza there is an implied comparison be- 
tween the rays of the sun and Vi$nu in the Vdmana Avatara, or 'Dwarf 


Incarnation' (cf. below, note 4). For example, the rays, on first appear- 
ing above the horizon, are short, just as Vi$nu was at first a dwarf ; later 
in the day, the rays are long-extended, just as Vi$nu later extended his 
dwarfish form into the person of a giant; the rays pervade the universe, 
and fill the ten quarters [of the sky] (cf. stanza 4, note 3), just as Vi^nu 
did with the second of his ' three steps ' ; and the rays snatch the universe 
from darkness, as Vi$nu rescued it from Bali (cf. note 4). The rays, 
however, mock Vi$nu, because they mount higher in the heavens than even 
that god went when taking his ' three steps.' a. Lit ' bear dwarfishness.' 
3. The commentary makes tato 'pi, 'then also,' connect p&das (b) and 
(c) — 'fill the ten regions, and then also quickly pervade.' 4. The story 
runs that heaven, earth and sky were once in the power of the demon 
Bali. The gods appealed to Vi$nu for aid. That deity assumed the form 
of a dwarf, and, pretending to be a Brahman, went to Bali, and asked, 
as an alms, for as much territory as he could cross over in three steps. 
This request was readily granted by Bali. Thereupon the dwarf at once 
became a giant ; his first step covered the earth ; his second, heaven ; and 
not knowing where to place the third, the god planted it on the head of 
Bali and sent him to Patala; cf. MahObhUrata, 3.272.62-69; Rdmayana, 
1. 29.4-21; Harivatfiia' (ed. by Vinayakaraya, Bombay, 1891), i. 41.79-80, 
99-103 (cf. transl. by M. N. Dutt, p. I73-I75. Calcutta, 1897) ; see also 
the illustration in Music Guimet, Annates, Biblioth^que d' Etudes, vol. 18, 
p. loi, Paris, 1905. 5. The commentary says that balitas is equivalent 
to balavatas (abl.), ' from the mighty,' and that it also denotes ' from Bali ' 
(bali with ablative sufiix -tas) ; hence the double rendering in my transla- 
tion. 6. The position of vah, * of you,' in the first puda, so far removed 
from kfcchr&ny, on which it depends, is noteworthy. 

V.L. (b) J omits dUah. (c) K devadruhah iva; V a£ruv&nah, B 
airubUnah. (d) HB^fcc Arflwy (with dental nasal) ; VJHB -helavahasita-, 


udgadhena 'runimna vidadhati bahulatn ye 'runasya 'runatvam 
murdhoddhutau khalinaksatarudhiraruco ye rathaSvananesu 
fiailanam sekharatvam firita£ikharifiikhas tanvate ye idi&uitu 
prenkhantah khe kharatnSoh khacitadinamukhas te mayukhah 
sukham vah 

The rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya), by their intense redness, pro- 
duce the deep red of Aruna/ (the Dawn), 

And have the color of the blood from the wounds [caused] by 
the bits in the mouths of the chariot-horses,* when they toss 
their heads,* 


And diffuse a halo about the mountains,^ as they cling to the 

pointed summits," 
And go dancing through the sky, purifying* the opening of the 

May these rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bestow happiness upon 


Notes. X. Aruna, charioteer of the car of Surya, is the personified 
Dawn. He is especially praised in stanzas 50-61 of the SHryaiataka, and 
is mentioned besides in many of the other stanzas. According to the 
mythology, he was the son of Kas3rapa and Vinata, and brother of Garu<}a. 
Vinata, in fulfilment of a divine promise that she should become the 
mother of twin sons, in course of time gave birth to two eggs. These 
she kept warm for 500 years; but then, when no progeny appeared, she 
grew impatient, broke the shell of one egg, and brought to light an embryo 
Aruna with the lower part of his body in an undeveloped state. From 
this latter circumstance, Aruna is called 'thighless' {AnUru), At the 
expiration of another 500 years, Garuda was hatched from the second 
tgg; cf. MahabhOrata, 1. 16. 3-25. Another legend tells how Surya, an- 
gered because he received no assistance from the gods when Rahu 
attempted to devour him, sought to burn up the worlds. In order to 
prevent such a calamity, the gods placed Aruna in the forepart of Surjra's 
car, to veil that deity's splendor and to absorb some of his heat. Aruna 
thus became Surya's charioteer ; cf . Mahdbhdrata, i. 24. 5-20. a. Stanzas 
44-49 of the Sfiryaiataka are especially devoted to the praise of Surya's 
horses, and stanzas 62-72 to that of the car. The horses were seven in 
number ; cf . stanzas 45, 57, g2 ; Rig Veda, 4. 13. 3 ; 5. 45. 9 ; MaMbhUrata, 
7.189.54; Markan<feya Purdna, 107.2 (Pargiter, p. 572); Vifnu Purdna, 
2.8 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 239). They are also said to be of a greenish or 
tawny (harit) color; cf. stanza 7; stanza 46^ note 8; CandUataka, stanza 
8, note 2 ; Rig Veda, i. 50. 8 ; 7. 60. 3. And the Vi^nu Purdna (2. 8) states 
that they are identical with the seven meters of the Veda. The car is said 
{Vi^nu Purdna, 2.8) to have been 9,000 leagues in length, with an axle 
I5i700,ooo leagues long. To the car was attached a single wheel; cf. 
SUryaiataka, stanza 59; CandUataka, stanza 99; Rig Veda, 4.28.2; 5.29. 
10; Mahdbhdrata, 7.189.54; 12. 362. i; Ratndvatl (ed. Parab and JoSi, 
Bombay, 1888), 3.5; Kdvyddaria, 2.328; the Madhuban Plate of Harfa 
(7th century A.D.), as pub. in Epigraphia Indica, vol. 7, p. 159, note 2. 
Synopses of other accounts of the car of Surya, as given in several of 
the Puranas, are found in Wilson's translation of the Vifnu Purdna, vol. 
2, p. 237-239, footnotes. 3. Lit ' in the tossing of [their] heads.' 4. 
Lit. 'diffuse the crownness of the mountains'; for a similar idea, cf. 
stanza 74, note 6. 5. Or, 'clinging to the summits of the mountains.' 
6. The commentary glosses khacita, 'purified,' by spa^tlkrta, 'made dis- 
tinct ' ; if this be adopted, we might render ' illuminating the opening of 
the day.' 


V.L. (b) B inserts 'Tctcira" between -rudhira-' and -ruco ; this of course 
would be metrically impossible, (c) K iritaHkharoHkhUh, (d) VB 


dattanandah prajanam samucitasamayakrstasrstaih pa3robhih 
purvahne vipraldrna diSi diii viraxnaty ahni saxnharabhajah 
diptamSor dirghaduhkhaprabhavabhavabhayodanvaduttara- 

gavo vah pavananam param aparimitam pritim utpadayantu 

The^ <rays> of the Hot-rayed (Surya) are bringers of joy to 
mortals, by reason of the <rain-water>* that is cdrawn up 
and poured down [by them] at suitable times», 

And <cows> are bringers of joy to mortals, by reason of their 
<milk» that is «milked, and poured out [at the sacrifice]' at 
suitable times» ; 

The <rays>, at the b^^inning of the day, are cspread out> in all 
directions, and when day is ended, are [again] «con- 
tracted** ; 

And <cows>, at the banning of the day, are <dispersed> in all 
directions,' and when day is ended, are [again] «col- 
lected** ; 

The <rays>,^ and also <cows>,' are [veritable] ships for crossing* 
the ocean — ^the ocean which is the fear of rebirth,^® the 
source of long unhappiness. 

And [both rays and cows constitute] the best of purifications. 

May the rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) produce for you un- 
bounded joy 1 

Notes. X. This stanza is quoted in the Dhvanydloka (2. 25) of Ananda- 
vardhana {floruit circa 850 A.D., according to Mabel Duff, Chronology of 
India, p. 77, Westminster, 1899, and M. Krishnamacharya, A History of 
Classical Sanskrit Literature, p. 162, Madras, 1906). The DkvanyHloka 
has been edited in the KavyamUlH Series (no. 25, Bombay, 1891) by Dur- 
gaprasad and Parab, and has been translated, with introduction and 
valuable notes, by Hermann Jacobi, in ZDMG, vol. 56 (1902), p. 392-410^ 
582-615, 760-789, and vol 57 (1903), P. 1&-60, 3"-343. The portion of 
the text referring to this stanza is found in the KavyamaUl edition, p. 
99-100, and its translation by Jacobi in ZDMG, vol 56 (1902), p. 764. 


Jacobi's translation of Anandavardhana's comment is as follows: 'In 
diesen Beispielen gelangt durch die Bedeutung der Worter ein zweiter 
Sinn zur Erkenntnis, der aber ausserhalb des Zusammenhanges steht; 
damit das, was der Satz besagt, nicht ungereimt sei» muss man zwischen 
dem Sinn, der in den Zusammenhang passt, und dem, der ausserhalb 
desselben steht, das Verhaltnis von Verglichenem und Vergleichsgegen- 
stand annehmen, infolge der Tragnveite (der Worter) ; somit ist dieser 
^lefa durch den Sinn nahegelegt und nicht lediglich auf die Worter 
gegrundet Dadurch unterscheidet sich von dem eigentlichen Ilefa das 
Gebiet des " Tones/' dessen unausgesprochener Sinn gleichsam nachklingt' 
a. The idea that the sun is a reservoir of water that is drawn up from 
the earth and then poured down in the form of rain, is also found in 
stanzas 14, 30, 73, 91 and 93; cf. also Mahabharata, 3.3.6, 49; 12.263. 11; 
Markan<feya Purana, 27.23; 104.39; 108.13 (Pargiter, p. 147, 563, 575). 
3. For the milk poured out at the sacrifice, see below, note 8. 4. Lit 
'have recourse to contraction.' 5. The meaning is that the cows are 
turned out to pasture in the morning. 6. Cows return at night to their 
stable. 7. With the sentiment expressed in this pada, cf. stanza 80, 
where the disk of Surya is called * a ship on the ocean of rebirth ' (ydna- 
patrafft bhavdbdhdu) ; and this same idea — ^that salvation or emancipation 
is attained through the sun — is found as well in stanzas 10, 11, 29, 73, 
80, 86 and 89. Buhler too has noted the existence of this idea in the 
above stanzas, and he also calls attention to Yogaydtrd of Varahamihira, 
stanza i (edited with text and (German translation by H. Kern, in Indische 
Studien, vol. 10, p. 161-212, Leipzig, 1868, and vol. 14, p. 312-358, Leipzig, 
1876), where Surya is called mok^fadvUram,* the door to emancipation' (cf. 
SUryaiataka, stanza 73, dvdraffi yan muktibhdj'afri, * the door for those who 
attain emancipation'), and to the phrase vidheyavifayOir mokf&rthibhir 
y ogibhih/ die Sinnenlust beherrschenden Busser, da sie sich nach Erlosung 
sehnen,' which occurs in stanza i of the Pra^asti of Vatsabhatti» a metrical 
inscription of 44 stanzas, found in the temple of the sun at Mandasor, and 
dated 473-474 A.D. (cf. CII, 3.81, and Biihler, Die indischen Inschriften,p. 
14-16, 91). In this connection see also SUryaiataka, stanza 29, note 4, 
and likewise the following: Mdrkandeya PurHna, 103.10 (Pargiter, p. 
558), 'ascetics . . . meditate on thee (Surya) , . . while they desire final 
emancipation from existence'; ibid, 109.66 (Pargiter, p. 582), where 
Surya is said to be ' the supreme gate to final emancipation ' ; and MahH- 
bharata, 3.3.37, where it is said: gatis tvatft mumukfatdtfi, *thou (Surya) 
art a refuge for those wishing emancipation.' 8. By way of explaining 
the part played by cows in freeing mortals from rebirth, the commentary 
notes: 'Those versed in the sacred traditions say that "people escape 
metempsychosis (satns&ra) by means of milk [used as] food [i.e. obla- 
tions] in the [sacrificial] fire of the priests (zHpra)"' 9. The com- 
mentary explains udanvaduttQra as ' rescuing from the ocean.' I have 
rendered the phrase as 'crossing the ocean.' 10. The commentary 
glosses bhava, ' worldly existence,' by saffisHra, ' metempsychosis.' I have 
rendered by 'rebirth.' Cf, Bhaktamarastotra (Kayysim^ilsL edition), stanza 


26: tubhyaffi namo jina hhavodadhUo^andya, 'honor to thee, O Jina, for 
thy drying up of the ocean of existence.' 

V.L. (a) The Dkvanyaloka (see note i) reads -akliffasr^t^ih, K -a*/f- 
ftasrffOih. (b) HB pUrvOhne (with dental nasal), (c) J 'Prabhauabhayo- 
danvad' ( omitting. 6/kiva). 


banidhadhvamsaikahetum fiirasi nativafiabaddhasamdh3ranja- 

lokanam ye prabodhatn vidadhati vipulambhojakhanda^yeva 
yusmakam te svacittapratfaimaprthutaraprartfaanakalpavrksah 
kalpantam nirvikalpam dinakarakiranah ketavah kalmasasya 

The rays of (Surya), Maker of Day, <produce> for <mortals> 

the «knowledge» that is the sole cause of the destruction of 

«mundane bondage**^ — 
For mortals, who, [with hands] <«to the head»» ««make the 

twilight anjali by reason of their addiction to humble 

obeisance»»^ — 
And, as if in [fulfilment of] the expectation of the large group 

of lotuses, <cause> the «expanding» — which is the sole cause 

of the destruction of «their condition of having buds»* 

<«at the head [of their stalks] ^^ — 
Of these ccreatures (lotuses?)* which, ««at twilight, form 

[themselves into buds resembling in shape] the anjali* by 

reason of their proclivity for bending»»." 
And these rays are wish-trees* for [granting] wishes that extend 

beyond the range of one's thought J 
May these rays of (Surya), Maker of Day, become, in no 

doubtful fashion,® destroyers* of your sin 1 

Notes. I. The commentary sasrs: 'Mundane bondage (bandha) is 
three-fold — its form is prdkfta [i.e. bondage to the eight prakftis], vOikH" 
rika [i.e. bondage to the sixteen vt^droj], and dak^nH [bondage consisting 
in fees (dakpnd) to priests]. For mortals bound by it are not released.' 
This is a doctrine of Satpkhya philosophy; cf. Max Miiller, The Six 
Systems of Indian Philosophy, p. 357, New York, 1899. a. Lit * fond- 
ness for bending.' 3. The commentary glosses bandha, in the second 
rendering, by tnukulUvasthd, 'condition of being a bud.' As the lotuses 
expand, the bud-like shape, which they exhibit when closed, of course dis- 


appears. 4. The lotuses close at sundown, and the closed bud-like 
form resembles two hands folded in the anjali; for a similar conception, 
see stanza 20, note 4. 5. The meaning appears to be that the lotus 
blooms 'bend' themselves into different shapes, changing from bud to 
blossom at sunrise, and from blossom to bud again at sunset 6. The 
kalpavfkfa, one of the five trees that stood in Indra's paradise, was fabled 
to grant one's every wish; cf. Amarakoia, 1. 1.50 (ed. by Durg§pras§d, 
Parab and ^ivadatta, in the AbhidhdnaSangraha, part i, Bombay, 1889) ; 
Mahiibhdrata, 3.281.5; KumHrasambhava, 6.6 (ed. by Vasudev Pansikar, 
Bombay, 1908); Vi^nu PurHna, 5.30 (Wilson, vol. 5, p. 95). The other 
four trees were the mand&ra, the purijdta, the safjttdna, and the harican- 
dana; cf. Amarakoia, as just cited. The parijata tree, which was a 
product of the churning of the ocean, cf . Vifnu Purana, i. 9 (Wilson, vol. 
I, p. 144), is mentioned again in SUryaiataka, stanza 42 (note 14). 7. 
Lit. 'wish-trees for [granting] wishes more widely extended than one's 
own thought'; or, if prathita is read instead of prathima (cf. V.L.), we 
may render as ' wish-trees for [granting] the rather numerous wishes dis- 
played in one's mind.' 8. Lit nirvikalpafft means ' without admitting an 
alternative ' ; it is glossed by asaffiiayatfi, * without doubt ' ; I have rendered 
as 'in no doubtful fashion.' 9. The term ketavah, which ordinarily 
means * rays ' or * flags,' is here glossed by vitUUakiih, * destroyers.' The 
lexicographers give also the meaning ' enemies ' for ketavah, 

V.L. (a) The Kavyamala text reads natirasObaddha', VJ nativa^Obad- 
dha-, HB nativa^avaddha-. (b) VJHB -ambhoja^antfOSayeva. (c) VJHB 
te yuftnakatjt ; the Kavyamala text and J read -prathitaPfthutara-, VHBK 


dhara rayo dhanayapadi sapadi karalambabhutah prapate 
tattvalokaikadipas tridaiiapatipuraprasthitau vithya eva 
nirvanodyogiyogipragamanijatanudvari vetrayamanas 
trayantam tivrabhanor divasamukhasukha raSmayah kalmasad 

The rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) are streams of wealth 
[capable of satisfying] at once the pangs of avarice,^ and 
are like the support of a hand on a precipice,* 

And are the sole lamps [by which] one may discern real truth,* 
and are verily paths on the journey to the city* of (Indra), 
Lord of the Thirty* (Gods), 

And appear as doorkeepers* at the door of (Surya), their own 
body, which is the pathway^ for yogins making efforts 
towards nirvana,^ 


And their delight is the dawn.* May these rays of the Hot-rayed 
(Surya) protect you from sin! 

Notes. I. Lit ' streams of wealth in the calamity of avarice ' ; the com- 
mentary glosses dhanHyapadi by dravydrthakayapidayam (-kaya- is doubt- 
less a typographical error for 'kama-), '[streams of wealth] in the pain 
of love of objects of wealth/ a. The commentary glosses prapste, 'on 
a precipice/ by narake durgatHu, 'in Naraka, in Hell/ 3. Lit 'sole 
lamps for the discerning of real truth/ Again, in stanza 18, the rays are 
compared to a lamp, and in stanza 23, the splendor of Surya is called 'a 
lamp-wick,' and Surya * the lamp of all the dvipas * ; cf . also Mdrkan^eya 
Purana, 107. 10 (Pargiter, p. 574), where Surya is called 'the lamp of all 
the worlds/ 4. The dty of Indra was Amaravati, as pointed out in the 
commentary, and as related in MahObhdrata, 3.42-43, where a description 
of the town and its delights is given. We are told that no one could enter 
its gates without having practised rigid austerities. 5. The epithet tri- 
daia, ' thirty,' signifying ' the gods,' is probably reminiscent of the * thrice 
eleven ' gods referred to in Rig Veda, 9. 92. 4, and probably comprising the 
twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, Indra and Prajapati; cf. 
Brhad'Aranyaka Upani^ad, 3. 9. 2. 6. The term vetrdyatnanah, * ap- 
pearing as doorkeepers,' appears to be a denominative middle participle 
derived from vetra, 'staflF'; cf. W. D. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 1059, 
c, 3d edition, Boston, 1896. The gloss of vetrdyamdnah is pratlhdrdh, 
'doorkeepers.' For similar forms, cf. sUtradhdrdyamdnah in stanza 50, 
and padmardgdyamdnah in stanza 56. 7. The commentary glosses pro' 
gama by apunardvfttih, 'a not-tuming-back-again,' and also by panthdh, 
' a path.' In explanation of the latter interpretation, it says : ' pragama is 
" path," with the idea that on it they go forward (pragacchanti) .' I have 
adopted the second definition. The ordinary lexicons interpret pragama 
as meaning ' the first advance in courtship.' 8. For the idea that eman- 
cipation, or nirvdna, may be attained through the sun, cf. stanza 9, note 7. 
9. The commentary glosses divasamukhasukhdh, 'whose delight is the 
dawn,' by divasdramhhe sukhakdrinah, ' causing happiness at dawn.' 

V.L. (a) HB rdyo 'dhandydpadi. (b) H tatvdlokdika- ; VJHB tridi- 
vapati- ; J purahprasthitdu, (c) J -yogipraiamanija', (d) K tlvrahhdsafj^ ; 
K ka^maldd vah, 


praci prag acarantyo 'naticiram acale carucudamanitvaxn 
muiicantyo rocanambhah pracuram iva di§am uccakaii car- 

catutkaifi cakranamnatn caturam avicalair locanair arcya- 

cestantam cintitanam ucitam acarantiai candarociruco vah 


The rays of the Hot-rayed (Siirya) at dawn cause (Meni), the 
EsLStem Mountain, to appear for a short time as if sur- 
mounted by a beautiful crest-jewel,^ 

And [afterwards] they pour out, as it were, a profusion of 
yellow* pigment water for anointing* the quarters* on high,' 

And arc knowingly treated with honor* by the ruddy-geese, with 
eyes fixed and [full of] longing for the blandishments^ [of 
their mates]. 

May these eastern* rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bring to pass 
whatever is agreeable to your wishes* ! 

Notes. I. Lit ' at dawn, for a not excessively long period, they go to 
the state of being a beautiful crest- jewel on the Eastern Mountain'; cf. 
Markaif4^ya Purana, 107.6 (Pargiter, p. 573), where Surya is called 'the 
crest-jewel of the Mountain of Sunrise' (udayHcalamSulimamh) , The 
'Eastern Mountain,' or 'Mountain of Sunrise,' was Mem; cf. stanza i, 
note 4. 2, The commentary notes : ' At first the rays of the Hot-rayed 
(Surya) are compared to a crest-jewel, because of their deep-red color; 
afterwards, having become reddish-yellow, [they are compared] to the 
water of yellow pigment' First comes the red of dawn, and later, when 
the sun has risen, the yellow blaze of full sunlight appears. S* The 
noun carcana, in the sense of 'anointing,' appears not to be found in the 
literature, but only in the lexicographers ; cf . Monier- Williams, SkL-Engl. 
Diet s.v. The gloss is bhU^at^a, ' adorning.' 4. In stanza 15, the quar- 
ters are said to be women ; hence the appositeness of their being adorned 
with pigment. 5. Or else, ' for the excessive anointing of the quar- 
ters ' ; the adverb uccaknih, * aloft,' is glossed by atyartham, ' excessively.' 
6. The participle arcyanUtnOh, ' treated with honor,' is glossed by sasprham 
Ikfyamdndh, * wistfully gazed upon.' 7. Lit ' treated with honor by the 
eyes, fixed and longing for endearing words, of the ruddy-geese.' The 
cakravOka, [sometimes, as here, cakranaman], or 'ruddy-goose' (anas cas- 
area), the modem Hindi ehakwd, and the 'Brahmany duck' of English 
writers, was supposed to be separated from its mate between sunset and 
sunrise. It therefore welcomed the rising sun as the harbinger of reunion. 
The commentary explains: 'For, when the Blessed (Surya), garlanded 
by rays, has risen, there is a mutual reunion of the ruddy-geese who have 
been separated. Therefore — so it is said — ^his rays are honored with rev- 
erence.' In the classical period, the eakravdka is regarded as the t3rpe of 
conjugal fidelity, and even as early as the Atharva Veda (14.2.64 of the 
two-volume translation by Whitney and Lanman, Cambridge, Mass., 1905), 
is held up as a model to the bride and groom in the marriage ceremony. 
It is mentioned in the Rig Veda (2. 39. 3) ; cf. Macdonell and Keith, 
Vedie Index of Names and Subjects, vol. i, p. 252-253, London, 1912. See 
also SUryaiataka, stanza 25, note 9. 8. The term carama means ' west- 


ern/ and so, presumably, acarama means ' eastern/ although this definition 
is not found in the ordinary lexicons. The gloss of acarama is aprHclHa, 
* recent/ 9. Note in this stanza the alliteration (anuprOsa) of the letter 
c, which occurs 26 times. 

VX. (b) J kuncantyo; J rocandnibu, VHB rocandnibu (with cerebral 
nasal). iQ)Ksuciramavicaldir, (c)'(d) V arccyamanacceftantaffi. (d) 
B can4aroclraco vah. 


ekam jyotir dr$au dve trijagati gaditany abjajasyaifi caturbhir 
bhutanatn pancamam yany alam rtusu tatha satsu nanavidhani 
yusmakam tani saptatrida&ununinutany astadigbhanji bhanor 
yanti prahne navatvatn da^a dadhatu $ivam didhitinam fiatani 

The rays of Bhanu (Surya) [constitute] the one^ light, and [are] 
the two eyes* in the three worlds, being [so] spoken of by 
the four* mouths of the Lotus-bom* (Brahma) ; 

They also [constitute] the fifth" of the elements, and are very 
various* in form in [the course of] the six seasons^ ; 

And they are praised by the seven sages® of the Thirty* (gods), 
they dwell in the eight quarters [of the sky]. 

And <are fresh> and <form an aggp-^ate of nine>*® in the ban- 
ning of the day. 

May these rays of Bhanu (Surya), ten hundred" [in number], 
promote your welfare ! 

Notes. I. As will be readily seen, the rays of Surya are in this stanza 
connected with various numbers. a. In stanza 32 Surya is called 'the 
eye of the three worlds/ and in stanza 21 his light is described as 'the 
sole eye of the three worlds'; cf. also Markan(feya PurHna, 107.5 (Pargi- 
ter, p. 573), where Surya is described as 'the eye of all the worlds'; and 
Atharva Veda, 5. 24. 9, ' lord of eyes,' and 13. i. 45, * the one eye of what 
exists.' 3. The Matsya PurHna, as recorded by Vans Kennedy {Ancient 
and Hindu Mythology, p. 317, London, 1831) and W. J. Wilkins (Hindu 
Mythology, p. 100, 2d ed., Calcutta and Simla, 1900), tells how Brahmil 
fell in love with Satarup^ and gazed ardently at her. The maiden, in 
confusion, turned away from the gaze of the god, but no matter in what 
direction she looked, she was constantly confronted by a new head of 
Brahma, produced for the purpose. Thus Brahma acquired five heads. 
Subsequently (Wilkins, op. cit., p. 101-103), Bhairava, a product of Siva's 
anger, cut off one of the heads, leaving the god with only four, the number 


with which he is commonly credited. For pictures of the four-headed 
Brahma, see Moor, Hindu Pantheon, plates i, 2 and 13. See also stanza 
40, note 9. 4. According to some accounts, Brahmil was produced from 
a lotus that sprang from Vi$nu's navel; see, for example, Mah&bhdrata, 
3. 203. 14-15 : svapatas tasya devasya padmaffi . . . ndbhyafft innihsftaffi 
divyafft tatrotpannah . . . brahmd . . . caturvedah . . . caturmukhah, 'as 
that deity (Vi$nu) lay asleep, a divine lotus . . . sprang from his navel 
From that (lotus) . . . sprang . . . Brahma . . . who is the four Vedas 
. . . and who has four faces.' Cf. also stanza 88, note 5, and stanza 93, 
note 2; and Cantfliataka, stanza 69, note 2. For a representation of 
Brahmil resting on the lotus, see Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 3 and 4. 
5. The fifth of the elements was Might' (tejas) ; the other four were 
'earth' (Prthvf), 'water* (ap), 'air* (vayu), and 'sky' (aklUa) ; cf. 
MahUhhUrata, 12.248.3; Markan4eya PurQna, 45.40-47 (Pargiter, p. 220- 
221) ; Vipnu Purana, 1.2 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 38) ; J. Dahlmann, Mahdbha^ 
ratals tudien. Band 2 {Die Sdtftkhya-Philosophie), p. 73-79, Berlin, 1902. 
The Atharva Veda (13. 4. 31-37) asserts that Surya is composed of the five 
elements. 6. The commentary explains that 'they are various in kind, 
because of their being divided by partition into hot, weak, etc' The mean- 
ing seems to be that the sun, and so the weather, on some days is hotter 
than on others. 7. The six seasons were 'the cold season' (/titVa), 
'spring' {vasanta)t 'summer' (yflffwc), 'the rainy season' {var^i), 
'autumn' (Jarad), and 'winter' (hima). For bibliographical references 
dealing with the Hindu seasons, see Konow and Lanman, Rnjagekhara's 
Karpura-manjari, p. 214, Cambridge, Mass., 1901. 8. The names of the 
seven sages are given differently by different authorities. The list given 
in MahUbhdrata, 12. 335. 29, is as follows : Marici, Atri, Aiigiras, Pulastya, 
Pulaha, Kratu and Vasiftha. Stanzas 36 and 81 also record that Surya 
was praised by the sages, or munis, as does likewise the Praiasti of Vat- 
sabhatti (cf. Buhler, Die indischen Inschriften, as cited in stanza 6, note 
8). 9. For the 'thirty gods,' cf. stanza 11, note 5. 10. The idea of 
'nine' is applied to the rays only through a word-pun, nova meaning 
both 'new' or 'fresh,' and 'nine.' zz. Sur3ra is called 'Thousand- 
rayed' in stanzas 17 (sahtisratvif) , 52 (da^alataruci) , and 100 (daJaia- 
tabhl^u) ; and his ' thousand rays ' (da^aJatJ bh/lsdm) are mentioned in 
stanza 15. 

V.L. (a) HB "Osyalcaturbhir, (c) VB a^tadigbhaji, (d) HB prdhne 
(with dental nasal) ; K dadatu iivam, 


avrttibhrantaviSvah firamam iva dadhatah ^osinah svosmaneva 
gri^zne divagnitapta. iva rasam asakrd ye dharitrya dhayanti 
te pravTfy attapa«riati^yaruja ivodvantatoya hiznartau 
mirtandasya 'ipracandaS ciram aSubhabhidc l>hifiavo vo 


In^ summer the rays of Martanda^ (Surya), having become, as it 
were, wearied' from continually wandering over the uni- 
verse,* and as if drying up with their own heat, 

Repeatedly suck up water from the earth, like [men, who drink 
water when] heated by a forest-fire ; 

But in the rainy season, as if [they had been] made sick by ex<^ 
cessive drinking," they vomit out [this] water. 

And in winter are, [in consequence], feeble. 

May these rays of Martanda (Surya) long be in existence for the 
destruction of what is inauspicious to you ! 

Notes, z. In this stanza the rays of Surya are compared, by a rather 
elaborate simile (cf. Introd., p. 94), to a human being. In summer, like 
a thirsty person, they suck up water from the earth. Having drunk too 
much, they become sick, and in the rainy season vomit out what they have 
drunk, in the form of rain (cf. stanza 9, note 2). Just as anyone feels 
weak after vomiting, so also do the rays, and that is why the sun's rays 
are weak and give but little heat in winter. Other elaborate similes in 
the SUryaJataka are found in stanzas 26, 31, 34 and 50. The imagining 
of the rays in the guise of a human being is an instance of the rhetorical 
figure ' Poetic Fancy ' (utprekfd) ; cf. stanza i, note 6. a. A fanciful 
etymology of the name ' Martan<)a ' is given in the Mdrkandeya Purina, 
105.8-20 (Pargiter, p. 564-565). The story accounting for the origin of 
the name is as follows. The Sdu^umna ray of the sun once entered the 
womb of Aditi. Aditi fasted. KaSjrapa, her husband, said to her : ' Why 
dost thou destroy the egg that Is in thy womb by fasting?' When the 
child was bom, a voice from the air was heard, saying: 'Whereas thou, 
O Muni, hast spoken of this egg as destroyed, to thee therefore, O Muni, 
this thy son shall be called Martanda [from mUritam antfatn, "destroyed 
egg"].' For a picture of the ruins of the Martan<Ja temple of the Sun 
in Kasmir, see Vincent Smith, The Early History of India, p. 372, 3d ed., 
Oxford, 1914. 3. Lit * bearing weariness, as it were.' 4. Lit * having 
the universe wandered over with repetition.' 5. Lit 'having sickness 
acquired through excess of drinking.' 

V.L. (a) V avfttibhrSntavimbHh ; JHB svo^manlUva, V svofuneva. (b) 
B dOvdgnitapta isa, (c) B ivodvdntate ya himarttHu. (d) VJHB mar" 
tan4asya pracan4lU ; V -bhide 'bhl^avo, JHB -bhide bhl^avo, 


tanvana digvadhunam samadhikamadhuralokaramyam ava- 

aru^hapraudhilefiotkalitakapilima 'lamkrtih kevalaiva 


ujjrmbhambhojanetradyutini dinamukhe kitncid udbhidya- 

imafiru^reni 'va bhasam di^tu da^Sati fiarma gharmatviso 


The thousand rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) <spread ovcr> the 
<reahn» of the quarters [of the sky], which are women^ — 3, 
reahn cbeautified by [the rays'] exceeding soft^ splendor*, 

[And are therefore] like a ««fringe of down» <spreading 
around> the €vuha> of women,' which is cbeautiiied by its 
exceeding soft luster* ; 

And <just breaking out> <at the opening of day», which has the 
splendor of the eye of an expanded lotus, 

They are verily cits sole adornment*, and <«manifest a redness,* 
since only a part of their development has been attained»». 

[Hence these rays are also] «like a fringe of beard»», which, 
<when just sprouting> «on a [youth's]' face>. 

Forms the csole adornment of it», and <«manifests a tawny 
color, since only a part of its growth has been attained»». 

May these thousand rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bestow happi- 
ness upon you ! 

Notes, z. The commentary says : ' The quarters, to be sure, are women.' 
In stanza 12, the quarters are said to be adorned with pigment, as if they 
were women. Cf . dikkHminJ, * maiden quarter,' in Kalhana's Rnjatarang%n% 
(ed. by Durgaprasada, son of Vrajalala, in 3 vols., Bombay, 1892-1896), 
3. 382. 2. Lit. madhura means ' sweet,' ' honied,' but the gloss is mfdu, 
'soft' 3. The word dig- in digvadhUndffi appears to have no parono- 
masiac rendering. 4. The dawn color is red ; but when the maturity of 
the rays is attained, and when the sun is above the horizon, the full blaze 
of its light is yellow. On the form -kapilimd, fem. from a -man stem in 
composition, cf. Whitney, Skt Grammar, 436, 437. 5. The commentary 
explains : ' it sprouts out on the face of youths.' The dina- in dinamukhe, 
and the compound ujjfmhhamhhojanetradyutini appear to have no parono- 
masiac rendering. 

V.L. (b) HB arudhaprau(fhi'. (c) J airuiretflva ; VJHB tOsdifi dUatu. 


maulindor maisa mosid dyutim iti vrsabhankena 3rah fiankineva 
pratyagrodghatitambhoruhakuharaguhasusthiteneva dhatra 


krsnena dhvantakrsnasvatanuparibhavatrasnuneva stuto 'lam 
tranaya stat taniyan api timiraripoh sa tvisam udgamo vah 

The^ rising of the rays of (Surya), Foe of Darkness, is warmly 
praised by (Siva), whose attribute is the bull, because [that 
god is], as it were,* fearful lest [Surya] should obscure the 
splendor of the moon on his head. 

And is also praised by (Brahma), the Creator, who is, as it were, 
comfortably settled in his hiding-place — ^the hollow of a 
newly-opened lotiis,' 

And also by Krsna (Visnu), who, as it were, fears the humilia- 
tion of his own body, which is black as darkness.* 

May the rising of these rays of (Surya), Foe of Darkness, even 
though their light is dim, exist for your protection' ! 

Notes, z. In this stanza, Surya is praised by Siva, Brahma and Vifnu. 
On this, the commentary notes: 'He (Mayiira) indicates the greatness of 
Ravi (Surya), through having him praised by the chief gods.' Cf. stanzas 
88, 91, 92 and 93, which compare Surya to Brahma, Vi$nu and Siva. a. 
As the commentary notes, the iva, ' as it were,' in this, and also in the two 
following pddas, indicates the presence of the rhetorical figure ' Poetic 
Fancy ' (utprek^a) ; cf. stanza i, note 6. 3. Brahma is afraid that the 
sun may cause the lotus in which he reclines (cf. stanza 13, note 4) to close 
its petals — some lotuses close in the daytime — and so imprison him; cf. 
the commentary, which attributes to Brahma the following thought : ' May 
he (Surya) not cause [for me] any uncomfortable position (duhsthitifn) 
by the contraction [of the lotus].' 4. The commentary attributes the 
following thought to Kr§na: *He (Surya) may humiliate my body, through 
mistaking it for darkness.' Since light dispels darkness, Kr$na, the 
'Black One,' is fearful lest his black body should be humiliated by the 
bright stmlight Kr$na was bom with a black body; cf. Mahdbharata, 
1. 197. 32-33, where it is stated that Kr§na was the product of one of 
Vi$nu's black hairs. 5. Lit 'may the rising of the rays, although [it 
(the rising) is] rather slender, exist, etc' The meaning appears to be that 
the light shed by the rays at dawn is slight as compared to their mid-day 

V.L. (a) VHB mHutfndor mHiva; HB mofidyutim. (b) H pratyagro 
ghvafitambhoruha', B pratyagrodhvntit^mbhoruha-, (c) H kr^ne^ (with 
two lingual nasals). 


vistirnaxn vyoma dirghah sapadi daSa difio vyastavelimbhaso 


kurvadbhir drSyamanam naganagaraganabhogaprthvim ca 

padminy ucchvasyate yair usasi jagad api dhvamsayitva 

usra visramsayantu drutam anabhimatam te sahasratvi^o vah 

The rays of the Thousand-rayed* (Surya) at once make visible 

the wide-spreading sky, the far-extending ten* quarters, and 

the oceans with their tide-tossed waters,' 
And also the broad earth with [all] the extent of its groups of 

cities and mountains^ ; 
By them, when they at dawn destroy darkness, the lotus-plant is 

<opened>, and the universe also is <revived>.^ 
May these rays of the Thousand-rayed (Surya) quickly destroy* 

what is not to your liking ! 

Notes, z. For the thousand rays of Surya, see stanza 13, note 11. a. 
For the 'ten quarters [of the sky]/ see stanza 4, note 3. 3. Lit. 'oceans, 
the waters of whose tides are tossed about,' or ' oceans, whose flood-tides 
are tossed about' 4. Lit 'making visible also the earth, [which is] 
broad by reason of the extent of its groups of cities and mountains.' The 
reading of the Kavyamala text (see V.L.) would be rendered as ' making 
(i.e. creating) the earth, [which is] broad by reason of the extent of its 
various mountains, cities and trees [thus] made visible.' I take it that 
the adjective df^yanUtndffi, 'visible,' modifies the compound naga . . . 
Pfthvlffi, and is understood with vyoma, dUo and abdhln, 5. Or else, 
'is gladdened.' 6. Lit zHsrafftsayantu means 'may they cause to fall 

V.L. (b) The Kavyamala text reads dT^yandndnaganagaranagObhoga-', 
I have adopted the reading of VJHB, dY^yamUndifi etc., as given above in 
the text; H pfthvln ca Prthlfft. (c) V ucchHsyate; HB tamUrSm (with 
palatal sibilant), (d) HB uirdvi iratnsayantu, J usrdvi sraffisayantu, V 
Mir J vihaffisayantu, K usrn visrHvayantu, 


astavyastatva^unyo nijarucir anisanafivarah kartum ifio 
vi^vam veSmeva dipah pratihatatimiratn yah prade^asthito 'pi 
dikkalapeksaya 'sau tribhuvanam atatas tigmabhanor nava- 

yatah fiatakratavyatn di§i di^tu iivam so 'rcisam udgamo vah 


The* rising of the rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya), although fixed 

in its place, is able to dispel darkness from the universe,* as 

a lamp* [dispels darkness from] a dwelling ; 
But the rising of the rays is <not subject to the dissolution of 

death>,* «its splendor is innate*, and it is cetemally im- 

Whereas a lamp is <not praiseworthy and is devoid of souh, «its 

splendor is not innate*,* and it is cperishable in a day* J 
In r^;ard to place and time,' the rising of the rays makes a fresh 

appearance* in Indra's quarter*® [at every dawn]. 
May that rising of the rays of the Hot-rayed (Surya), who 

wanders over the three worlds, bestow happiness upon you ! 

Notes, z. This stanza is quoted in the KavikantfUlbharana (4. 1-2) of 
K$emendra (fl. 1037 A.D., according to Mabel DuflF, Chronology of India, 
p. 118; or 1050 A.D., according to Krishnamacharjra, Sanskrit Literature, 
p. 43). The Kavikatj^lhahharana has been edited in the K^vyamala Series, 
by Durgaprasad and Parab (see part 4, p. 133, Bombay, 1887, for this 
stanza, and compare article, K^emendra's KavikanffMharana, containing 
analysis and comments, by J. Schonberg, in Sitzungsherichte der PhilosO' 
phisch'Historischen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
vol. 106, p. 477-504, Wien, 1884). The subject of chapter 4, where this 
stanza of the SUryaJataka is quoted, is 'Distinction between Faults and 
Points of Excellence' (atha gunado^avibh/lgah). On Mayura's stanza, 
K$emendra says: 'The three good qualities in poetry are clearness in 
words, sense and sentiment; the faults of poetry are obscurity in words, 
sense and sentiment. Poetry is possessed of good qualities, or lacks them ; 
is either faulty or lacks faults; or is both faulty and possessed of good 
qualities. ... An example of poetry that is both faulty and possessed of 
good qualities is the stanza of Mayiirabhatta, beginning astavyasta-' a. 
Lit 'is able to make the universe to have its darkness destroyed.' 3. 
For other instances in the SUryaiataka where the rays are compared to a 
lamp, see stanza 11, note 3. 4. Lit 'is free from the condition of being 
tossed about by death'; i.e. is not subject to rebirth. 5. Resolve this 
pada as asta-vyastatva-iUnyo nija-rucir ani^a-anaJvarah. 6. The com- 
mentary explains that a lamp's splendor is not innate, ' because of its (the 
lamp's) having to be supplied with oil, etc' 7« For the second render- 
ing, resolve as a-stavyas tatva-iilnyo 'nija-rucir ani^d^naivarah. The term 
ani^d, in the sense of ' day,' is not found in the lexicons, but the gloss is 
divasah, 'day,' and niifl, meaning 'night,' is found. The phrase 'perish- 
able in a day' is seemingly synonymous with 'transitory.' 8. Lit 'in 
the matter of quarter and time, that rising of the rays has gone to a new 
name in Indra's quarter.' The commentary notes: 'In the matter of 


quarter and time, "quarter" [means] east, etc, [and] "time" [means] 
dawn, etc; it (the rising of the rays) is called "new," with the idea that 
it is seen in the eastern quarter at dawn. But in reality this (Surya), who 
is deprived of his name (? vyapadeiaJQnyo), is not new, but old.' For a 
similar conception of the relation of Surya to time and place, see stanza 
97, note i. 9. Lit navdkhyam ydtah means 'gone to a new name.' I 
have rendered as 'makes a fresh appearance.' 10. Indra's quarter was 
the east. The lokapslas, or guardians of the eight points of the compass, 
beginning with the east, and taken in order, were as follows : Indra, Vahni 
(Agni), Pitfpati (Yama), Nairfta (the Rak$asas), Varuna, the Marut 
(Vayu), Kubera, and Ila (§iva). This is the list as given in Amarakoia 
(1.3.75), and also found in SHryaiataka, stanza 58. In Manu (5.96), the 
eight are enumerated as Soma, Agni, Arka (Surya), Anila (Vayu), Indra, 
Vittapati (Kubera), Appati (Varuna), and Yama. See also Rdmdyana 
(2. 16. 24), where the guardians of the north, east, south and west are said 
to be Kubera, Indra, Yama and Varuna. The eight elephants belonging 
to the eight regents are enumerated by Amarakoia (1.3.76), in the fol- 
lowing iloka : — 

airdvatah punifariko v&manah kumudo 'njanah 
pufpadantah sSrvabhdumah supratlkai ca diggajdh 

V.L. (a) The KavikanihObharana (see note i) reads -anUdnaivaraifi't 
B kartum iio, (b) VJHB pradeie sthito. (c) The KavikanthUbharana 
(see note i) reads dikySlapekf ayOsdu tribhuvanam; H tribhuvanam (with 
cerebral nasal), (d) The Kavikanfhabharana (see note i) reads Hvam 
ioci^Hm udgamo. 


ma gan mlanim mrnalimrdur iti dayayeva 'pravisto liilokam 
lokalokasya parfivatn pratapati na param yas tadakhyartham 

urdhvatn brahmandakhandasphutanabhayaparityalctadairghyo 

svecchavasyavalca^avadhir avatu sa vas tapano rociroghah 

The flood of rays of the Heater^ (Surya) does not enter (Patala), 
the Snake- world, as if through pity lest [that world], tender 
as a lotus stalk, should wither up,^ 

Nor does it illumine the farther side of Mt. Lokaloka^ (Visible- 
invisible), for the sake of the name (Invisible) of that 
[farther side],* 

And afterwards, [when] on the boundary of the sky,^ it aban- 
dons longness,' because of its fear of breaking open a piece 
of the egg of Brahma.^ 

THE sGryaSataka OF mayOra 133 

May the Heater's (Surya's) flood of rays, the limit of [whose] 
sphere [of action]® is subject [only] to its own will,* protect 
you^® ! 

Notes. I. Or, the ' Illuminator.' a. Lit ' as if through pity, with the 
thought: "May [that world], tender as a lotus stalk, not go to wither- 
ing." ' 3. A mythical circular mountain-range, separating the earth from 
void space, was called Lokaloka, 'Visible-invisible.' It was so high that 
the light of neither sun, moon nor stars could reach its farther side. 
Hence the farther side was always wrapped in inky blackness ; cf. Bh&ga- 
vata Purdna, 5.20.34-37 (ed. Bombay, 1898; cf. tr. by M. N. Dutt, vol. i, 
book 5, p. 74-75, Calcutta, 1895) ; and Vi^nu Purana, 2.4 (Wilson, vol. 2, 
p. 204-205). 4* Lit 'it does not illumine the farther side of Lokaloka, 
just because of its name.' If Surya should shine upon the invisible 
(aloka) side, that side would become visible (loka). 5. That is, at 
sunset, when the sun is on the western horizon. The horizon, as being 
the place where sky meets earth, may be called ' the boundary of the sky.' 
6. The rays become shorter as Surya nears his setting ; cf . stanza 7, where 
it is said that ' the rays at first [i.e. at dawn] bear dwarfishness, but after- 
wards indeed are long'; and stanza 98, which describes the 'new' rays 
as 'not having attained their full length.' 7. The fanciful picture pre- 
sented seems to be that Surya shortens his rays, fearing lest their heat 
should cause the mundane egg to break — ^heat hatches eggs — and so destroy 
the universe which rests within the egg. But it is not clear to me why 
the egg should be more endangered when Siirya nears the horizon than 
at any other time of day. The story of the birth of the universe from 
the egg of Brahma is told in all the Puranas; cf. for example, Vifnu 
Purana, 1.2 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 39-40), or Markan(feya Purana, 45.6^70 
(Pargiter, p. 222-223). '^^^ 'golden egg' is also mentioned in Manu, 1.9. 
8. Lit avakaiavadhir means ' limit of [whose] place.' I have rendered as 
'limit of [whose] sphere [of action].' 9. That Surya is responsible for 
his acts to no one but himself is an idea expressed also in stanza 6. lo. 
According to F. W. Thomas (ed. of the Kai/indravacanasamuccaya, introd., 
p. 68» Calcutta, 1912), this stanza of the SUryaiataka is cited by Ujjvala- 
datta, on UnOdisUtra (Aufrecht's edition, p. 19), 4.51. 

V.L. (a) V hi loke, B 'hiloka. 


afiyamah kala eko na bhavati bhuvananto 'pi vite 'ndhakare 
8ad3rah praleyapado na vilayam acalas candrama apy upaiti 
bandhah siddhaiijalinam na hi kumudavanasya 'pi yatroj jihane 
tat pratah preksaniyam di^tu dinapater dhama kamadhikam 

134 THE sijryaSataka of bcayura 

When the splendor* of (Surya), Lord of Day, rises, and when 

darkness disappears, not only does time become <free from 

night >,* but also the limits of the earth become < freed from 

gloom> ; 
Not only does the <snow on the foothills> of the mountain at 

once <begin to melt>, but also the moon <with its snowy rays> 

<begins to grow dim>' ; 
Not only is there <performance> of the anjali* by Siddhas,' but 

also a <closing up> of the lotus-cluster .• 
May that splendor, lovely at dawn, of (Surya), Lord of Day, 

bestow on you more than your desire ! 

Notes. X. In the expression yatrojjihdne (in puda c), yatra appears to 
be the equivalent of yasmin dhdmni, correlative to tat . , , dkatna (in pdda 
d). This, at any rate, is the explanation of the commentary. For a simi- 
lar use of yatra in a locative absolute construction, cf. stanzas 76, 83, 85, 
88, 95, and see Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 1099, b. 2. Time is regarded as 
being divided into day-time and night-time; consequently, when time is 
* free from night,' it must be day-time. 3. Lit * not only does the moun- 
tain, < whose foothills are snowy >, at once go to € melting >, but also the 
moon, < whose rays are snowy >, goes to € disappearance >.' 4. The 
position of the hands, when folded in making the aiijali, resembles the 
bud-like shape of a closed lotus; cf. stanza 10, note 4. 5. The com- 
mentary notes: *For Siddhas, when approaching the Blessed (Sursra), 
make the anjali* On the Siddhas, cf. stanza 6, note 8. 6. The white 
lotus is night-blooming, and closes at sunrise. The commentary says: 
' The white lotuses (.kumudHni) also close at this time.' 

V.L. (a) VHB bhuvandnte; K vitandhakdrah. (b) VJ candramiU ca 
'bhyupaiti, HE candrasOS ca 'bhyupaiti, (c) V naddhah, H vaddhah, B 
baddhah siddhdfftjalindffi, (d) B kHmUdikattt, 


yat kantim pankajanam na harati kurute pratsmta "dhikya- 

no dhatte tarakabhaxn tirajrati nitaram a$u yan nityam eva 
kartum na 'lam nimesatn divasam api param jrat tad ekam 

caksuh samanjracaksurvisadr&mi aghabhid bhasvatastan maho 



The light of (Surya),'the Shining One, [is] the sole eye^ of the 

three worlds, [but is] different from an ordinary eye; 
For it does not take away, but, on the contrary, makes more 

lovely the beauty of the lotuses,^ 
And it does not support, but indeed always very quickly obscures 

the splendor of the stars,' 
And it is unable to <make> a wink, although it can <create> the 

noble day.* 
May that light of (Surya), the Shining One, be' the destroyer 

of your sin* ! 

Note. z. For other instances where Surya is called an ' eye/ see stanza 
13, note 2. a. An ordinary eye does appropriate the beauty of a lotus, 
as evidenced by the common Sanskrit epithet, 'lotus eye/ The com- 
mentary, however, says: 'But the other (i.e. the ordinary) eye takes away 
the beauty of the lotuses, with the idea that it is indeed an imitation of 
them.' Perhaps this means that the pupil of the eye is like the heart of 
a lotus, while the lashes are like the petals. Besides, an eye opens and 
shuts, like a lotus. 3. In this p&da, the words dhatte tdrakdbhafft are 
capable of a double rendering, on which is based the distinction between 
Surjra, as the eye of the three worlds, and an ordinary eye ; thus : * Surya 
does not < support the splendor of the stars >, but an ordinary eye does 
< maintain the brightness of its pupil >.' 4. An ordinary eye cannot 
refrain from winking, but is unable, like Surjra, to make day and night 
Bemheimer (see Introd., p. 105) sees a slightly different meaning. He 
renders: 'esso non pu6 battere nel tempo di tm istante (come quello dei 
mortali) ma nel tempo di un giomo'; and in a footnote he explains: 
' L'occhio dei mortali batte cioe si apre e si chiude in un istante ; quello 
del sole si apre al mattino e si chiude alia sera, batte dunque in un giomo.' 
That is, it takes the sun a whole day to make one wink. 5. On the 
euphonic combination bhdsvatastdn (for bhasvatah stUn), cf. Whitney, 
Skt Grammar, 173, a. 6. The distinction drawn in this stanza between 
Surya and an ordinary eye is an instance of the rhetorical figure vyatireka ; 
cf. stanza 23, note i, where this figure is discussed at length. 

V.L. (b) K nOdhatte tarakabhatfi ; V niratdm aiu, (c) V trilokydm, 


k^tnam ksepi3rah k8apambhah$i$iratarajala8par£atar8ad rteva 
drag afia netum afiadviradakarasarahpuskaram 'va bodham 
pratah prollanghya visnoh padam api ghrnayeva 'tlvegad 


uddamatn dyotamana dahatu dinapater dumimittam dyutir 

The splendor of (Surya), Lord of Day, goes quickly to the earth, 
as if because of its desire to sip the cool water of the dew,^ 

[And also] goes^ swiftly to [all] the quarters [of the sky], as if 
to cause to open^ the <tips>, < [shaped like] pond lotuses>,* 
of the trunks of the elephant [-guardians] of the quarters,* 

And at dawn, impetuously transcending even the step of Visnu,* 
as if in contempt,^ it goes® to more remote* [places]. 

May this fiercely-shining splendor of (Surya), Lord of Day, 
bum up whatever is of ill omen to you ! 

Notes, z. Lit ' because of its desire for touching the rather cool water 
of the night- water/ This fanciful idea that the hot rays come to earth, 
in order to satisfy their thirst by drinking the cool dew, is an instance of 
utprekfd; cf. stanza i, note 6. a. The commentary says that r^d, 'is 
gone/ which occurs in piUia (a), is to be supplied both here and in piUla 
(c). 3. Lit. 'as if to lead to expanding/ 4. The tip of an elephant's 
trunk opens out to seize objects of food, etc ; the basis of the comparison 
between the tips and lotuses rests only on this similarity — that they both 
open. The imagining of the tips in the guise of lotus-blossoms is an 
instance of utprek^H; cf. note i. 5. On the regents of the eight direc- 
tions, and their elephants, cf . stanza 18, note 10. 6. The ' step of Vi$nu ' 
is poetical for * sky ' ; cf . stanza 7, note 4. 7. The contempt is for Vi§nu, 
because the rays go higher in the sky than that deity went; cf. stanza 7. 
8. The commentary supplies fta, 'is gone'; cf. note 2. 9. The locative 
dcn/iyasi denotes here, according to the commentary (cf. note 8), the limit 
of motion after rtd ; cf . Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 304, a. 

V.L. (a) VHBK 'iUirataratalaspar^a-, J 'UHrataralasparia-, (b) V prSg 
did; J -pufkarHnUm vihodham, (c) J -vegdd gariyasy. (d) V uddmadyo' 
tamUna, JHB uddSmadyotamSnU. 


no kalpapayavayor adayarayadalatksmadharasya 'pi gamya 
gadhodgirnojjvalaSrir ahani na rahita no tamahkajjalena 
praptotpattih patangan na punar upagata mosam usnatviso vo 
vartih saiva 'nyarupa sukhayatu nikhiladvipadipasya diptih 

The^ splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya), the lamp^ of all the 
dvlpas,^ is verily a wick, [but] of a nature different* [from 
that of an ordinary wick] ; 


For it is not assailable* even by the wind [that accompanies] the 
destruction of a kalpa^ — a wind that rends the mountains 
with merciless f orce^ ; 

And in the daytime it pours out a dense shining splendor,® and is 
free from® the ink of darkness^® ; 

And it derives its origin <from Patariga (Surya)>, and, more- 
over, is not subject to being extinguished <by a moth>.^^ 

May that splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bring you joy! 

Notes, z. This stanza is quoted in Anandavardhana's DhvanyQloka 
(2.23-24; p. 92 of the Kavyamala text as cited in stanza 9, note i) as 
an example of the rhetorical figure vyatireka, * distinction.' The author's 
remarks on this stanza of Mayura are as follows : atra hi sUmyaprapanca- 
pratipadanafft vinOiva vyatireko darHtah, which Jacobi (ZDMG, 56.614) 
renders as: * Hier ist n'imlich der vyatireka (die hoherc Vortrefflichkeit der 
Sonne im Vergleich mit einer Lampe) gezeigt, ohne dass die Ahnlichkeit 
ausdriicklich dargestellt ist' Jacobi (he. eit., p. 613, footnote 3) defines 
vyatireka as follows : ' Vyatireka heisst ein Vergleich, der darauf hinaus- 
lauft, das Subjekt als hoher oder als geringer denn das Objekt des Ver- 
gleiches hinzustellen ; der Vergleich fallt also zu Gunsten des Subjekts 
Oder Objekts aus.' Another definition is that of 'Dzn^mm^tKOvyOdaria 
(2. 180) : iahdop&tte pratlte vd sddrlye vastunor dvayoh \ tatra yad hheda- 
kathanatfi vyatirekah sa kathyate. This Bohtlingk, in his edition of the 
KavyHdaria, renders as: *Wenn bei der ausgesprochenen oder bekannten 
Gleichheit zweier Dinge ihr Unterschied angegeben wird, so nennt man 
dieses Vjatireka; d.i. Gegeniiberstellung mit Angabe des Unterschiedes.' 
It may be noted in passing that stanza 21, which compares Surya to an 
eye, is very similar to this stanza in its general arrangement, and presents 
another instance of vyatireka. a. For a list of the stanzas where Surya 
is compared to a lamp, see stanza 11, note 3. 3. The dvipas were geo- 
graphical divisions of the terrestrial earth. According to the Puranas, 
they were seven in number, and were grouped around Mt. Mcru (see 
stanza i, note 4) like the petals of a lotus, each being separated from the 
other by a distinct ocean. The central one was Jambudvipa, in which was 
situated Bharatavar^a, or India; cf. Vi^nu Purdna, 2.2 (Wilson, vol. 2, 
p. 109-110, and note) ; see also stanza 97, note 2. 4. Cf. stanza 21, 
where the light of Surya is said to be * an eye different from an ordinary 
eye.' 5. With kalpHpHyavHyor . . . gamyd, * assailable by the wind, etc.,' 
cf. CandUataka, stanza 42, where again is found a genitive of the agent 
with gamy a, — gamy am agner, * assailable by Agni ' ; so also in BhaktOmara- 
stotra, stanza 16, gamyo na , , . marutdtft, *not assailable by the winds.' 
On this genitive, see Speijer, Sanskrit Syntax, 114. 6. A kalpa was a 
period of 4,294,080,000 years, and constituted one day of Brahma. At the 
end of every kalpa, the three worlds were all consumed with fire and then 
immersed in ocean. Chaos then existed for a night of Brahmsl, which 


was as long as one of his days. Then Brahma awoke from his sleep— he 
reposed as Narayana (Vi$nu) on the serpent Se$a (stanza 35, note 8) at 
the bottom of the ocean — and began anew the work of creation ; cf . Viptu 
Purdna, 1.2-3 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 41-54, and notes). 7. Lit. 'having 
mountains bursting through its merciless force'; the commentary glosses 
dalat by Hryatndna, 'crushed.' The sense of this pdda seems to be that 
the flame of Surya cannot be blown out even by the strongest of winds, 
but any puff of air will put out a flaming wick. With the sentiment ex- 
pressed here, compare stanza 16 of the Bhaktdmarastotra (cf. Introd., p. 
24) : gamyo na jUtu marutatft calitHcalUnaffi dipo 'paras tvatn asi natha 
jagatprakalah, *Thou, O Lord Jina, art not ever assailable by the winds 
that move the mountains; thou art a second lamp (Surya) illuminating the 
world.' 8. In the full glare of sunlight the light of an ordinary lamp is 
scarcely discernible. 9. The double negative of course makes an affirma- 
tive ; I have rendered na rahitd no, * not undeprived,' as * free from.' For 
other instances of the use of the double negative in the SUryaJataka, see 
stanzas 38 (note 3), 59 (note 6), and 87 (note 3). xo. Surya is free 
from the ink {kajjala) of darkness, but a lamp-wick is not free from 
lamp-black (kajjala), zz. A lamp-wick is not descended from Patanga 
(Surya), and is subject to extinction by a moth. The meaning appears to 
be that a moth, fluttering at a light, may extinguish it; cf. MrcchakatikH, 
3. 18 + (in the prose), where the burglar Sarvilaka, embarrassed in his 
movements by a lighted candle, releases a moth, which he carries for the 
very purpose, to flutter against and extinguish the flame. See the edition 
of the Mfcchakafika by Parab, Bombay, 1900, and the translation in the 
Harvard Oriental Series by A. W. Ryder, Cambridge, Mass., 1905. 

V.L. (a) HB -dalakfmUdharasyil; K and the DhvanyHloka (see note 
i) read 'pi iamyd, (b) B rahita ne tamaJk-, (c) V u^natvifo vd, 


paryaptam nodajradau dinagamasamayopaplave 'py unnataiva 
atyantam ya 'nabhijiia ksanam api tamasa sakam ekatra 

bradhnasyeddha rucir vo rucir iva rucitasya "ptaye vastuno 


The bright splendor of Bradhna^ (Surya) is like desire: 

For the very nature [of the splendor] is praiseworthy for its good 

qualities, and' is intent on filling [with light] all <the quarters 

[of the sky]>, 
Whereas the very nature [of desire] is praiseworthy for its good 

qualities, and is inclined to fulfil all <wishes> ; 


And [the splendor] verily reaches its culmination* not at the 
. banning of its <rising>, but at the time of its cdisappear- 
ance» at the close of the day, 

Whereas [desire] verily reaches its culmination not in the ban- 
ning of its <prosperity>, but in its cadversity* ; 

[The splendor] <cannot remain, even for a moment, in the same 
place with darkness>. 

Whereas [desire] <cannot endure, even for a moment, to be with- 
out the object of its wish>.* 

May [this]" bright splendor of Bradhna (Surya) bring about for 
you the fulfilment of your desires* ! 

Notes, z. For the meaning of 'Bradhna,' cf. stanza 3, note i. a. 
The commentary, which I have followed, takes the long compound in the 
first pada to be a dvandva, 3. Lit. paryHptaffi . . . unnata means 'is 
fully upraised'; I have rendered as 'reaches its culmination.' 4. Lit 
' is not able to be, even for a moment, in one place with lack.' 5. There 
is no demonstrative in this troublesome stanza, to act as correlative to 
the yd; cf. Can(fUataka, stanza 9 (note 4), for a similar omission; and see 
stanzas 33 and 98, where there is no relative to match the demonstrative. 
6. Lit ' may it be for the acquisition of your desired object' 

VX. (b) J paryHptd; HB unnateva, (d) K rucirasyd "ptaye, B raci- 
tasyH ''ptaye, 


bibhranah Saktim afiu pra&amitabalavattarakaurjityagurvim 
kurvano lilaya 'dhah Sikhinam api lasaccandrakantavabhasam 
idadhyad andhakare ratim ati£ayinim avahan viksananam 
bale laksmim aparam apara iva guho liarpater atapo vah 

The <early> light of (Surya), Lord of Day, is like a second 

<youthful> Guha (Karttikeya)^: 
For it quickly brings a <power>* cthat is mighty and* that utterly 

extinguishes the splendor of the stars>. 
Whereas Guha bears a <spear>* cthat is heavy and that quickly 

overcomes the power of the mighty Taraka»' ; 
The light of the Lord of Day also <scomfully> ceclipses [the 

brilliance of] fire>* and «the glittering splendor of the moon- 



Whereas Guha <in sport> crides on a peacock*® cwhich is re- 
splendent with the flashing tips of the eyes in its tail» ; 

The light of the Lord of Day brings superabundant joy to the 
eyes* <in darkness>, 

Whereas Guha brings superabundant joy to the eyes <of (Siva),^® 
Foe of Andhaka>.^* 

May the light of (Surya), Lord of Day, brings* you unbounded 
prosperity ! 

Notes. I. For the birth and origin of Karttikeya, his appointment to 
be commander of the army of the gods, and his slaying of Mahi$a and 
other demons, see below, in the introd. to the Can4^iataka, p. 248^ 272; 
MahabhSrata, 3. 223-232 ; RamSyana, i. 37. 1-33 ; on his parentage, see 
Canifiiataka, stanza 5, note i, and stanza 2B, note 2. See also the section 
Skanda or Kdrttikeya, in the latest addition to Biihler's Grundriss, the 
volume by R. G. Bhandarkar, entitled VHifnavism, Snivism, p. 1 50-1 51, 
Strassburg, 1913. He was called Guha, ' secret-bom,' because bom in the 
solitude of a forest ; cf . Mahabharata, 13. 86. 14. a. The commentary 
explains that this ' mighty power ' was ' the ability to illumine the tmiverse/ 
3. The commentary explains as ' a power, mighty because of extinguishing, 
etc' 4* Karttikeya's peculiar weapon was the iakti, 'spear,* cf. Ma- 
habharata, 3. 231. 95-99. 5. For the slaying of Taraka by Karttikeya, cf. 
Mahabharata, 13. 86. 29. 6. Lit. ' making the fire subsidiary,' or ' making 
the fire down.' 7. Or, as noted in the commentary, we may render: 
'the lovely splendor of the shining moon'; or, 'the lovely splendor of 
glittering gold.' On the moon-stone, see stanza 37, note 5. 8. Lit 
'makes a peacock [to be] beneath him.' As is well known, the peacock 
was the vehicle of Karttikeya; cf. W. Crooke, The Popular Religion and 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, voL 2, p. 156 (Westminster, 1896), where 
are listed the vehicles of all the Hindu deities — a harftsa for Brahma, 
Gambia for Vi§nu, the bull Nandi for Siva, a buffalo for Yama, a peacock 
for Karttikeya, a rat for Ganesa, etc Crooke (loc. cit.) suggests that in 
the vdhanas, or 'vehicles,' there may be indications of totemism, or that 
the vehicles may represent tribal deities imported into Hinduism. 9. 
The commentary explains that the 'eyes' here mentioned refer to the 
eyes of the ruddy-goose; cf. stanza 12, where the eyes of the ruddy-geese 
are said to be '[full of] longing for blandishments.' 10. Siva was the re- 
puted father of Karttikeya ;«cf. CandUataka, stanza 5, note i, and stanza 
28, note 2. z I. It is stated several times in the Mahabharata-~e.g, 7. 155. 
44 — that Siva killed the demon Andhaka, and the preface (p. 79 and 82) 
of Wilson's translation of the Vi^nu Purana records that descriptions of 
the fight between Siva and this demon are given in the KUmta and the 
Matsya Purdnas. la. Saranadeva's Durghatavftti (cf . SUrya^ataka, stanza 
2, note 3), in connection with comment on Pdnini, i. 3. 12 and 6. 1. 10 (see 
S§stri's edition of the Durghalavftti, p. 13, line 22, and p. 93, line 20), notes 


as grammatical peculiarities that ddadhydt is in the active voice, and that 
it is an optative (instead of the more usual precative or imperative) to 
express benediction. 

V.L. (a) HB -gurvi. (b) -kantavahhasam, (c) K Odeydt andhakdre, 
Saranadeva (see note 12) adheydt; K Ovahan Ik^anandm, 

26 (27 in J) 

jyotsnamiSakarsapandudyuti timiraxnasifiesakalmasam isaj 
jrmbhodbhutena piiigam sarasijarajasa samdhyaya Sonasocih 
pratah prarambhakale sakalam iva jagaccitram unmilayanti 
kantis tiksnatviso Icsnam mudam upanayatat tulikeva 'tulam 

At* the time when dawn begins,* the splendor of the Hot-rayed 

(Surya), like a painter's brush,* 
Portrays, as it were, the whole universe <in various colors>, 

[like] <a picture> ; 
For it [the universe] is of a white luster through its having ap- 
propriated* particles of moonlight; it is mottled with black 
owing to the remnant" of the ink of darkness ; 
Is yellow because of the lotus-pollen that is [just] becoming 
visible through the slight expansion* [of the petals] ; and 
possesses a red glow by reason of the [dawn] -twilight- 
May the splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bring unbounded 
joy to your eyes ! 

Notes, z. In J this stanza is no. 27, no. 29 of the Kavyamala text ap- 
pearing as no. 26 in J. The resultant order in J is therefore 25, 29, 26, 27, 
28, 30, 31, etc For other changes in the order of the stanzas cf. Introd., 
p. 83. I have adopted throughout the order of stanzas that is given in 
the Kavyamala edition. a. Lit. ' at dawn, at the time of the beginning.' 
3. There is presented here the simile of a painting. The universe is the 
canvas, and Sur3ra's splendor is the paint-brush. The colors are the white 
of fading moonlight, the black, or gray, of departing night, the yellow of 
the lotus-pollen, and the red of dawn. For a list of the more noteworthy 
similes in the SUryaiataka, see stanza 14, note i. 4. Or, if instead of 
'dkarfapdn4u- we read 'akftsnapdn4u-, which the commentary and J offer 
as a variant, we should render ' is of a whitish color (lit a color not all 
white), etc.* This, the commentary informs us, is due to *the littleness 
(i.e. the dimness) of the moonlight' 5. The gray vestiges of departing 
night are meant 6. Lit 'lotus-pollen proceeding from the slight ex- 


V.L. (a) The commentary offers as a variant jyotsnUftiiUkftsna-, J 
jyotsnUffisakftsna-, HB jyotsdftt^dkftsa-, V jyotsnUffiidkft sapaiy^U' ; VJHB 
h'mtVaifUMf- ; B -kalmOfam l^acch-, (c) I have adopted sakalam iva, which 
is the reading of VJHB ; the KHvyamala text reads sakalam apt. (d) H 
nk^natvi^okinOfn ; VHB upanayatdnnUlikevdtaliltn, J upanayatOntUlikevil' 
tuldfn; B va (for vah). 

27 (28 in J) 

a3ranti kim sumeroh saranir arunita padmaragaih paragiir 
ahosvit svasya maharajanaviracita vaijayantif rathasya 
maiijifthi prasthavahavalividhutaSiraScamaralT nu lokair 
a£ank]ra 'lokitaivatn savitur aghanude stat prabhataprabha vah 

The dawn-splendor of Savitar (Surya) is gazed on by mortals 

who are doubtful 
Whether it is a pathway, reddened with ruby dust, coming from 

[Mount] Sumeru/ 
Or perhaps the banner of [Surya's] own chariot,* made of [cloth] 

dyed in saffron, 
Or the madder-red row of streamers on the tossing heads of his 

line of noble steeds.* 
May the dawn-splendor of Savitar (Surya) remove* your sin'l 

Notes. I. For a description of Mem, or Sumeru, which was composed 
of gold, and was the source of all precious stones, see stanza i, note 4. 
a. For Surya's chariot, see stanza 8, note 2. 3. For Surya's seven horses, 
see stanza 8, note 2. 4. Lit 'may the dawn-splendor of Savitar exist 
for the removing of your sin.' 5. For the position of this stanza in 
J^s text, see stanza 26, note i. 

V.L. (a) V saranim, B saranir u^itd; V padmarHgHif}. (b) VHB 
tnHharajaniviracitd, (c) VJB -vidhfta^ra^- ; K 'cUmardttva; B lokHur, 
(d) J syat (for stat) ; VJHB prabhate prabha vah. 

28 (29 in J) 

dhvantadhvamsam vidhatte na tapati ruciman na 'tirupam 

nyaktvam nitva 'pi naktam na vitaratitaram tavad ahnas tvisam 

sa pratar ma viramsid asakalapatima pura3ran jmsmadafiam 
afiakaSavakaSavataranatarunaprakramo 'rkapraka&ih 


At dawn the splendor of Arka (Surya) does not possess its full 

But [gains] fresh strength in the crossing of the intermediate 

space between the sky and the directions; 
[At dawn] <it brings about the destruction of darkness>, but 

cdoes not shine intensely*,* nor cdoes it display its complete 

And <it brings about the destruction of error >,* but cdoes not 

willingly* cause pain>, nor cdoes it display excessive con- 

ceit** ; 
And, although it has humiliated night, it does not yet pour out 

in full measure" the light of day.* 
May that splendor of Arka (Surya) not cease to fulfil your ex- 
pectation^ ! 

Notes, z. The commentary glosses rucimat, which is not found in the 
lexicons, but appears to be an adverb, by diptitnat, * brilliant,' and kalhoram, 
'piercingly.' For the suffix -mat used to form adverbs — z rare forma- 
tion — see Whitney, Skt Grammar, 1235, e. a. Error, or ignorance, 
which is synonymous with error in Hindu philosophy, is spiritual darkness. 
3. The commentary here glosses rucimat by svecchayH, ' in accordance with 
its own will,' apparently taking ruci in the sense of 'desire.' 4. The 
commentary here glosses nd 'tirupafjt vyanakH by Htmdnafti na ildghate, 
'does not praise itself; I have rendered as 'does not display excessive 
conceit' 5. I have rendered the suffix -tardtfi as 'in full measure,' 
taking it to be the suffix of comparison in the feminine adverbial form. 
For the attaching of this suffix to personal forms of verbs, cf. Whitney, 
5"^/. Grammar, 473, c. 6. The commentary, omitting the na and the apt, 
obtains a second rendering of this poda, interpreting it as follows : nakiait* 
rUpafft vipakfafu pratikppya divasakalyamitrasya tejovfddhitfi karoti [read 
kalya for kalpa], 'disregarding night, its contrary form, causes an increase 
of the splendor of its friend, the dawn of day.' 7. For the position of 
this stanza in J's text, see stanza 26, note i. 

V.L. (a) J dhvUntadhvasatfi ; VJHB tapati nitaratfi nd 'HrQpafU, (b) K 
nyaktatfi; K ahni tviiatfi. (c) VHB md vyaratrmd; VHB yufmadOld, 
(d) V Jid^Jid cakninvatarai^a', 

29 (26 in J) 

tivram nirvanahetur yad api ca vipulam yat prakarsena ca 'nu 
pratyaksam ya4: paroksaxn yad iha yad aparam naSvaram 
fiafivatam ca 

144 i^E suryaSataea of mayura 

yat sarvasya prasiddham jagati katipaye yogino yad vidanti 
jyotis tad dviprakaram savitur avatu vo bahyam abhjrantaram 

The^ two- formed splendor of Savitar (Surya) is both external 

and intemaP: 
For it is hot,* [yet] also the cause of final beatitude* ; it is widely 

expansive, [yet] also exceedingly atomic ; 
It is perceptible,*^ [yet] imperceptible* ; it is near, [yet] remote ; 

it is transitory, and [yet] eternal; 
It is well known to everyone in the universe, [yet only] some 

yogins^ [really] know it. 
May that splendor of Savitar (Surya) protect you®! 

Notes. I. The apparent contradictions in this stanza rest on a dis- 
tinction made between the physical nature of Surya as known to ordinary 
mortals, and his metaphysical nature which is known only to those prac- 
tising yoga meditation. a. The commentary defines 'external' (^^A/iyam) 
as ' definable by external means/ and ' internal ' {Ohhyantarafft) as ' attain- 
able by yoga meditation.' 3. The distinction apparently rests on a kind 
of pun — it is hot, or sharp {(ivratn), yet also the cause of nirvdna, the 
state wherein all senses are dulled. 4. For other passages where Surya 
is said to be the cause of emancipation, see stanza 9, note 7. Cf. also 
Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, which quotes (p. 348) the Brahmd PurOna 
as sajring 'by devotion to whom (Surya) alone can final beatitude be 
obtained'; and the same work (p. 346), which quotes from the SUrya 
Upani^ad the thought that ' from Surya proceed existence and non-exist- 
ence.' 5. The commentary explains as perceptible and imperceptible by 
the senses; cf. stanza 96 (note 4) for a similar idea. 6. Kennedy, op, 
cit. (see note 4), p. 347, quotes the Brahmd PurHna as saying that Surya 
is 'the witness of everything, but himself unseen and incomprehensible.' 
7. The commentary explains: 'The twice-four yogins, headed by Vyasa, 
know [it].' 8. For the position of this stanza in J's text, see stanza 
26, note I. 

V.L. (a) VHB prakar^ena ca 'tha. 


ratnanam mandanaya prabhavati niyatodde&ilabdhavaka&tm 
vahner darvadi dagdhum nijajadimataya kartum anandam 

yat tu trailokyabhusavidhir aghadahanam hladi vrstya "fiu 

tad vo 
bahulyotpadyakaryadhikataram avatad ekam eva 'rkatejah 


The^ [splendor] of jewels, whose part is played in a circum- 
scribed place,* is for adornment* [only] ; 

The [splendor] of fire can bum up wood and the like; [and] 
the [splendor] of the moon is able to bring joy by its innate 
coldness ; 

But the splendor of Arka (Surya), being the means of adorn- 
ment of the three worlds, the bumer-up of sin, and the swift 
bringer of joy through rain,* 

Is alone greater [than the other splendors] by reason of its 
abundantly performing [all their] functions.* 

May that splendor of Arka (Surya) protect you! 

Notes, z. The meaning of this stanza seems to be as follows: Jewels 
are for personal adornment only, but Surya adorns the whole world; fire 
bums wood, but Surya burns up sin ; the moon gives joy by its cold rays, 
but Surya gives joy by the rain that he draws up and pours down. Jewels 
can only adorn, not bum; fire can only bum, not adorn; the moon can 
only give joy, not bum or adorn; but Surya, or Surya's splendor, can both 
adorn, bum, and give joy; therefore the splendor of Sur3ra is greater than 
the splendor of jewels, fire, or moon. a. Lit. 'whose opportunity is 
grasped in a circumscribed place,' the meaning being that jewels perform 
their function of adoming only in some little place, as on the finger, in 
the ear, or around the neck. 3. Lit 'is able for adoming,' or 'avails 
for adorning.' 4. The commentary quotes from an unnamed source, 
which I find to be MaMbhUrata, 12.263. 11: adityHj jdyate vfft*b» 'from 
Aditjra (Surya) rain is produced.' The same passage is quoted again in 
the commentaries on stanzas 77 (see note i) and 93 (see note 5). For 
other places in the SUryaJataka where the idea is expressed that Surya is 
a reservoir of water, see stanza 9, note 2. 5. Lit. 'greater because of 
[these] actions produced in abundance,' or 'greater because it commonly 
produces [all these] actions.' 

V.L. (a) HB fftan^a/dya prabhavati ; VHB niyate deia-. (b) V vahner 
dOvdgni- ; VHB -dagdhatft, (c) VJHBK read yat tu, which I have adopted ; 
the Kavyamala text reads yac ca. 


milaccaksur vijihmafiruti jadarasanam nighnitagfaranavrtti 
svavyaparaksamatvak parimusitamanah Svasamatravaiiefam 
visrastahgam patitva svapad apaharatad aSriyam vo 'rkajanma 
kalavyalavalidham jagad agada ivotthapajran prakpratapah 


The^ dawn-splendor of Arka (Surya), like an antidote, rouses the 

universe which, bitten* by <Time>, [as if by] a <black> 

serpent, [lies], fallen and unconscious,' 
With its eye closed,* its sense of hearing dulled," deprived of the 

sense of taste,* the function of its nose suspended. 
Its skin insensible to touch,^ bereft of the power of reason, its 

limbs limp, having only breath left. 
May the dawn-splendor proceeding from Arka (Surya) dispel 

your misfortune! 

Notes, z. We have here a simile. The sleeping world is likened to a 
man who has been bitten by a snake and lies unconscious. The rising of 
Surya is the antidote that rouses to life. For a list of the more note- 
worthy similes in the SUryaJataka, see stanza 14, note i. a. The com- 
mentary glosses avalUfhatfi, 'touched/ by grastam, 'devoured.' I have 
rendered as 'bitten.' The commentary implies that both Time and ser- 
pents cause death. 3. Lit. 'sleeping.' 4. Lit 'possessing a closing 
eye.' 5. Lit 'with crooked ear.' 6. Or, 'its tongue paralyzed.' 7. 
Lit ' its skin incapable of its own function.' 

V.L. (a) VJHB vijihvairuH\ VJH vighnitaghranavftH. (b) V Syfin^ 
mAtrdvaJe^am. (c) H visrasta4gatft, B visrastodgatft ; JK apaharatid 


nihiSesatn naifiam ambhah prasabham apanudann aiSrulefianu- 

stokastokapanitarunarucir acirad astadosanusangah 
data drstim prasannam tribhuvananayanasya ''iSu jrusmad- 

vadhyad bradhnasya siddhaiijanavidhir aparah praktano Vdh- 


The eastern^ appearing of the rays of Bradhna (Surya), the eye* 
of the three worlds. 

Is <the action of divine fire>,* and [is also] another <application 
of magical eye-salve>,* for it cbestows pure wisdom» as eye- 
salve cmakes bright the pupil of the eye>," 

It <removes perforce* all the dew that resembles tear-dn>ps>, as 
eye-salve <quickly dries up the water, resembling tear-drops, 
[that seeps from between the eyelids] at night >, 


It <gradually loses the glow of dawn>^ as eye-salve <gradually 
drives away the redness of inflammation>®; it cspeedily 
abandons the embrace of night», as eye-salve cquickly dispels 
[all] traces of eye-affections>.* 

May the eastern appearing of the rays of Bradhna (Surya) 
quickly destroy^® whatever opposes you ! 

Notes, z. Ordinarily, priktana means ' former/ ' ancient' I have ren- 
dered as 'eastern' on the basis of pmk, meaning Mn the east' a. For 
other passages where Surya is compared to an eye, cf. stanza 13, note 2. 
3. The commentary, however, glosses by avyabhicariiatn aiijanaffi vidhdtS, 
'creator of not-moved-about (or, inviolable) fire.' 4. Or, 'application 
of well-compounded eye-salve.' 5. Lit 'grants the pupil [to be] bright'; 
or, perhaps, 'makes the pupil clear,' meaning that it removes from the 
pupil film-like accretions, etc. 6. Lit prasabhatn means ' violently,' ' ex- 
ceedingly.' I have rendered as 'perforce' and 'quickly.' 7. Lit 'grad- 
ually has the glow of dawn taken away'; perhaps, 'gradually outshines 
the glory of Aruna ' ; Aruna was Surya's charioteer, as noted in stanza 8, 
note I. 8. Lit aruna means 'red color'; I have rendered here as 'in- 
flammation.' 9. Lit 'dispelling the consequences of ills'; this the com- 
mentary explains as 'dispelling the consequences of ills, such as jaun- 
dice, etc' 10. On the root aorist optative vadhyHt, 'may he destroy/ 
see Apte, Skt.-EngL Diet s.v. vadh, where it is said that the root vadh is 
' not used in classical Sanskrit except as a substitute for han in the Aorist 
and Benedictive ' ; and cf . Pditini, 2. 4. 42. 

V.L. (c) H tribhavananayanasyd '*iu ; JHB yu^mad dhi ruddhaffi. 


bhutva jambhasya bhettuh kakubhi paribhavarambhabhuh 

bibhrana babhrubhavam prasabham abhinavambhojajrmbha- 

bhusa bhuyisthatobha tribhuvanabhavanasya 'sya vaibhakar! 

vibhranti bhrajamana vibhavatu vibhavodbhutaye sa vibha vah 

At dawn the splendor of (Surya), the Maker of Splendor, 
dazzlingly^ brilliant, [becomes] the most beautiful ornament* 
of this mansion, the three worlds, 

And, after having been the cause of the banning of the humilia- 
tion* of the White-rayed (Moon) in the quarter* of [the sky 
belonging to] (Indra), Slayer of Jambha,' 


It assumes a tawny-red color,* [and is] exceedingly^ proud of 
[its ability to cause] the expanding of the new lotuses. 

May this splendor of (Surya), the Maker of Splendor, bring 
about® for you the production of wealth* ! 

Notes, z. The commentary says that rnbhranti is ' used as an adverb ' 
{kriyOviie^anam) , but gives no gloss of it Bemheimer (see Introd., p. 
105) renders vihhrHnti bhrajamUfUl by 'che abbagliante scintilla,' which I 
have translated as 'dazzlingly brilliant.' Or should we read vibhrdnti" 
bhrHjamdnd (cpd.)f cf. Wackemagel, Altind, Gr, 2. 1.82, b? a. Surya 
adorns his dwelling, the three worlds, with the spoils — ^viz. the splendor 
— that he has secured by robbing the moon. This the commentary im- 
plies, when it says: 'Just as anyone, standing in the position of a war- 
rior, and having slain his adversary, adorns his own house with wealth, 
even so it is to be understood in this case.' 3. Lit 'ground of the 
beginning of the humiliation.' 4. On the quarters of the sky, and their 
respective guardians, see stanza 18, note 10. 5. On Jambha, see stanza 
I, note 3. 6. Lit *a red-brown state of being.' 7. The commentary 
takes prasabham, ' exceedingly,' with bibhrUnd, ' it assumes,' and not, as I 
have done, with -pragalbha, ' proud.' 8. Lit ' may it be adequate for the 
production of wealth for you.' On wbhavatu, Bemheimer (see note i) 
observes that the use of vi with bhu active is exclusively Vedic 9. The 
alliteration throughout the stanza of bh (29 times) is perhaps worthy of 
comment. Note also the absence of a yd correlative to the sS; cf. stanza 
24, note 5. 

V.L. (a) K sthitvd jambhasya; H lUbhrabhOnor, (b) VJ pragalbha is 
separated from the preceding compound, (c) HB bhUfd bhUriffhaJobhd; 
VJHB tribhuvanabhavanasya "iu vQibhdkar%. (d) K ntrbhanti bhrdjamanS, 


samsaktam siktamulad abhinavabhuvanodyanakautuhalinya 
yaminya kanyayeva 'mrtakarakalaSavarjitena 'mrtena 
arkalokah kriyad vo mudam udayaSirascakravalalavalad 
udyan balapravalapratimarucir ahahpadapaprakprarohah 

The^ splendor of Arka (Surya), possessing a beauty like that of 

a young twig, [forms] the first sprout on the tree of Day, 
As it rises from the trench [formed by] the circle of the summits 

of Udaya,^ [the Dawn Mountain] — 
A trench whose bottom is continually soaked with ambrosial dew* 

poured from the <moon> [serving as] a pitcher in the <im- 

mortal hand> of Night, 


Who, like a maiden,* takes an interest in [the welfare of] her 

garden, the freshened world. 
May the splendor of Arka (Surya) bring you joy"! 

Notes, z. This stanza presents a rather elaborate simile. The circle 
of the summits of Mt Udaya (Mem) forms a trench, such as is ordinarily 
dug arotmd the roots of a tree to hold water. From this trench grows 
up the tree Day, and the first sprout on this tree is the splendor of the 
rising Sun. Into the trench, which is situated in the universe as in a 
garden, Night, like a maiden, pours the water of the ambrosial dew from 
her pitcher, the Ambrosia-making (Moon). For other similes in the 
SUryaiataka, see stanza 14, note i. a. Udajra is Meru, the Dawn Moun- 
tain ; cf . stanza i, note 4. 3. Lit amfta means ' nectar,' ' ambrosia,' but 
the commentary says that 'dew' {iu^Hra) is meant here. 4. Lit 'from 
the trench, whose bottom is continually soaked by Night, as by a maiden, 
with the dew, etc.' 5. This stanza is quoted in the Katflndravacanasatn' 
uccaya (stanza 53), an anthology by an unknown compiler, and of date 
not later than 1200 A.D. ; cf. the edition of this work by F. W. Thomas, 
in the Bibliotheca Indica Series, introd., p. 1-5, Calcutta, 1912. 

V.L. (c) B arkHtnokah kriyOd. (d) The Kavyamala text, together with 
J and H, read ahah as separate from the following compotmd; but VB 
and the commentary, which I have followed, read ahahpudapa-', VJHB 
and the Kai/indravacanasamuccaya (see note 5) read -prakpravdlaf^, 


bhinnam bhasa 'runasya kvacid abhinavayi vidrumanam 

tvaiigaiinaksatraratnadyutinikarakaralantaralam kvacic ca 
na 'ntamihSesakrsnafiriyam udadhim iva dhvantaraiiim piban 

aurvah purvo 'py apurvo 'gnir iva bhavadaghaplustaye 'rkava- 


The splendor of Arka (Surya) swallows^ up the mass of darkness 
[which is] like the ocean, 

For [darkness] <is penetrated here and there by the new light of 
dawn, as if by beautiful twigs>,^ 

And [the ocean] <is, as it were, pierced here and there by beau- 
tiful [branches of] coral,* with the fresh luster of their red 
hue> ; 

Here and there cthe yawning* depths [of darkness are filled] with 
the mass of splendor of the sparkling* jewel-like stars>, 


And here and there «the fearful abyss [of ocean is filled] with 

the shimmering mass of the splendor of its star-like jewels** ; 
The cinnate splendor [of darkness] is not utterly black»,^ and 

[the ocean] is «not without Sesa, Krsna and Sri in its 

May the splendor of Arka (Surya), although ancient, [yet ever] 

new, like the submarine fire,* bum up your sin ! 

Notes, z. Lit piban means 'drinking.' The commentary glosses by 
grasan, * devouring.' a. Lit * as if by the beauty of twigs.* The rays, pro- 
jecting themselves through the sky, are like long twigs, or shoots, sprouting 
from the branches of a tree. 3. Lit ' as if by the beauty of corals.' 4. The 
commentary glosses karCUa, which ordinarily means * gaping wide,' ' dread- 
ful,' by viiamonnata, 'unevenly raised,' and would render '[darkness], 
whose depths are unevenly raised by the mass of splendor, etc' As this 
explanation appears to convey no sense, I have supplied the words 'filled 
with,' and have rendered kardla as 'yawning' in the first translation, and 
as ' fearful ' in the second. 5. Lit tvangai means ' trembling,' ' waving.' 
I have rendered here as 'sparkling,' and in the second translation as 
'shimmering.' 6. The jewels of the ocean are, of course, its pearls. 
7. Lit '[darkness] not possessing an internal completely black splendor.' 
Night's utter blackness is relieved by the light of moon and stars. 8. 
According to mythological legend, l§ri, or Lak$ml, the goddess of good 
luck, was produced from the ocean on the occasion of its famous churn- 
ing; cf. the references cited on stanza 2, note 2, and stanza 42, notes 3 
and 6. It is also recorded that Kr^na, as Vi$nu, reposes upon the great 
serpent Se$a in the depths of ocean during the intervals of creation; cf. 
stanzas 23, note 6; 75, note 5; 88, note 6; cf. also MahObhOrata, 3.203. 
10-13; Vifnu Purana, 1.2 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 41), and 2.5 (Wilson, vol 2, 
p. 211-213, and notes) ; Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi 3 and 4. 9. This is 
an allusion to Jhe durva fire. In MahObhdrata, 1. 180. 1-23, it is related 
that the sage Aurva threw into the ocean his burning wrath which was 
threatening to consume the world. Though partly quenched, it continued 
to blaze as submarine fire, and acquired the form of the head of a mare. 
Mention is made of the Surva fire also in Can4^ataka, stanza 84. 

V.L. (b) VJHB bhinnaffi nakiatraratna- ; V kacic ca, (c) VJHB an^ 
tamihh^a- (omitting initial negative); VJHB 'kfptapriyam udadhim; V 
pivaffistad. (d) JH 'Plu^fayerkvdvabhSsah. 


gandharvair gadyapadyavyatikaritavacohrdyam atod]^va4yair 
adyair yo naradadyair munibhir abhinuto vedavedyair vibhid}ra 


asadya ''padyate yam punar api ca jagad yauvanam sadya 

uddyoto dyotitadyaur dyatu divasakrto 'sav avadyani vo 'dj^ 

The^ rising splendor of (Surya), Maker of Day, is praised by 
Gandharvas* with pleasing words of mingled prose and 
verse," [to the accompaniment of] musical instruments of the 
dtodya'^ [type], 

And is also praised with discrimination" by the ancient seers, 
famed for their knowledge,* chief of whom is Narada,^ 

And furthermore, the universe, upon coming in contact with this 
(splendor), at once obtains again the loveliness of youth. 

May this rising splendor of (Surya), Maker of Day, — b, splendor 
that illumines the sky — ^to-day mow down* your sins ! 

Notes, z. Note in this stanza the alliteration (anupriisa) of dy — 20 
times. a. In the Rig Veda, the term Gandharva is commonly applied to 
a male being, 'the heavenly (divya) Gandharva,' who is associated prin- 
cipally with Soma, but in several passages is connected with some form 
of celestial light In this latter conception he is brought into relation with 
Surya (cf. Rig Veda, 10.123. 7 and 10. 177.2), and in Rig Veda, 1. 163. 2, 
he is said to grasp the bridle of Surya's steed. In other passages of the 
Rig, the Gandharvas are spoken of in the plural Their number is fixed 
as 27 in some of the Yajus texts, but in Atharva Veda (11. 5. 2) is said 
to be 6333. On the whole subject of the Gandharvas, see A. A. Macdonell, 
Vedic Mythology (p. 136-137), in Btihler's Grwwdrwj, Strassburg, 1897, and 
the concise yet comprehensive account in Monier-Williams, Skt-Engl. 
Diet s.v. gandharva. In the Epic and Puranic literature, the Gandharvas 
are regularly regarded as the celestial choristers ; so also in this stanza of 
the SUryaJataka; cf. MUrkafj^eya Purdna, 106.63 (Pargiter, p. 571); 
MahabhOrata, 1. 123. 54 ; S. Sorensen, Index to the Names in the Mahobha- 
rata,pzTt6y'London,igii,s.y, Gandharva, Buhler has noted that in stanza 
2 of the PraJasti of Vatsabhattii Surya is praised by Gandharvas, Kiip- 
naras, Siddhas, etc, and he compares SUryaJataka, stanzas 6, 13, 36, 52, 
67 and 81, where it is likewise stated that Surya is praised by various of 
the semi-divine beings; see Buhler, Die indischen Inschriften (p. 14-15), 
as cited in stanza 6, note 8. 3. The commentary says that the com- 
pound gadyapadya . . . hfdyatn is to be regarded as an adverb. 4. The 
commentary says that Otodyavddydni, * the Utodya musical instruments,' are 
of four types, exemplified respectively by the lute, the cymbal, the drum, 
and the flute; cf. Rajah Tagore, Hindu Music (Calcutta, 2d ed., 1882), 
esp. p. 191, where the z/lnil, * lute,' is portrayed. 5. Lit wbhidya means 
'having divided,' 'having discriminated.' 6. ItaktvedavedyHir as mean- 
ing ' famed for their knowledge.' The commentary, however, takes veda 


to mean ' the Vedas/ glossing by vedepi vedydh, * famous in the Vedas.' 

7. N&rada was regarded as the inventor of the lute ; cf . his epithet iHnOsya, 
Mute-faced/ and see also Raghuvatfiia, 8.33-34 (ed. by Nandargikar, 3d 
ed., Poona, 1897). In Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 9, Narada is pictured 
holding a lute. In M&rkan4eya Purina, 106.55-63 (Pargiter, p. 571), 
Surya is represented as praised by Gandharvas, other celestial beings 
(see above, note 2), and by * Narada . . . skilful in music/ In RSmayana, 
2.91.45, Narada is called gandharvardrja, *king of the Gandharvas/ with 
evident reference to his bent for music. For other passages in the SUrya^ 
iataka where it is said that Surya is praised by the seers, see stanza 13, note 

8. 8. Lit ySuvanatfi means 'youthfulness,' but the gloss is manojnaivam, 
* loveliness.' 9. Cf. Can4Uataka, stanza 79: ' May Bhavani (CaodO mow 
down (deyit) your cares 1 ' Both dyatu and deySt are from the root do ; 
cf. Monier- Williams, Skt-Engl, Diet, s.v. do. 

V.L. (b) VJHB yo devo nUradOdyOir (omitting the initial OdySir) ; K 
abhinuto iHtavedyOir vividya, (c) VJHB asadyi "padyate, (d) VJHB 
udyoto ; J dyotitadyor dyatu, 


avanai§ candrakantais cyutatimirataj^ tanavat tarakanam 
enankalokalopad upahatamahasam osadhinam layena 
arid utpreksyamana ksanam udayatatantarfaitasya liimatnsor 
abha prabhatiki vo 'vatu na tu nitaram tavad avirbhavantil 

The dawn-splendor of the Hot-rayed^ (Surya), who is [still] for 

a moment* concealed by the ridge of [Mount] Udaya* 

Though not yet completely manifest,* is [nevertheless] inferred 

to be near. 
Because of the drying up of the moonstones," the dimness of the 

stars [resulting] from the vanishing of darkness, 
And the withering* of the plants whose beauty is impaired^ by the 

disappearance of the rays of the Deer-marked® (Moon). 
May this splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya) protect you! 

Notes. I. Lit. ahimaffi^or means *o£ the not cold-rayed.* a. The 
time pictured is just the moment before the Sun's first glint appears above 
the horizon. 3. On Meru, see stanza i, note 4. 4. The Sun is not 
completely manifest, or visible, till he rises above the horizon (cf. note 2). 
5. Lit. * because of the dry moonstones.' The term dvina seems not to be 
fotmd, but vdna, 'dried,' occurs. The gloss of avSnOih is iu^adhhih, 
'dried.' The commentary says: 'These (moonstones), when touched by 


the Cold-rayed (Moon), distil water, [but if] deprived of the rays of the 
Moon, they become dry.' This curious belief — that the moonstone distils 
water — is, I have been told, mentioned in Sulruta, 1. 173. i ; cf. the Rnjani- 
ghanfu of Narahari, varga 13, stanzas 211, 212, 213 (p. 27, 28 and 90, with 
footnote 4, of Die indischen Mineralien, under which title R. Garbe has 
translated varga 13 of the Rajanighanfu, Leipzig, 1882). Garbe classifies 
the candrakHnta, 'moonstone,' as a species of feldspar. We are familiar 
with this stone in jewel ornamentation of the present day, and the finest 
specimens come from Ceylon. 6. Lit layena means 'by the melting.' 
7. The moon is often called 'Lord of Plants'; and certain plants, espe- 
cially the night-blooming varieties, were supposed to wither when the 
moonlight faded; cf. stanza 5, notes 2 and 3. 8. The epithet Endnka, 
' Deer-marked,' is perhaps applied to the moon with reference to the dark 
spot, shaped somewhat like a prancing four-footed animal, that may be 
seen on the disk of the full moon. The term as applied to the moon is 
seemingly of late origin, not being found in Sorensen's Index to the Names 
in the MahiibhUrata, nor in Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance, nor in the 
index to Macdonell's Vedic Mythology, Modem representations picture 
the Moon as being conveyed in a chariot drawn by a deer; cf. Moor, 
Hindu Pantheon, pi. 49. The Moon is also called ^oiMiba/ Hare-marked ' ; 
cf. stanza 42, note 7. 

V.L. (a) J ardloU candra-, K dvintM, which is explained by ^at salHa- 
bindusrSznbhir, 'slightly distilling drops of water'; H vanndrakatfttnis ; 
V catatimirataya, HB cutatimirataya ; VJHB bhanavdt tarakdnHtn. (d) 
HB probhataki ; J nitardn tUvad. 


sanau sa naudaye na 'runitadalapiinaryauvananam vananam 
alim alidhapurva parihrtakuharopantanimna tanimna 
bha vo bhavopaiiantixn idi^tu dinapater bhasamana 'samana 
raji rajivarenoh samasamayam udeti Va yasya vayasya 

The^ splendor of (Surya), Lord of Day, after first licking,^ on 
Udaya's (Meru's) summit," 

The row* of trees that [forthwith appear to] have a- renewal of 
youth by reason of their leaves' being tinged with red, 

Penetrates,*^ because of its thinness, the depths and comers of 
cavernous places. 

And with it there rises at the same time, like an attendant com- 
panion,* a streak of the pollen of the blue lotus. 

May the gleaming, matchless splendor of (Surya), Lord of Day, 
bestow on you cessation of rebirths'^ ! 


Notes. I. Note in this stanza the exaggerated assonance (yamaka) ; 
each pada begins and ends with a reduplication of syllables. At the begin- 
ning of each pada, the first two syllables are repeated, and at the end, the 
last three. The final consonant of the first poda must be sounded with the 
first syllable of the second puda. For somewhat similar cases of yamaka, 
see Dan<}in, KHvyHdaria, 3. 46, 48, 50. a. Lit dW^hapUrva means ' pre- 
viously licked.' For this use of purva in compotmds, see Whitney, Skt, 
Grammar, 1291, c. 3. I have not attempted in my rendering to translate 
the double negative in ndudaye tU^ 'runita-. The commentary says on 
this : ' The two na's cause [the word] to go to its original sense ' ; that is, 
two negatives make one affirmative. For other double negatives in the 
SUryaiatdka, cf. stanza 23, note 9. 4. I have taken dtim, 'row,' as a 
kind of object of Hll4^f * licked.' 5. Lit parihfta means ' shunned,' or 
' moved or carried around ' ; but I have rendered as ' penetrated,' because 
the idea seems to be that light, by reason of its 'thinness,' can permeate 
and find its way through every chink and crevice into the most remote 
recesses. 6. If samdnd (see V.L.) be read, instead of asamUnH, we 
should render as 'an equal attendant companion.' 7. The commentary, 
followed by Bemheimer, reads 'bhUvopaiantiifl and interprets as 'cessa- 
tion of misfortune.' 

V.L. (a) VB 'nalapunaryauvanHn&ffi, K -dalalasadyauvanHnaffi. (c) 
VJH bhavobhavopaJantint, B bhOiuo bhavopaiantim ; VJHB and the 
Kavyamala text read bhUsamdnd samUnd; following a gloss of iSastri's — 
asamina anw^amA— quoted in the footnotes of the Kavyamala edition, I 
have resolved as bhOsamdnd 'samdnd, 


ujjrmbhambhoruhanam prabhavati payasam ya Sriye nosna- 

pusnaty alokamatram na tu di£ati drfiam drfiyamana vighatam 
purvadrer eva purvam divam anu ca piinah pavani dinmu- 

enamsy aim vibha 'sau nudatu nutipadaikaspadam praktani 


The dawn-splendor of Ina^ (Surya), the sole recipient of [our] 
verses of praise,^ 

Is able to bestow beauty,* but not heat,* on the waters with their 

expanded lotuses, 
And it increases' the range of vision* of [our] eyes, but does not, 

when gazed upon, cause [them] pain^ ; 
And it is indeed a purifier, first of (Meru), the Dawn Motmtain, 


<then> <of>® the sky, and afterwards of the depths* of the 
quarters [of the sky] . 
May this dawn-splendor of Ina (Surya) destroy your sins! 

Notes. I. The term Ina means 'mighty/ or 'a master'; it is used as 
an epithet of Surya in stanza 97 also. a. Lit ' the sole abode of [our] 
verses of praise.' 3. Lit. * avails for the beauty, not for the heat, of the 
waters, etc' 4. The sun at dawn is not powerful enough to heat to any 
great extent the objects on which its rays may light 5. Lit. 'it nourishes 
the measure of vision.' 6. The meaning is that one can see farther 
when the sun is shining than at night 7. One may look at the sun at 
dawn without feeling pain in the eyes. Lit. vighUta means 'obstacle' or 
'ruin,' but the gloss is vyatha, 'pain.' 8. Lit *<then> a purifier <in 
respect to > the sky,' with anu rendered in two ways. There seems to be 
no other way to explain the accusative divam. The gloss is tadanu dydfn 
divafft lak^lkftya ^dz^an?/ then a purifier in reference to the sky, the heaven.' 
9. Lit ' of the mouths of the quarters.' 

V.L. (b) HB pu^natpalokamatraffi. (c) K anu ca tatah povanl, (d) 
HB enifftsy enl. 


vacam vacaspater ^py acalabhiducitacaryakanam prapancair 
vairaxicanam tathoccaritacaturarcam ca "nananam catumam 

• • • • • 

ucyeta 'rcasu vacyacyutifiuci caritam yasya noccair vivic}ra 
pracyam varcas cakasac ciram upacinutat tasya candarciso vah 

The conduct of the Hot-rayed (Surya), pure by reason of [its] 
freedom from reproach,^ 

Could not be [adequately] described — [even by one who] divided 
up [the subject] minutely* in [his] praises* — 

By volumes* of the words of even Vacaspati' — words fit to in- 
struct* (Indra), the Cleaver of Mountains,^ 

Nor [by volumes of the words] from Viraiica's® (Brahma's) four* 
mouths, which utter clever^® verses.^^ 

May the shining dawn-splendor of this Hot-rayed (Surya) long 
prosper you** ! 

Notes. I. Lit 'pure, because of the falling away of what may be said 
[against it].' a. Lit uccSih means 'aloft,' or 'excessively'; I have ren- 
dered as 'minutely.' 3. The term arcdsu, which I have rendered 'in 
praises,' commonly means ' in idols ' or ' in worship ' ; it is glossed by both 
Pratimdsu, 'in idols,' and stutifu, 'in adorations.' 4. Lit. prapaHcQil^ 


means ' by copiousness ' ; I have rendered as ' by volumes/ 5. The epi- 
thet Vacaspati, 'Lord of Speech/ is commonly applied to Brhaspati, the 
preceptor of the gods; cf. e.g. BhAgavata Puraria, 6.7.8-9 (Dutt, voL i, 
book 6, p. 30), where it is related that Indra once failed to arise and salute 
the preceptor Vacaspati upon the entrance of the sage into the throne- 
room of the god, whereupon Vacaspati, offended, vanished for a time from 
the presence of the celestial world. 6. Lit ' words whose instruction is 
suited to the Cleaver of Motmtains.' 7. In the Rig Veda (5. 32.i->2; 
10.89.7), it is related that Indra cleft the motmtains and released the 
pent-up waters. We have already (stanza 5, note 7) referred to the legend 
that records how Indra cut off the wings of the mountains. 8. The 
epithet Viranca is probably to be derived from vi and the root roc, mean- 
ing 'to produce' or *to fashion'; cf. Monier- Williams, SkU-Engl. Diet, 
s.v. This would be apposite, since Brahma was the creator and fashioner 
of the universe. 9. For the four heads of Brahma, see stanza 13, note 
3. 10. The commentary glosses catura, 'clever,' by aghavighdtapafu, 
'clever in the prevention of sin.' The combination of vowels seen in 
caturafcdifl is what is commonly found in Vedic texts, the ordinary classical 
form being caturarcQifl ; cf. Whitney, Skt Grammar, 127, a. It may be 
noted that the meter requires caturafcUfft, 11. For the sentiment, ex- 
pressed in this stanza, that words are sometimes inadequate to convey the 
thoughts and feelings, cf . Iliad, 2. 488-490 : ' For I could not describe nor 
name the multitude, even if I had ten tongues, ten mouths, a never failing 
voice, and a brazen heart within me.' This has been imitated by Vergil 
in Ge orgies, 2. 42-44. la. The alliteration of c in this stanza (27 times) 
is perhaps worthy of note. 

V.L. (b) JH vairincyanant, VB vairiipcyanani ; VJHBK tathoccaritaruci" 
rafcSm; VHB anananUffi (for cA "nananafft). (c) K arcOsv avdcyacyuti'. 
(d) H vakOsac dram, K cakOsac chriyam, 


miirdhny adrer dhaturagas tarusu kisalayo vidrumaughah 

dinmatangottamangesv abhinavanihitah sandrasindurarenuh 
simni vyomnaS ca hemnah suraSikharibhuvo jayate yah 

tonimna 'sau kharamSor usasi diSatu vah §arma SobhaikadeSah 

• • • • a 

The <light> of the Hot-rayed (Surya), the sole abode of splendor, 
appears, because of its redness at dawn, to be 

Like^ the red of mineral-ore on the top of a mountain, the young 
sprouts on trees, a mass of coral in the ocean, 

A thick vermilion powder newly placed on the heads of the 
elephant- [guardians]* of the directions. 


[Or like] the <glitter> of the gold that exists on (Meru),* the 

Mountain of the Gods, on the boundary of the sky. 
May this light of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bestow happiness upon 


Notes, z. The commentary explains that iva, 'like,' is to be supplied. 
a. For the names of the elephants belonging to the regents of the eight 
points of the compass, see stanza 18, note 10. For another mention of the 
custom of adorning elephants with vermilion, see stanza i. 3. For the 
gold and jewels that compose Mem, see stanza i, note 4. 

V.L. (a) H maddhny adrer; B adre dhaturOgas; VJHB kUalayo (with 
palatal sibilant), (b) K abhinavavihitafi, (c) B yah prakaiah, 


astadriSottamange firitaSaSini tamahkalakute niplte 
yati vyaktim purastad arunakisalaye pratyusahparijate 
udsranty araktapitambaravitedatarodviksita tiksnabhanor 
laksmir laksmir iva 'stu sphutakamalaputapaSraya Sreyase vah 

The splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya) [is] like^ Laksmi,' whose 

couch is the hollow of an expanded lotus* ; 
For the splendor, as it rises, <is gazed on as being more brilliant 

than a yellow sky tinged with red>,* 
And Laksmi, on rising [from the ocean], <was tenderly* gazed on 

by her devoted Pitambara (Visnu)>*; 
As the splendor rises, <the Hare-possessing^ (Moon) is clinging 

to the summit of the lordly Western Mountain>,® and cthe 

black mass of darkness is being absorbed»,^ 
And as Laksmi rose, <the Hare-possessing (Moon) was [already] 

resting on the head of «Isa (Siva)»,^® «lord» of Mount 
Asta>,^^ and cthe 'black deception'" of illusion was being 
drunk [by Siva]»; 

When the splendor rises, <the dawn- [colored] coral-tree, whose 
tender shoots are red, becomes visible to the eyes>,^* 

And as Laksmi rose, <the pdrijata tree of dawn,** the scion of 
Aruna, was making its appearance before the eyes [of the 

May the splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bring you pros- 
perity*' ! 


Notes. I. The similarity is not real, but rests solely on word-puns. 
a. See stanza 43, where Surya's splendor is again compared to Lak$ml 
(iSrI). 3. The goddess Lak$mi rose from the ocean, on the occasion of 
its famous churning, resting on the expanded petals of a lotus ; cf . stanza 
2, note 2, and also Mahabhdrata, 1. 18; Vi^nu Purana, 1.9 (Wilson, vol. i, 
p. I44->I45). 4. The commentary's explanation of this psda is: l^adrak' 
tapUabhQvabhaji satftdhyayH nabhcisi sphutataratit dr^tH, * is seen more dis- 
tinctly in a twilight-sky that partakes of the nature (i.e. color) of yellow 
and slightly-red.' 5. In the second rendering the commenBiry glosses 
-wJadatara- by vyaktatn, 'plainly,' and would render *is plainly seen by 
Pitambara (Vi§nu).' We might possibly render by 'calmly' instead of 
'plainly.' The epithet PltHmbara, 'Clothed in yellow,' is authorized by 
Amarakoia (i. 1. 19) as a name for Vi$nu, and is used to describe Knna 
(Vi§nu) in Gltagovinda, 12.24.9 (ed. by Telang and Pansikar, Bombay, 
1899), but does not seem, judging by the references in PWB, to have been 
very generally used. I have been unable to learn why Vi$nu should be 
called the one 'Clothed in yellow.' 6. The legend runs that Lak^mi, 
upon arising from the ocean, almost immediately cast herself on Vi$nu's 
breast; cf. Vi^nu Purdna, as cited in note 3. 7. The moon is called 
SaHn or ^oidn^a, 'Hare-possessing' or 'Hare-marked,' because the Hindus 
believed that the dark spot on the moon's orb resembled a rabbit There 
were several legends accounting for this honor that was accorded the 
humble rabbit; cf. Hitopadela, 3.3 (ed. by Go^abole and Parab, 3d ed., 
Bombay, 1890), and the other sources cited by Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, 
p. 326. In stanza 37 (cf. note 8), we have seen that the moon was called 
£«5#i^a, 'Deer-marked.' 8. Lit. 'the summit of the lord of the Western 
Mountain possesses a clinging moon.' The commentary, however, ex- 
plains as 'the head of Isa — i.e. Mahadeva — [who is] verily the Western 
Mountain, possesses a clinging moon.' The evident meaning is that the 
moon is sinking to its setting in the west, while the sun is rising in the 
east. 9. That is, the darkness of night is vanishing before the rising 
sun. The commentary would render 'darkness, like the black mass 
ikalakuta), is being absorbed.' 10. The moon was also a product of 
the churning of the ocean, and on its appearance was at once appropriated 
by iSiva and placed on his head; cf. the references cited in note 3. ii. 
Mount Asta, 'Home Mountain,' was the mountain behind which Surya 
went to his setting, but I have not noted that iSiva is anywhere mentioned 
as its lord and master; perhaps, therefore, we should render as 'resting 
on the head of Isa (iSiva), as on the Western Mountain,' which is sug- 
gested by the commentary in its astodrir iveiah, ' Ka, like the Western 
Mountain.' Mount Asta is frequently mentioned in the MahObhOrata, 
as noted in Sorensen, Index to the Names in the Mahabhdrata, s.v. ; cf. 
also Ratnayana, 4. 37. 21, and Markan4eya PurSna, 58. 34 (Pargiter, p. 371). 
It is again referred to in SUryaMaka, stanzas 65 and 97. la. The 
kUhkUta, 'black deception,' was one of the products of the churning of 
the ocean. The noxious fumes of this poison were stupefying the celes- 
tials, when iSiva, in order to save them, swallowed it; cf. MahObhOrata, 


1. 18. 41-43 ; CandUataka, stanza 21, note 2. The commentary explains 
'black deception (kulaknta), like illusion (tamah) ; [so called] because 
of its possessing the essence of illusion (tnoha),* The term tamah, 'dark- 
ness/ must here be taken figuratively to mean illusion or spiritual dark- 
ness. 13. The commentary takes purastdd, 'before the eyes/ to mean 
' in the east,' glossing it by pUrvasySfit diH, * in the eastern quarter/ and 
connecting it with udyanty, 'rising in the eastern quarter/ 14. The 
association of the psrijata tree with dawn is presumably due to the fact 
that Indra, who possessed that tree (see below), was regent of the east 
(cf. stanza 18, note 10). The commentary glosses aruna by anUru, 
'thighless'; the latter epithet belongs to Aruna, the charioteer of Surya, 
cf. stanza 8, note i. The purij&ta tree, churned from the ocean (see refer- 
ences cited in note 3), was appropriated by Indra, and became one of the 
five trees in his paradise ; cf . stanza 10, note 6. For the story of the theft 
by Kr$na of the pOrijata tree, see Vifnu Purdna, 5. 30-31 (Wilson, vol. 5, 
p. 97-106). For a picture of the churning of the ocean, see Moor, Hindu 
Pantheon, pi. 25. The various objects produced by the churning, includ- 
ing Lak$ml (resting on a lotus), the Moon, the pdrijdta tree, Airavata, 
Uccaihiravas, etc, are grouped at the base of the picture. 15. Accord- 
ing to F. W. Thomas {Kavindravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 68) , this stanza 
of the SUryaiataka is cited by Ujjvaladatta, on UnOdisQtra, 4.233 (Auf- 
recht*s ed., p. 19). 

V.L. (b) B purastan aruna-; VJHB kUalaye (with palatal sibilant), 
(c) K 'Pltdmbararuciratarodt/ikpta tlvrabhOsah. (d) JK sphutakamala' 


nodanvan janmabhumir na tadudarabhuvo bandhavah kaustu- 

yasyah padmam na panau na ca narakaripurahstfaaE vasavesma 
tejorupa 'paraiva trisu bhuvanatalesv adadhana vyavastham 
sa inh Sreyamsi difiyad aSifiiramahaso mandalagrodgata vah 

(iti dyutivarnanam) 

The splendor of the Hot-rayed^ (Surya), proceeding from the 

edge of his disk, 
Is verily a jsecond embodiment of glory* ; but it causes stability* 

in the three worlds, 
Its birth-place is not the ocean,* its relatives are not the kdustubha 

jewel and the other things bom from the womb of that 

It has not a lotus in its hand," and its abiding-place is not the 

breast of (Visnu), Foe of Naraka.* 


May this splendor of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bestow blessings 
upon you! 

(Here ends the praise of the splendor.)^ 

Notes. I. Lit. aHHramahaso means 'of the not-cold-rayed.' a. The 
real 'embodiment of glory' is the goddess iSri, whose name means 
' Splendor ' or ' Good Fortune.' In this stanza, the goddess iSri is, by 
implication, compared to the iff (splendor) of Surya; cf. stanzas 21 and 
23, where the splendor of Surya is compared, also by implication, to an 
eye and a lamp-wick, respectively. In stanza 42, Surya's splendor is com- 
pared to Lak$mi, who is iSr!. 3. The splendor of Surya is stable and 
constant, but the goddess iSri, or Good Fortune, is notoriously unstable and 
fickle. 4. Surya's splendor (iri) does not originate in the ocean, but the 
goddess iSri was born from the ocean, on the occasion of its celebrated 
churning, along with the purijuta tree, the elephant Airavata, and the 
kdustubha jewel which was appropriated by Vi$nu; cf. references to the 
story of the churning of the ocean as cited in stanza 42, notes 3 and 14. 
5. The goddess iSri was born from the ocean, resting on the expanded 
petals of a lotus, and with a lotus in her hand, and soon after her appear- 
ance cast herself upon Vi$nu's breast; cf. stanza 2, note 2, and stanza 42, 
notes 3 and 6, and the story of the ocean's churning as already cited. 6. 
Naraka was a demon, slain by Kr$na ( Vi$nu) ; cf. Harivatnla, 2. 63 (Dutt, 
p. 512-521} ; Bhagavata Purana, 10.59.21 (Dutt, vol. 2, book 10, p. 264). 
7. The first 43 stanzas have been devoted to the praise of the rays, or the 
splendor, of Surya; the following 6 stanzas deal with the praise of the 
horses that drew Surya's chariot; cf. Introd., p. 84, where the subject- 
matter of the SUrya^ataka has been discussed. 

V.L. (a) B nodanvaj janmabhUmir; H 'bhUmir na. (b) VJHB pan^H 
na padmatfi na ca; VJHB narakaripurasthati. (c) K tribhuvanabkavane, 
VJHB trifu bhuvanatatesv. (d) JH irUreydmsi ; K tejovarnanam (for 
dyutivarnanam) . 


raksantv aksunnahemopalapatalam alam laghavad utpatantah 
patahgah pangvavajnajitapavanajava vajinas te jaganti 
yesam vltanyacihnonnayam api vahatam margam akhyati 

udyann uddamadiptir dyumanimaniSilavedikajatavedah 

The^ horses of Patahga^ (Surya), which outstrip Pavana (the 
Wind) in speed, by reason of their contempt for the Lame 

Do not, because of their extreme lightness,* crush' [with their 


hoofs], as they mount upward, the mass of gold and jewels 

[on Meru's* surface] , 
And their pathway, as they move on Meru, although its upward 

course^ has no other sign-posts,® 
Is indicated' by the sun-stones,^® whose unrestrained splendor 

mounts up like fire^^ on the altar.^* 
May these horses of Patahga (Surya) protect the worlds! 

Notes. I. Stanzas 44-^9 are devoted especially to the praise and descrip- 
tion of the horses that draw Surya's chariot; cf. stanza 8, note 2, and 
stanza 45, note i. 2. The term Patanga, from the ace. of the noun pata 
and the root gam, means * the one who goes flying ' ; cf . Monier- Williams, 
Skt.'Engl, Diet, s.v. 3. The * Lame One ' means Vayu (Wind) ; cf. the 
commentary, which says : * There is contempt with the thought : " Vayu, to 
be sure, is deprived of his feet; what sort of speed will he have? (viyuh 
kila caranarahitas tasya kiyHn vego bhavi^yatl *ty avajnOi) '* * I have been 
unable to find any anecdote that would account for Vayu's legless condition, 
and the commentary of iSastri, quoted in the Kavyamala edition, footnote, 
suggests that the epithet * Lame One ' may refer to Aruna. 4. Or, ahfit 
Utghavdd may mean 'because of their extreme speed.' 5. In the com- 
mentary, the compound ak$unna . . . pafalatn is regarded as an adverb of 
manner, being there made to answer the query katham, 'how.' 6. The 
commentary explains that the surface of Meru is meant; for its compo- 
sition of gold and jewels, cf. stanza i, note 4; and especially stanza 46. 
7. Lit unnaya means 'act of leading up'; I have rendered as 'upward 
course.' 8. Lit ' whose act of leading up has other signs absent' 9. 
Lit akhydti means ' signifies ' ; its gloss is sUcayati, ' points out ' ; although 
m&rgam, 'pathway,' is grammatically the object of akhyati, I have rendered 
in the passive voice as ' pathway is indicated.' 10. Lit dyumanimaniMld 
means 'jewel-stone of (Surya), the Jewel of the Sky,' but the gloss is 
sUryakihita, 'stm-stone'; on the stm-stone, cf. stanza 5, note 5. 11. In 
MahahhUrata, 2. 31. 42, the etjrmology of Jdtavedas, * Fire,' is given as fol- 
lows: vedHs tvadartham jata vdi jatavedas tato hy asi, 'the Vedas were 
created for thy sake ; therefore indeed thou art " He for whom the Vedas 
were created." ' Apte, Skt.-Engl. Diet s.v., gives several other etjrmologies. 
12. Lit. ' the fire on the altars of the jewel-stones of the Jewel of the Sky, 
[a fire] mounting up as unrestrained splendor, signifies the pathway — 
though its [i.e. the pathway's] leading up has other signs absent — of these 
[horses] as they move on Meru.' 

V.L. (a) JHB rakfannakfunnahemopaUi', (b) JH patangApangavajM-, 
B patangapangvavajfUi'. (c) JHB -ciknonvayam api, V -ciknoccayam api; 
B tnerav, (d) VJHB udddmadiptidyutnani-. The commentary quotes a 
reading jataka jatavedah, and explains by saying jitakoiabdo vedikd" 
Parydyah, ' the word jUtakd is a synonym of vediks/ 




plustah prf the 'mSupatair atinikatataya dattadahatirekair 
ekahakrantakrtsnatridivapatfaaprtfaufivasafioslh iramena 
tlvrodanyas tvarantam ahitavihataye sapta]rah saptasapter 
abhyaiakafiagangajalaaaralagalavannatagranana vah 

The horses of (Surya), who has seven* steeds, are burnt on the 

back by the outpouring of the rays, which, because of their 

close proximity, shed forth excessive heat ; 
They are also parched, and' their breathing is heavy by reason 

of the fact that they have traversed in one day the entire 

pathway of the sky ; 
And, being exceedingly thirsty because of fatigue, they bend 

down their straight necks, [and thrust] the tips of their noses 

into the water of the nearby Heavenly Ganges.* 
May these horses come quickly to destroy whatever is harmful to 


Notes. I. On the seven horses of Surya, cf. stanza 8, note 2. The 
VifHu Purana, 2.8 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 239), states that the seven horses of 
the sun are the seven meters of the Veda — * GSyatri, Bfhan, Uptih, Jagaft, 
Triifubh, A nuffubh, Pankti' a. Lit. ' possessing a parching of their breath- 
ing, which is heavy, etc' 3. Lit 'possessing faces with tips bent down 
by their straight necks into the waters of the nearby Heavenly Ganges.' In 
stanza 61, the horses are pictured as lying on the banks of the Heavenly 
Ganges and dabbling their feet in its waters. For the Heavenly Ganges, 
cf. Can4^ataka, stanza 3, note 2, and SttryaJataka, stanza 47, note 7. 4. 
Lit. 'may the horses make haste for the destruction of what is harmful 
to you I ' 

V.L. (a) HB plufta pufteffiiupatair, J plufiah pr^teniiupatair, V pluffaf^ 
pU^no 'iflhipatair. (b) HB ekahakrantakftsatridiva-, (c) J fibrodanvUs 
tvarantam, (d) V ramyabhdka^a-,JIi abhyOsakiUa- (with dental sibilant), 
B ramyOsOkiUa' ; J -gangdjala^avala', HB -gangs jalaiarakh ; VJHBK 


matva 'nyan parSvato 'fivan sphatikatatadrsaddrstaddia dra- 

vyaste liany astasamdhyeyam iti mrdupada padmaragopalesu 
sadrSyadrSyamurtir marakatakatake klistasuta sumeror 


murdhany avrttilabdhadhruvagatir avatu bradhnavahavalir 

Bradhna's (Surya's) row of horses has acquired a fixed course* 
in their recurrent appearances on the summit of Sumeru, 

And, as they see [their own] bodies [mirrored]* in the stones on 
the crystal slopes, they believe other horses are by their side, 
and run" [after them] ; 

But their footsteps loiter* over the jeweled [ledges of] ruby,' for 
they think : * Day is now ended, and this is the twilight of 
sunset '• ; 

And on the emerald^ zone, their image is invisible* by reason of 
its similarity [of color]. 

May Bradhna's (Surya's) row of horses, whose driver* is dis- 
tressed, protect you ! 

Notes. I. Or, ' who have acquired a fixed gait' 2. The commentary 
supplies pratibimbita, ' reflected ' or ' mirrored/ 3. The commentary re- 
marks: 'This is the behavior of horses — ^when they see another horse, 
they nm.' 4. Lit 'possessing a slow footstep/ 5. Lit 'jewels of 
ruby/ 6. The meaning is that they mistake the red of the ruby for 
the red of sunset, and believing the day's work to be ended, they slacken 
their speed. 7. For Mem and its composition of gold and precious 
stones, cf . stanza i, note 4. 8. The commentary explains that no reflec- 
tion of the horses can be seen in the emerald slopes, because the horses 
are, like the emeralds, of a greenish (harit) color. This epithet (harit) 
is applied to the horses of Surya twtn in the Rig Veda ; cf . stanza 8, note 
2; cf. also stanzas 7, 47, 49, and Can^^ataka, stanza 8, note 2. 9. The 
driver was Aruna; the word 'distressed' (klifta) may contain a reference 
to his legless condition (cf. stanza 8, note i), or perhaps the meaning is 
that Aruna fretted because his steeds were inclined to loiter and to play 
with the imaginary horses mirrored in the jeweled slopes of Mem. If 
the latter view be accepted, wc might render : ' The row of horses that tor- 
ment their driver.' The commentary glosses kliffa, ' distressed,' by kadar- 
thita, ' despised,' ' teased.' 

V.L. (a) VHB tafadflad' (with palatal sibilant) ; B defUl dravatfttiK 
(c) J marakatadffodi. (d) H mUrdvany\ H HvftHladhvadhruva-, V 
avfttibaddhadhruvo', B Hvfttivadhvadhruva-, K Hz^fttilabdhadruta'; V 
gativavatu ; VJHB Svati vah, 


helalolam vahanti visadharadamanasya 'grajeni 'vakrsta 
svarvahin]rah suduraxn janitajavajaya sjrandanasya syadena 

1 64 THE suryaSataka of mayura 

nirvyajam tayamane haritimani nije sphltaphenahitaSrir 
aSreyamsy asvapahktih Samayatu yamuneva 'para tapani vah 

The Heater's^ (Surya's) row of horses is like a second [River] 

For the horses <move along with sportive restlessness>,* and care 

brought under control by the elder brother of (Garuda), 

Tamer of Snakes*,* 
And the Yamuna < flows along with restless dalliance>, and cwas 

dragged [from its bed] by the elder brother* of (Krsna), 

Subduer of the Snake**; 
The horses, <by the speed of their car>, cgain decisive* victory in 

the matter of speed over the River of Heaven*,^ 
And the Yamuna, <by the speed of its current >, cgains decisive 

victory in the matter of speed over the Ganges* ; 
To the horses <a beauty is truly imparted by the copious froth 

that flecks the green color [of] their [bodies] >,® 
And to the Yamuna <a beauty is truly imparted by the abundant 

foam on the green expanse [of] its [waters] >. 
May the Heater's (Surya's) row of horses destroy your sins! 

Notes. I. Or, tapani may mean 'the Illuminator's.' 2. The term 
heldlolaffi, which I have rendered as ' with sportive restlessness/ and ' with 
restless dalliance,' is here taken adverbially, as the commentary suggests; 
for compounds used as adverbs, cf. Whitney, Skt Grammar, 131 1. $• 
The 'Tamer of Snakes' was GanKja. The story of the origin of his 
enmity for the tribe of serpents is told in Mahabharata, i. 20-34, and runs 
as follows: Once on a time Vinata, mother of Aruna and Garu<}a (cf. 
stanza 8, note i), had a wager with her sister and co-wife Kadru over 
the color of the tail of Indra's horse Uccaihsravas. The Kadraveyas (i.e. 
sons of Kadru), who were serpents, at Kadru's bidding changed them- 
selves into black hairs on Uccaihsravas's tail, and so enabled their mother 
to win the wager. Vinata, having lost, became the slave of the serpent 
Kadrave3ras. They, however, promised Garu<ja to set his mother free 
from slavery, if he would bring to them the immortality-causing ambrosia 
(amrta) which was produced in the Moon. After a series of exploits and 
adventures, Garu<ja actually succeeded in purloining the amfta, and was 
returning with it, when first Vi§nu, and then Indra, interfered. The 
upshot of the matter was that Garu<}a, in exchange for the gift of immor- 
tality, became Vi§nu's vehicle {Mahabharata, 1.33. 16-17), and that Indra 
made him promise not to let anyone drink the precious nectar. In return 
for this promise, Garu<ja was granted permission to feed perpetually on 


the snakes (Mahabhdrata, 1.34. 13-14). It was arranged that Ganija 
should present the amrta to the Kadraveyas, thus securing the freedom 
of Vinata, but that Indra should snatch it away before any of it could 
be taken. This program was duly carried out Garucja presented the 
amrta, and the Kadraveyas declared Vinata free. Then, while the Kadra- 
veyas were performing ceremonial ablutions preparatory to quaffing the 
sacred beverage, Indra, unseen, bore it away. The Kadraveyas licked the 
grass on which the amrta had been resting, and in consequence their 
tongues were cleft. As a whole the anecdote i^ probably to be regarded 
as the later form of the Vedic m3rth of the theft of Soma by the Eagle; 
cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 111-112, 152. 4. The reference is 
to Balarama, elder brother of Kr$na. The story is told that Balarama, 
when intoxicated, summoned the Yamuna (Jumna) to come to him, that 
he might bathe. His command being unheeded, he dug a furrow, or 
channel, with his plowshare, from the bank of the river, thus deflecting 
the waters and dragging them after him, until the Yamuna, assuming the 
shape of a human being, asked for his forgiveness; cf. Vifnu PurOna, 
5.25 (Wilson, vol. 5, p. 65-67). 5. Kr$na is entitled to be called *Sub- 
duer of the Snake,' because of his victory over the serpent Kaliya. The 
latter was a denizen of the River Yamuna, whose waters he caused to boil 
with the fires of passion, thus blighting the trees along the river's bank, 
and killing the birds by the engendered heat. Kr$na, in order to rid his 
friends, the cowherds of Vrndavana, of the presence of the hated monster, 
plunged into the stream and challenged Kaliya. After a struggle, the god 
gained the upper hand, and was about to slay the serpent, but was pre- 
vailed upon by the entreaties of the female serpents to spare his life. 
KSliya, although escaping death, was banished to the depths of ocean; cf. 
Vifnu Purana, 5. 7 (Wilson, vol 4, p. 286-296) ; BhOgavata Purdna, 10. 16 
(Dutt, voL 2, book 10, p. 79-87). There is also another story of a 
victory by Kf$na over a serpent, told in the BhAgavata Purdna, 10. 12. 
12-36 (Dutt, vol. 2, book 10, p. 54-56) ; there it is related that Kaipsa, 
king of Mathura, having been warned that Kr$na was destined to cause 
his death, sent a demon to destroy the god. This demon, assuming the 
form of a serpent, made a sudden and unexpected assault, and swallowed 
Kr$na and his friends the cowherds. The deity, however, as soon as he 
realized his predicament, at once expanded himself and burst the serpent, 
thus at the same time regaining his liberty and destro3nng his foe. 6. 
Lit sudUrafft means 'in a high degree'; I have rendered as 'decisive.' 
7. The * River of Heaven ' is the Ganges, which originated in heaven and 
descended to earth ; cf . Can(fUataka, stanza 3, note 2, and stanza 4, note 3. 
It is mentioned in the SUryaJataka, stanzas 45, 61, 66, 68, 70, 83, 95. 8. 
Lit. 'truly having a beauty imparted by copious froth, their own green- 
ness being spread [around].' The commentary, and also Bemheimer (see 
Introd., p. 105) would read nijasphlta-, 'their own copious froth, etc' 
The meaning is that as the horses toss their heads, the froth or saliva, 
that has gathered on their lips as a result of champing their bits, is scat- 
tered about, and lands here and there on their bodies, flecking them with 
white. For the green (harit) color of Surya's steeds, cf. stanza 8, note 2. 


V.L. (a) JHB -avakrmn^' (b) VJHB svarvahinyah (with lingual 
nasal) ; H sudrUratfi ; VJHB janitajavapayah, (c) V nirvyHjan tOyamane, 
J nirvydjaffi tupamanc ; VHB haritamani (with lingual nasal) ; K sphltO' 
phenasmitairfh, (d) JH samayatu (with dental nasal). 


margopante sumeror nuvati krtanatau nakadhamnam nikaye 
viksya vridanatanam pratikuharamukham kimnarinam mu- 

sute 'siiyaty api ''sajjadagati vahatam kamdharardhair valad- 

vahanatn vyasyatad vah samam asamaharer hesitam kalmasani 

While the assemblage of the gods, [gathered] along the road^ up 

Sumeru, is making obeisance and uttering [hymns of] praise. 
The horses [of Surya], catching sight of the faces of the 

Kimnara' women, who are modestly bowed at the entrance 

of every cavern. 
Proceed at a slightly slackened pace," with necks half-turned* [to 

look at the Kimnaras], although [such action] angers their 

May the simultaneous neighing of these horses of (Surya), whose 

steeds are uneven* [in number], take away your sin! 

Notes. I. Lit. 'on the border of the road/ a. The Kimnaras were 
mythical semi-divine beings, described in Hemacandra's Abhidhdnacin- 
tUtnani, 194 (ed. by iSivadatta and Parab, in Ahhidhdna-Sangraha, part 6, 
Bombay, 1896), as turatftgavadana, 'horse-faced/ So also in Amardkoia, 
1. 1. 71. They are frequently mentioned in the Mahdbhdrata, often in con- 
nection with Yak$as, Rak$asas, or other semi-divine beings ; cf . Sorensen's 
Index, s.v. See also Manu, i. 39, where they are classed with fish, cattle, 
men, etc., as products of Brahma's creative power. For other passages 
where it is said that Surya is praised by the Kitnnaras, see stanza 36, note 
2. 3. Lit. 'proceeding with a slightly torpid gait' The term l^ajja- 
4agati is best regarded as an adverb; or else, read l^ajjadagaHvahatdffi 
as a compound. 4. Lit ' with turning half-necks,' the instrumental being 
one of qualification, without governing preposition; cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Grammar, 279, and Speijer, Skt. Syntax, 67. 5. The meaning of the 
stanza seems to be as follows: The car of Surya is being driven up the 
slope of Meru through the midst of the gods, who offer praise and obla- 
tions as it passes ; but when the horses attached to the car catch sight of 
the horse-faced Kimnara women, they mistake them for other horses, and 


80 slacken their pace, and turn to look, and neigh. This action on their 
part arouses the anger of Aruna, their driver, who desires to drive past 
the assembled gods in dashing style. 6. Or, ' matchless.' 

VX. (b) VJHB bfidavatlnani pratikuhara-. (c) VH kandharOrddhOir, 
K kamdhardgrdifjt ; VHB vahadbhir. (d) VHB asamaharad hreptam, J 
asamaharer hrefitaifi. 


dhunvanto nIradaHr nijaruciharitah parSvayoh paksatulyas 
taluttanaih khalinaih khacitamukharucafi cyotata lohitena 
uddlyeva vrajanto viyati gativaSad arkavahah kriyasuh 
ksemam hemadrihrdyadrumaSikharafiirahfireniSakhdSuka vah 

(ity afivavarnanam) 

The horses of Arka (Surya), [resting] on the row of the summits 
of (Mem), the Golden Mountain,^ are like' parrots [perched] 
on the branches in the top of a favorite tree,* 

[For] they agitate the line of clouds that [project] like wings on 
either side,* and that have a greenish tinge [reflected] from 
their own [i. e., the horses* own] color,* 

And their beautiful mouths* are flecked^ with the blood that 
trickles out because of the bits stretched across their palates,* 

And, in conformity with their [usual] behavior, they, as it were, 
fly* up and move about in the sky. 

May these horses of Arka (Surya) bring you happiness ! 
(Here ends the description of the horses.)^* 

Notes. I. For a description of Mem, see stanza i, note 4. a. The 
commentary supplies iva, *like.' 3. Lit. 'parrots on the branches — 
which branches are the row of summits — in the top of a favorite tree — 
which tree is the Golden Mountain'; the compound is of unusual form, 
with the words curiously intermingled. 4. That is, as the horses fly 
through the clouds, the latter appear to be the wings of the horses. The 
commentary notes that parrots also flap their wings. 5. On harit, 
' green,' as applied to the horses of Surya, see stanza 8, note 2 ; stanza 46, 
note 8; and CaniflSataka, stanza 8, note 2. The commentary notes that 
parrots also are green (harit), 6. Lit. 'the beauty of their mouths.' 
7. Lit khacita means 'inlaid.' 8. For this same picture — the mouths 
of the horses stained with blood from the wotmds caused by the bits — see 
stanza 8. The commentary notes that parrots also have red on their 
beaks. 9. Parrots also of course fly. zo. For the divisions of the 

1 68 THE suryaSataka of mayura 

subject-matter of the SUryaiataka, see Introd., p. 84, The following twelve 
stanzas — ^viz. 50 to 61 — ^are devoted to the praise of Anina, the charioteer. 

V.L. (b) VJHB ianQttanaih; VHB -mukharucacyotata, J -mukha^ 
rucahi cyotata, (d) B hemadrihrdyadradruma-. 


pratahsailagrarange rajanijavanikapayasamlaksyalaksmir 
viksipya 'piirvapuspanjalim udunikaram sutradharayamanah 
jramesv ankesv iva linah krtarucisu catursv eva jatapratistham 
avyat prastavayan vo jagadatanamahanatikam suryasiitah 

The* charioteer of Surya [appears] on the top of (Meru), the 
Dawn Mountain, [as on] a stage, with his splendor revealed 
by the removal of the curtain of night. 

And, coming forward^ as the director,* scatters multitudes of the 
stars as handfuls of wonderful flowers,* 

And utters the prologue of the great drama [whose action com- 
prises] the wandering [of Surya] over the universe — 

[A drama] that verily produces fixed arrangement in the four 
divisions of the day,* whose splendor is [successively] un- 
folded as if in [four* successive] acts. 

May (Aruna), the charioteer of Surya, protect you! 

Notes. I. Stanzas 50-61 are especially devoted to the praise and descrip- 
tion of Anina, the charioteer of Surya's car; cf. stanza 8, note i. In this 
stanza appears another of the rather elaborate similes that occur here and 
there in the SUryaMaka (cf. stanza 14, note i). The 'Wandering of 
Surya over the Universe' forms the subject of a drama. The stage is the 
top of Mt Meru. Night is the curtain. Aruna, the Dawn, is the director, 
who appears on the stage, scattering the stars instead of the customary 
flowers, and utters the prologue. It is of course quite apropos that Dawn, 
the forerunner of Surya, should give the prologue where Surya is to be 
the chief actor. The four periods of the day are the four acts. The tech- 
nical words ndtika, 'drama*; ranga, 'stage'; javanikd, 'curtain'; sUtra- 
dfUtrOf 'director'; arika, 'act'; and prastavayan, 'uttering the prologue,' arc 
readily recognized by students of the Sanskrit dramatic literature. a. 
With sUtradhHr&yamanah, 'coming forward as the director,' compare the 
similar formations, t/e/rayatn^t^d/f/ appearing as the doorkeepers,' in stanza 
II (note 6), and padfnarUgQyamdnah, 'appearing as the ruby,' in stanza 56 
(note s). 3. I have rendered sUtradhdra by ' director.' It is more com- 
monly translated as ' stage-manager,' but the real term for the latter seems 
to have been sthapaka; cf. Konow and Lanman, Rdjagekhara's Karpura- 


manjarl, p. 217, and p. 223, note 8. 4. It was customary for the * direc- 
tor' (satradhdra), or the leading performer, to scatter handfuls of flowers 
when beginning the prologue; cf. H. H. Wilson, Theatre of the Hindus, 
vol. I, introd., p. 67, 3d ed., London, 1871. 5. That is, divides the day 
into four fixed periods. The word ySma denotes a period of three hours, 
like the vigilia of the Romans. 6. The ndfikd regularly had four acts ; 
cf. Wilson, Theatre of the Hindus, vol. i, introd., p. 31 ; Sylvain Levi, Le 
Theatre Indien, p. 146, 155, Paris, 1890; DaiarUpa, ed. Haas, 3.48^ p. 96^ 
where full references to Hindu dramaturgic treatises are given. 

V.L. (a) HB 'Mligravange, (b) V u4anikaram, (c) VK eva ydtah 
pratiffham, JHB eva ydtah pratiftam. 


akrantya vahyamanam paSum iva harina vahako 'gryo harinam 
bhramyantam paksapataj jagati samarucih sarvakarmaikasaksi 

&itrum netraSrutiham avajayati vayojyesthabhave same 'pi 
sthamnam dhanmam nidhir yah sa bhavadaghanude nutanah 
stad anuruh 

(Aruna), the Foremost Driver of Horses, is superior^ to 
(Garuda), who is forcibly ridden by Hari* (Visnu), like a 
brute beast. 

And (Aruna), the Sole Witness* of Every Deed, whose splendor 
is equally [diffused] over all the world [without <partial- 
ity>],* is superior to (Garuda), who wanders over the world 
<by the flapping of his wings>. 

And (Aruna) is superior to (Garuda), Foe of Serpents,*^ even 
though <the nature* of (Garuda), Chief of Birds>, is the 
same as that of (Aruna), <who is his elder [in point] of 

May that [ever] new Thighless^ (Aruna), the repository of 
eternal® splendors, bring about the removal of your sin ! 

Notes. I. As the commentary notes, the superiority here mentioned lies 
in a word-pun — the idea being that Aruna, who drives the hari (horses) 
of Surjra, is better off than Garuda, who is driven by Hari (Vi§nu). For 
somewhat analogous puns on the word hari, cf. stanzas 53, 64, 71, 72, and 
CandUataka, stanzas 15 and 19. a. For Garuda as the vehicle of Vi$nu 
see Mahdbharata, i. 33. 16-17 ; cf. stanza 47, note 3, where a summary 
of Garu^a's adventures is given; cf. also Wilkins, Hindu Mythology, p. 
451-453. 3. Cf. stanzas 21 and 32, where Surya is called the *Eyc of 


the Three Worlds/ and also an anonymous commentator on the BhaktHma- 
rastotra (cf. Introd., p. 24), who calls Surya the 'Witness of the World's 
Deeds.' 4. As the commentary again points out, there is here another 
word-pun — though only implied — ^to account for Aruna's superiority over 
his brother, the idea being that Aruna diffuses light without pak^ap&ta (par- 
tiality), but Garuda must use pakfapata (wing-flapping) in moving about 
5. Garuda was the inveterate foe of all serpents; cf. stanza 47, note 3. 
Lit netriUrufindm means ' of those whose ears are eyes/ but the gloss is 
sarpni^m, 'of serpents/ 6. The nature of Aruna and Garuda was the 
same, since they were both bom of the same parents. In fact, they would 
have been twins, but for the impatience of their mother Vinata, who 
brought forth Aruna in an imperfect state — ^thighless — ^some 500 years 
before the birth of Garuda ; cf . the story related above in stanza 8, note i. 
7. Aruna was thighless {anUru) ; cf. the citation in note 6. 8. The 
word sthUmnHfii, according to the lexicons, is a noun and means 'of 
strengths' or 'of places'; the gloss, however, is sthirdndtfi, an adjective 
meaning 'of fixed/ 'of eternal/ 

V.L. (a) VJHB harinatfi vdhako, (c) VB latratfi netra-, (d) VJHB 
sthUmna dhamndrfi ; JHB nUtancistHd. 


dattirghair duranamrSir viyati vinayato viksitah siddhasar- 

sanathyam sarathir vah sa da&i§ataruceh satirekam karotu 
api3ra pratar eva pratatahimapayahsyandinir indubhaso 
yah kasthadipano 'gre jadita iva bhrSam sevate prsthato Vkam 

(Aruna), the charioteer of the Thousand-rayed (Surya), is gazed 
on in the sky by troops of Siddhas,^ who respectfully* pre- 
sent oblations and make deep obeisance. 

And indeed, after having, at dawn, swallowed* up the splendors 
of Indu (the Moon), which oozes with the water of the 
snow that overspreads it, 

[He becomes], <as it were, chilled* through [with cold]>, [and] 
worships Arka (the Sun) with his back* [to it], cwhile light- 
ing up the directions [of the sky] in front [of him]», 

<Like [a man] thoroughly numbed [with cold]>, who worships 
Arka* (the Sun) with his back [to it], and ckindles the fuel 
in front [of him]». 

May this (Aruna), the charioteer of the Thousand-rayed^ 
(Surya), afford you abundant assistance! 


Notes, z. On the Siddhas, see stanza 6, note 8. 2. The term vina- 
yatas appears to be an adverb formed, with the ablative -tas ending, from 
vinaya, 'propriety of conduct/ 'decency'; the gloss is praJraydt, 'with 
respectful demeanor'; I have rendered as 'respectfully/ 3. Lit npiya 
means ' having drunlc' iSaranadeva in his Durghafavftti (cf . Suryaiataka, 
stanza 2, note 3) has noted as a grammatical peculiarity (see PSnini, 6. 4- 
69) the gerund Aplya, with i instead of A (see Sastri's edition of the 
Durghafavrtti, p. 104, line 9). 4. The fanciful idea that Arui(ia, the 
Dawn, becomes chilled from drinking the melted snows of the Moon, is 
an instance of the rhetorical figure utprek^S; cf. stanza i, note 6. 5. 
Lit pf^fhatas means ' behind the back,' ' secretly ' ; I have rendered ' with 
his back [to it],' the idea seeming to be that Aruna has his back to Surya, 
his passenger, and while facing ahead to direct his horses, sheds light 
on the regions in front of the car. 6. The commentary quotes the 
following Iloka from an unnamed source: pr^thato 'rkarfi nifeveta jafha- 
rena hutOJanam, 'one should worship Arka (Surya) with his back [to 
it], but (Fire), whose food is oblations, facing it (literally, with the 
belly)/ This quotation is probably to be referred to Hitopadela, 2.2.3 
(see 3d revised edition by Gocjabole and Parab, Bombay, 1890), where the 
words are almost identical : Pfffhatah sevayed arkatft jafharena huto^anam. 
7. For the thousand rays of Surjra, cf. stanza 13, note 11. 

V.L. (a) V dattagfuUr, JH dattargher, B dattdrghedrUranamrOir, H 
drUranamrdir; VJB siddhasanghoih, H siddhasatnghoih, K stddhasHdhyOih. 
(b) J samarthyatfi sdrathir; VB vah sudaJaJataruceh ; H karottu. (c) 
V pratatahimamayafi' ; VHB -syandanlr indubhUso, (d) B ja4ina iva 


muHcan rallmin dinadau dinagamasamaye samharamll ca 

totraprakhyataviryo 'virataharipadakrantibaddhabhiyogah 
kalotkarsal laghutvam prasabham adhipatau yojayan yo dvi- 

sevapritena pusna ''tmasama iva krtas trayatam so 'runo vah 

Aruna has been made by Pusan (Surya), who was pleased with 

his (Aruna's) devotion, the equal,^ as it were, of (Pusan) 

himself : 
For Pusan <pours out his rays at the b^^ning of the day, and at 

the end of the day withdraws them, in accordance with his 

own will>,* 
And Aruna <loosens the reins at the banning of the day, and at 

the end of the day gathers them in, in accordance with his 

own will> ; 


Pusan's <might is celebrated in hymns* of praise>, and chis eflforts 

are continually bent on mounting the sky»,* 
And Anina <is renowned for prowess with the goad>,* and chis 

care is constantly exercised in [watching] the stepping of his 

horses' f eet»' ; 
Pusan <bestows signal insignificance on (the Moon), the Lord of 

the Twice-born* (Brahmans), through the protraction of 

And Aruna <bestows signal insignificance on (Garuda), Lord of 

the Twice-born® (Birds), because of pre-eminence in age>.* 
May that Aruna protect you ! 

Notes. I. The ' equality/ like the ' similarity ' in stanzas 25 and 47, rests 
only on word-puns. a. Grammatically, svatantras, 'independent' or 
'relying on one's own will,' is nominative, modifsring 'runo, 3. The 
words svatantrastotra-, when referring to Aruna, must be resolved as 
svatantras totra-, but when applied to Pu$an, svatantra stotra- must be 
read. For the omission of visarga, when, as in the latter case, an initial 
sibilant is followed by a surd mute, cf. Whitney, Skt. Grammar, 173, a. If 
it is permissible to read svatantrastotra . . . 7/iryo as one compound, we 
might render '(Pu$an), whose power is celebrated in hymns and tantras 
of his own.* Pu$an is celebrated in 8 hymns of the Rig Veda; cf. for 
example 6. 53 and 10. 26. For the etymology of Pu§an, from the root pu^, 
see Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 37. 4. Literally, haripada means * a 
step of Hari (Vi§nu),' but the gloss is dkdsa, 'sky.' Vi§nu once covered 
the sky with one of his famous ' three steps ' ; cf . the anecdote related in 
stanza 7, note 4; for other puns on hari, meaning 'Vi$nu' and 'horse,' 
cf. stanza 51, note i. 5. The commentary offers, as an alternate render- 
ing, iuragapadHir akrQnto baddha udyamo, ' whose concentrated {haddha) 
exertion is outdone by the feet (or footsteps) of the horses.' 6. A 
Brahman is said to be 'twice-born,' because he is supposed to undergo 
spiritual regeneration at the time of his investiture with the sacred thread 
— the upanayana ceremony ; cf . Manu, 2. 36, and Monier-Williams, Indian 
Wisdom, p. 201, 3d ed., London, 1876. The commentary states that 
adhipatau dvijQnQffi, in its second rendering, means 'the Moon, (Candra), 
the Lord of Brahmans {dvijUnOffi brShmandnUm adhipatau candre)'; cf. 
Vifnu Purdna, 1.22 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 85), and 4.6 (Wilson, vol. 4, p. 2). 

7. The commentary explains: 'The time of the rising of the rays of 
(Surya), Maker of Day, is protracted (prakr^ta)*; this means, perhaps, 
that the moon gets dimmer and dimmer as time (i.e. daylight) advances. 

8. Birds are 'twice-bom,' being born once in the egg and a second time 
from the egg. 9. Lit. 'because of pre-eminence in time,' but the com- 
mentary explains: 'Because of his birth at a previous time (pUrvakdlot' 
pannatvOt).' Aruna was bom 500 years before Garuda ; cf. stanza 8, note i. 


V.L. (a) B muncanna^mln ; V samharai ca ; VJ svatantrah stotra-, HB 
svatandrastotra-, (b) K vitataharipad-. (d) VJHBK pU^nd svasama iva. 


Satah fyamHatayah paraSur iva tamo'ranyavahner iva 'rcih 
pracyeva 'gre grahitum grahakumudavanam prag udasto 

aikyam bhindan dyubhumyor avadhir iva vidhateva visvapra- 



vahanam vo vineta vyapanayatu vipan nama dhamadhipasya 

The driver of the horses of (Surya), Lord of Splendor, is like a 

sharp ax, [ready to cut] the vine of night, or like the gleam 

of a fire in the forest of darkness,^ 
Or like the fingers of a hand,* raised at dawn to gprasp, [as if 

they were] a bunch of lotuses, the planets [that lie] in front 

of the eastern quarter,* 
Or like a boundary line, breaking the unity of earth and sky,* or 

like <Brahma>," <causing> the awakening of the universe.* 
May this driver of the horses of (Surya), Lord of Splendor, 

verily remove your misfortunes^! 

Notes. I. Bernheimer (see Introd., p. 105) renders: *che abbrucia 
Toscuriti come il f uoco la f oresta/ a. The commentary glosses 'grahastah, 
* fore-hand/ by hastHgrah, 'tip of a hand'; I have rendered as 'fingers 
of a hand.' 3. The commentary has prUcya purvayd diia *gre purastat, 
which seems to mean *in front of the eastern quarter.' 4. Owing to 
the darkness of night, the place on the horizon where earth ends and sky 
begins cannot be distinguished; earth and sky are therefore seemingly 
unified; but when the light of Dawn (Aruna) approaches, the horizon 
becomes visible, and the apparent unity of earth and sky is broken. The 
honzon-line, being on the boundary, ordinarily breaks this unity, but since 
it is also broken by Dawn (Aruna), this Aruna, the driver of Surya's 
steeds, may be compared, as he is here, to the horizon-line. 5. Brahma, 
at every creation, quickens the void slumbering mass of matter into life; 
cf. Viptu Purdna, i. 5 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 6&-88) ; Manu, 1. 1-13. Dawn, 
since he rouses the sleeping world to life, is comparable to Brahma, who 
puts life into dormant matter. 6. The imagining of Dawn (Aruna) 
under the guise of an ax, fire-light, a hand, a boundary-line, or Brahm§, 
exemplifies the rhetorical figure utprek^d, or * Poetic Fancy ' ; cf . stanza i, 
note 6. 7. Note that vipad, which is regularly feminine, is here appar- 
ently neuter. 

V.L. (a) J iflto ^yamOlatayah. (b) HB prdcy ogre prOg grahUuffl. 



paurastyas t03radartoh pavana iva patatpavakasyeva dhumo 
vi&vasyeva ''disargah pranava iva param pavano vedarfilleh 
aatndhyanrtyotsavecchor iva madanaripor nandinandminadah 
saurasjri 'gre sukham vo vitaratu vinatanandanah syandanasjra 

(Aruna), who rejoices Vinata/ [standing] in the forepart of 

Surya's chariot, 
Is like the east wind* of the rainy season, like the smoke* of the 

fire that has descended* [from heaven], 
Like the original creation* of the universe, like Om/ the supreme 

purifier of the compilation of the Vedas, 
And like the sound of the drum^ of Nandi,® preceding (Siva), Foe 

of Madana,* [when he is] desirous of the twilight dance.^® 
May [Aruna] bestow happiness upon you ! 

Notes, z. Vinata was the mother of Aruna ; of. stanza 8, note i. a. 
Aruna and the east wind are said to be alike for the following reason. 
Aruna (Dawn) is the herald of the sun, and his coming is the signal for 
mankind to begin their daily round of the ordinary duties of life, whereas 
the east wind is the herald of the rainy season, and its coming is the 
signal for mankind to begin plowing and other agricultural tasks. This 
seems to be the meaning of the commentary, from which I quote as fol- 
lows : ' Just as verily the east wind, perceived in the beginning of the rainy 
season, and indicating the rains, causes mortals to busy themselves with 
their plowing and the other duties incident to that time, even so this 
(Aruna) also, when perceived in the forepart of [Surya's] car, indicating 
[]. e. heralding] Surya's car, causes mortals to busy themselves with the 
duties, in city or village, that occur at that time/ 3. Aruna and the 
smoke are alike, because both precede the kindling of the sacrificial fire. 
When the sacrificial fire is kindled by attrition with the twirling-stick 
(aranl), smoke comes before the flame or spark appears; and Aruna 
(Dawn) must come before the sacrificial fire may rightfully be kindled. 
This is the explanation of the commentary, which says: 'Just as, when 
the twirling-stick (aranl) is twirled, the smoke, perceived first, indicates 
the descent of Vaisvanara (Agni, or Fire), even so this (Aruna), causing 
the sacrificer to busy himself with the sacrifices of the new moon and the 
full moon, is like smoke, with the idea (iti) that there is non-performance 
of these [sacrifices] while Surya is [yet] unrisen/ 4. The god Agni 
(Fire) descends from heaven to the sacrifice. 5. The commentary, in 
explaining why Aruna is like the original creation, says : ' Like the original 
creation of the three worlds, composed of the five elements, and charac- 
terized by the following [development] : From the primal element 


(pradhana) [came] intelligence (mahat) ; from intelligence [came] indi- 
vidualization (aharfikdra) [cf. Vi^nu Purdna, 1.2 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 2^ 
33)]. By the employment of the word Odi (' original' )» he distinguishes 
the creations of [i.e. that follow] the secondary destructions of the world 
[at the end of every kalpa]. Just as the original creation, approaching 
the causation of the manifestation of the universe, arrives at the condi- 
tion of causing mortals to be intent on the objects of their respective 
pursuits whose end is final beatitude, even so this (Aruna) also, placed 
in the forepart [of Surya's- car], approaching the state of being the cause 
in regard to the knowledge of the manifestation of Surya's car, marks 
[i.e. is the distinguishing characteristic of] the state of the 'half -risen' 
time [i.e. twilight, when neither stars nor sun are visible]. Verily at this 
time the sacrifice of these begins, not [at the time] when he is [yet] 
unrisen.' 6. Aruna is like Om. The former stands in the forepart of 
Surya's chariot, and the latter stands at the beginning of the Vedas. 
Aruna really purifies a man who engages in ceremonial bathings, sacrifices, 
the presenting of oblations, and the like, because these forms of worship 
are not efficacious till Aru^a (Dawn) has appeared; and Om purifies a 
man who engages in the utterance of mantras and prayers extracted from 
the Vedas, because such mantras and prayers are not efficacious unless 
prefaced by the pronouncement of the syllable Om, On this the com- 
mentary says: 'For it (Om) is indeed uttered at the beginning of the 
Vedas, and it purifies a human being by means of the pronouncing of 
muttered prayers and precepts. Even so Anuru (Aruna) also stands in 
the front part of the car of Surya, and purifies a human being by means 
of the performance of ceremonial bathing, gifts, muttered prayers, obla- 
tions, etc Thus [Aruna is said to be the purifier], because of the non- 
occurrence of ceremonial bathings, etc., while he is [yet] unrisen; there- 
fore he is like Om,' 7. The ordinary lexicons do not give the meaning 
'drum' for nUndl, but the gloss is murajavUe^a, 'a kind of drum.' 8. 
Nandi, as is well known, was one of iSiva's attendants. 9. Madana is 
a name of Kama, the god of love. The story is told that on one occasion 
this Hindu Cupid dared to shoot the arrows of love at the great god Siva. 
The latter wandered everywhere, seeking rest for his love-harried soul, 
and constantly calling for his dead wife Sati. Upon meeting K§ma some 
time afterwards, he recognized in him the cause of his unhappiness, and 
burnt him to ashes with his third eye. Such is the story told at length 
in the Vdmana Purdna (cf. Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, p. 297-300), and 
briefly alluded to in RamSyana, i. 23. 10-14. A different account is given 
in other Pur^nas, which state that the gods, oppressed by the demon 
Taraka, could not be freed unless a son of iSiva should come into exist- 
ence and slay the demon. iSiva, however, since the demise of his wife 
Sati, was utterly insensible to the tender passion. So the gods urged 
Kama to shoot an arrow at iSiva when deep in meditation, and thus inflame 
him with love for Parvati, who was standing nearby and was pining with 
love for the great god. Kama, persuaded, shot the bolt, but paid dearly 
for his temerity, for Siva, angered at the disturbance of his meditations, 


turned on the disturber the full blaze of his third eye and reduced him 
to ashes; cf. Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, p. 300, footnote. This latter 
version of the legend is a favorite one with the ^iva Puranas (cf . Wilson's 
translation of Vi^nu PurHna, vol. 5, p. 76, note i), and is prettily told by 
Bana, in the third act of his Parvattparinaya (ed. by M. R. Telang, Bom- 
bay, 1892; cf. the German translation, under the title PQrvatVs Hochseit, 
by K. Glaser, Triest, 1886), and by Kalidasa, in the third canto of his 
Kumdrasambhava, See also the illustration in Wilkins, Hindu Mythology, 
p. 258. It may be noted, in passing, that apparently no mention of the 
Kama legend is found in the Vedas, there being no reference to it, at any 
rate, in Macdonell's Vedic Mythology; and, judging by the references in 
Sorensen's Index, it receives but the barest mention in the MahObhUrata 
(12. 190.10). Kama, after his body had been burnt, became known as 
Ananga, 'Bodiless One'; cf. RamHyana, 1.23. 14. Reference to Kama's 
unhappy fate is made in SUryaiataka, stanza 80, and Can(fUataka, stanza 
49. 10. Aruna and the sound of Nandi's drum are alike, for Aruna 
(Dawn) heralds the approach of the sun in the morning-twilight, and 
Nandi's drum heralds the approach of Siva for the evening-twilight dance. 
In Can4i^ataka, stanza 16, Siva's fondness for the twilight dance is again 

V.L. (a) VHBK patan pQvakasyeva. (b) V prdvanarfi vedarOieh, JHB 
povanatft vedardleh. (c) B sandhyanrtyoatsav-. 


paryaptam taptacamikarakatakatate SlistaSitetaramiiav 
asidatsyamdanaSvanukitimarakate padmaragayamanah 
yah sotkarsam vibhusam kuruta iva kulaksmabhrdiSasya meror 
enamsy dhnaya duram gamayatu sa g^ruh kadraveyadviso vah 

(Aruna), the Elder Brother* of (Garuda), Foe of the Kadra- 
veyas,^ constitutes, as it were, the most splendid ornament 
of Meru, Lord of the Principal Mountains* ; 

For on the slope of its ridge of molten gold,* to which the Hot- 
rayed (Surya) closely clings, 

He appears as the ruby,** while the emerald is the reflection* of 
the approaching chariot-horses.^ 

May that (Aruna), Elder Brother of (Garuda), i*oe of the 
Kadraveyas, speedily remove your sins afar ! 

Notes. I. For the relationship of Aruna and Cjaru<}a, cf. stanza 8» note 
I. 3. For Garuda, and his enmity to the Kadraveyas, see stanza 47, note 
3. 3. Lit kulak ftnabhft means 'Family Mountain.' The principal ranges 


supposed to exist in each var^a, or continental division, are meant The 
seven ranges of Bharatavar$a (India) are enumerated in the Vi^nu 
Purana, 2.3 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 127, note 2). 4. On Meru's composition 
of gold and precious stones, cf. stanza i, note 4. 5. With the com- 
pound padmar&gayatndnah, 'appearing as the ruby,' compare the similar 
formations, vetrHyamdfUih, 'appearing as the doorkeepers,' in stanza 11, 
and sUtradhdrHyanUinah, 'appearing as the director,' in stanza 50. 6. 
The horses of Surya were supposed to be greenish in color (cf. stanza 8, 
note 2) ; hence it is quite appropriate that they be compared to emeralds. 
7. The commentary notes : ' Just as a golden sort of ornament, inlaid with 
emeralds and rubies, often constitutes the adornment of any overlord of 
earth-bearing kings, even so of this* (Meru) also.' That is to say, Mem 
is the king, the gleaming sunlight is the golden ornament, the dawn 
(Aruna) is the ruby, and the green (harit) horses are the emeralds. For 
other similes contained in the SUryaiataka, cf. stanza 14, note i. 

V.L. (a) V 'katakatalo; HB taptathamlkarakatakatafUliftoBtetarane^a 
rdsidat (B -^tieJa rasidat)fVJ 'HtetarUffiior, (b) K-O^anukftamarakate. 
(d) JH enHmsy ahvdya; JH samayatu, VB lamayatu. 


nitva '§van sapta kaksa iva niyamava&im vetrakalpapratodas 
turnam dhvantasya raiav itarajana ivotsarite durabhdji 
purvam prastho rathasya ksitibhrdadhipatin darSayams tra3ra- 

tam vas 
trailokyasthanadanodyatadivasapateh prakpratiharapalah 

[Aruna] ,^ exercising a restraining control over his seven steeds,* 
as [a doorkeeper would] over seven* apartments, and pos- 
sessing a goad like a [porter's] staff, 

Quickly drives away to the far distance the [dark] mass of night, 
as though [it were] a common person* ; 

[And], as the conductor from of old of [Surya's] car, he ushers 

into view the lordly mountains. 
And is the principal doorkeeper* of (Surya), Lord of Day, 

[when that deity is] intent on granting audience to the three 

May [Aruna] protect you ! 

Notes, z. Note throughout the stanza the comparison between Aru^a 
and a doorkeeper. a. Lit. 'having led the seven steeds to the control 
of a restraint'; on the seven steeds, cf. stanza 8, note 2. 3. According 



to the commentary, the word sapta, 'seven/ must be taken as modifying 
both ahfUn, 'steeds/ and kakf&h, 'apartments/ This is in accordance with 
the rhetorical figure known as ' the maxim of the crow's eyeball {kdkdkfu- 
golakanyHyd) * a figure that, to quote Apte (Skt-EngL Diet. s.v. nydya), 
* takes its origin from the supposition that the crow has but one eye, and 
that it can move it, as occasion requires, from the socket on one side into 
that of the other; and the maxim is applied to a word or phrase which, 
though used only once in a sentence, may, if occasion requires, serve two 
purposes/ 4. Lit. 'the mass of darkness, like an "outsider," being driven 
away, possessing distance/ The commentary notes: 'Just as an "out- 
sider" is driven away, [and], being held by the throat, is thrown out/ 
5. I have rendered prdkpratlharapfllaJt as ' principal doorkeeper,' following 
the commentary, whose gloss is mahapratihdrahk, 6. Or, a possible alter- 
nate rendering may be : ' intent on [distributing] gifts in his audience-hall, 
the three worlds.' 

V.L. (a) K sapta kak^ydh, (d) J tmiokyOsthana-. 


vajrin jatam vikasi 'Iraanakamalavanam bhasi na 'l)hasi vahne 
tatam tiatva 'iSvaparivan nayB, jrama mahisam riksasa viksitah 

saptin sinca pracetah pavana bhaja javam vittapa 'Voditas 

vande Sarveti jalpan pratidi&am adhipan patu pusno 'granir 


(Aruna), who precedes Pusan (Surya), addresses the r^ent- 
guardians [of the quarters], r^on by region, saying: 

*0 Vajrin* (Indra), the lotus-cluster of thine eyes has opened; 
O Vahni (Agni), thou dost not shine in complete* splendor*; 

O Yama, after making obeisance to thy father* (Surya), lead 
thy buffalo* away from the horses; O Raksasas, ye are 

glanced at* ; 
O Pracetas (Varuna), sprinkle the horses^; O Pavana (Wind), 

shed [on us] the vehemence® [of thy breath] ; O Vittapa 

(Kubera), thou art announced* ; O Sarva (Siva), I greet** 

May (Aruna), who precedes Pusan (Surya), protect you! 

Notes, z. On the eight guardians of the points of the compass, here 
addressed by Aruna, cf. stanza 18, note 10. 2. According to the com- 

THE suryaSataea OF mayOra 1 79 

raentary, the fl- of abhasi is equivalent to samantUt, * completely.' Monicr- 
Williams, Skt-Engl, Diet, s.v. d (4), recalls another instance of the same 
usage in a commentary on Raghuvaifiia, 3.8. 3. The commentary ex- 
plains: 'O Vahni (Agni), now that thy master (Surya) is risen thou 
dost not shine exceedingly splendidly (dbhOsi adverbially) [by contrast 
with him]/ 4. According to the Rig Veda (10. 14.5; 10. 17. 1-2), Yama 
was the son of Vivasvat (Surya) and Sarai^yu, the daughter of Tva$tar. 
5. The buffalo was Yama's vehicle; cf. Crooke, Popular Religion and 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. 2, p. 156; Monier- Williams, BrUhmanism 
and Hinduism, p. 104, note 3. The lexicons give tnahifavShana, 'whose 
vehicle is a buffalo/ and mahifadhvaja, 'whose emblem is a buffalo/ as 
epithets of Yama, but I have been unable to learn how the buffalo came 
to be associated with Yama. The command here addressed to Yama, to 
lead his buffalo away from the horses, was prompted, the commentary says, 
by 'the endless enmity of these towards each other.' Cf. Can4^iataka, 
stanza 8, where the buffalo-demon Mahi$a threatens to attack the buffalo 
of Yama. 6. The meaning seems to be that though Surya regards the 
demon Rak^asas as the dust under his feet, he yet deigns to notice them 
with a word and a glance. The commentary explains: 'These, although 
the lowest caste of the gods, are made happy by the [meager] greeting, 
" ye are glanced at," [which is vouchsafed them] because of their appoint- 
ment to the guardianship of a quarter [of the heavens]. For a servant, 
when commended by his master according to his deserts, becomes attentive 
to his duties with a deathless devotion.' The Rak$asas were the guardians 
of the southwest quarter; cf. stanza i8» note 10. With vikiitah stha, 
' ye are glanced at,' cf. no dfiyase, ' thou art not seen ' (i.e. ' thou art dis- 
dained'), in Majrura's stanza entitled 'The Dream of Kr$na,' translated 
below, p. 241. 7. The commentary explains: 'He (Varuna) is verily 
obliged [to fulfil] this command because of his being the generator of 
water. He is honored by this master (Surya), for a servant deems him- 
self happy upon receiving a command from his master.' 8. The mean- 
ing seems to be that Pavana (Wind) is requested to blow hard, and so 
to cool the horses by causing the water, with which they have been 
sprinkled by Varuna, to evaporate. The commentary says: 'O Pavana 
(Wind), shed [on us] the vehemence [of thy breath], because of which 
the horses proceed gladly, after having received the sprinklings from 
Varuna, enjoying the coolness [bestowed] on thy part' g. The com- 
mentary says: 'Inasmuch as this (Kubera), being attentive to his own 
duty, is the sole cause of stability in the three worlds, and is also intent 
on the protection of his pair of treasures, named 'Shell' {iankha) and 
'Lotus' (padma), therefore he is respectfully announced to the blessed 
Ravi (Surya)/ In the literature the two treasures of Kubera are often 
personified, and often grouped together ; cf . e.g. MahUbhUrata, 2. 10. 39 ; 
RUmdyana, 7. 15. 16; HarivatfiJa, 1.44. 17; Rajatarangiifi, 1.30. In later 
literature Kubera is often credited with the possession of nine treasures 
(nidhi), which, in the Tantrik system, are worshiped as demi-gods; cf. 
Butt's translation of Harivafflla, p. 188, footnote 3. za iSiva is saluted 


as an equal. The commentary explains: 'Ravi (Surya) is Sarva (Siva) 
through having 8 forms. For it is said : ddityatfi ca Hvam vidydc chivam 
adityarupinam [ubhayor antaratn nd 'sti adityasya Hvasya cd\t "One should 
know Aditya as Siva, and Siva as the incarnation of Aditya (Surya) ; 
[there is no difference between these two — Aditya (Surya) and Siva]."' 
The commentary does not name the source of the iloka, 

V.L. (a) VB vajrin jatatft (with dental nasal) ; VJHB viktUlk^ana- 
(with palatal sibilant) ; VJHBK bhdsi no hhUsi, (b) HB yama hi^am, 
(c) J saptOn sinca, (d) HB vande ^awditi, 


paSan aSantapalad aruna varunato ma grahih pragrahartham 
trsnam krsnasya cakre jahihi na hi ratho yati me naikacakrah 
yoktum yugyam kim uccaihSravasam abhilasasy astamam 

tyaktanyapeksaviSvopakrtir iti ravih §asti yam so 'vatad vah 

Ravi* (Surya), who requires no assistance from others in be- 
stowing his benefits on the universe,^ instructs (Aruna), 
saying : 

*0 Aruna, do not take for thy reins the nooses' of Varuna, 
guardian of the [western] end of the sky ; 

Abandon* thy yearning for the disk*^ of Krsna (Visnu), for my 
car moves on only one wheel® ; 

Why dost thou desire to yoke up, as an eighth steed, Uccaih- 
sravas,^ [the horse] of (Indra), Foe of Vrtra?' 

May that (Aruna) protect you! 

Notes, z. The meaning of this stanza appears to be as follows : Aruna 
desires to borrow the nooses of Vanina for reins, Vi§nu's disk for a 
second wheel, and Indra's horse Uccailisravas. to be added to the seven 
that regularly draw the sun's car. Ravi (Surya), however, who wishes 
to bestow his benefits without the aid of any other divinity, forbids his 
driver to add in any way to the usual equipment of the car by borrowing 
from the other gods. a. Lit ' who abandons [the bestowing of] benefits 
on the universe in association with others.' The commentary explains: 
* The meaning is that in the matter of showing favor to the universe, he 
does not require as his helper any person, such as some protector of the 
quarters.' 3. The noose (pdJa) was Varuna's attribute and weapon. It 
is associated with him even in the Rig Veda (cf. 10.85.24, varunasya 
paM), and seems to have been used by him as a means for punishing the 
wicked; cf. Manu, 9.308, varunena yathd piXi&ir haddha evU 'bhidflyate. 


* just as [the sinner] is verily seen, bound with nooses by Varuna ' [' sin- 
ner ' is supplied from the context]. In Atharva Veda, 4. i6. 6-7, the nooses 
of Varuna are said to be 'seven by seven/ and they are all especially 
invoked to bind those that speak untruths. In KumOrasambhava, 2. 21, and 
Can4^ataka, stanza 23, may be found further references to Varuna's 
nooses. For Varuna as guardian of the west, see stanza i8» note 10. 4. 
The form jahihi, 'abandon/ with short penult, is required here by the 
meter; the regular form is jahihi, with long penult, although jahihi is 
allowed by the grammarians; cf. Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 665. The 
form jahihi occurs again in Can4liataka, stanza 34. 5. The locative 
cakre is seemingly here used to express the object of a feeling, and de- 
pends upon tf^ftUfft, 'yearning for the disk'; cf. Whitney, Skt, Grammar, 
304, b. For a representation of Vi$nu holding on one finger the small 
wheel-shaped discus, see Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 6, p. 22. 6. Lit 

* for my car does not go [if] not on one wheeL' For other double nega- 
tives, see stanza 23, note 9 ; for the ' one wheel ' cf . stanza 8, note 2. 7. 
Uccaihsravas, 'Long Ears* or 'Loud Neigher' — so the etymology is 
given by Monier- Williams, Skt. -Engl Diet, s.v. — was Indra's steed, and 
was one of the products of the churning of the ocean; cf. the references 
cited in stanza 42, notes 3 and 14. 

V.L. (c) V yHugyaffi kim, J yogyaffi kim, B yugmatft kim; K tvUffra^a- 
troh. (d) B lOstri yatft so 'tad vah, 


no murchachinnavanchah iSramavivaiSavapur naiva na 'py 

panthah pathyetarani ksapajratu bhavatam bhasvato 'gresarah 

yah samllritya trilokim atati patutarais tapjramano mayukhair 
arad aramalekham iva haritamanillyamalam asvapahktim 

That (Aruna), who precedes the Shining (Surya), and wanders 

over the three worlds as a traveler, 
Does not [ever] lose consciousness by swooning,^ nor is his body 

[ever] helpless from fatigue, nor does his mouth* become 

parched* ; 
But, when heated by the very intense rays, he has recourse to his 

row of steeds, dark-colored as the emerald,* 
Just as [any traveler would have recourse] to the [g^een] row 

[of trees] in a nearby grove.' 
May that (Aruna) destroy whatever is not conducive to your 

welfare* ! 


Notes, z. Lit. 'whose desire is not cut off by swooning.' a. Lit 
Hsyalofl means ' possessing dryness of the mouth/ 3. The commentary 
explains that an ordinary traveler is subject to swooning, fatigue and 
parched tongue, discomforts that are presumably due to the heat of the 
sun. 4. For the emerald-colored steeds, cf. stanza 8, note 2. 5. The 
commentary explains : ' Just as any traveler, when heated by the rays [of 
Surya], has recourse to the shade of the trees of a grove that is situated 
nearby, and then traverses his path, even so does Aruna. 6. Lit 'may 
he destroy things other than wholesome to you ! ' 

V.L. (a) HB 'chinnavUncah ; VHB -vapur nUivam apy Osya iofi, (b) 
J pathyatarHni ; V k^amayatu; B bhUsvato (with palatal sibilant), (c) 
VHB pafutaraih sthdpyamdno. (d) H UrUddddmalekham, J arodardmare' 
khdm, B aramadatnalekham; K haritatfna^, 


sidanto 'ntar nimajjajjadakhuramusalah saikate nakanadyah 

skandantah kandarallh kanakaiSikharino mekhalasu skhalantah 

• • • • 

duram durvasthalotka marakatadrsadi sthasnavo yan na jratah 
pusno 'iSvah purayams tais tad avatu javanair humkrtena 
'grago vah 

(ity arunavarnanam) 

The steeds of Pusan (Surya) lie down on the sandy bank of the 

River of Heaven/ with their club-like hoofs, insensible [to 

feeling], immersed in [the stream], 
[Or else] go leaping over the series of valleys* of (Meru), the 

Golden-crested Mountain, and stumble up its slopes ; 
But on the emerald* ledge they stand still,* being exceedingly' 

desirous [to remain on] the place [where the] dUrvd grass 

[grows] . 
[However, when they stop], (Aruna), the Guide of Pusan 

(Surya), by [uttering] a *get up,* causes that place which 
the horses have not reached to be pervaded by these [same] 

swift coursers.* 
May (Aruna), the Guide of Pusan (Surya), protect you! 

(Here ends the description of Aruna.) 

Notes. I. The ' River of Heaven ' is the celestial Ganges ; cf. stanza 
47, note 7. a. The accusative kandardHh is seemingly the object of 
skandantah. The root skand, however, appears elsewhere to be only in- 
transitive. 3. For Meru's composition of gold and precious stones, cf. 


stanza i, note 4. 4. The horses mistake the green of the emerald for 
green grass. 5. The indeclinable dUraffi, which commonly means 'to a 
distance/ is here glossed by atyarthatft, ' exceedingly/ In stanza 66 (see 
note 2), it is glossed by afivatayd, 'exceedingly.' 6. When the horses 
stop to feed on the dUrva grass, Aruna urges them forward over the re- 
maining part of their course. Bemheimer's translation (cf. Introd., p. 105) 
adopts the reading prerayaips tUn for purayaifis tdih, for he renders, 'e 
dovunque da s^ non penetrano li spinge velod coir urlo il cocchiere del 
sole.' I have followed the commentary and its rendering. 

V.L. (a) JHB Hdanto (with palatal sibilant) ; VJHB -mufalafi (with 
lingual sibilant) ; B ndkanadyH. (b) J kandarOii. (c) HB drUraffi drUr- 
v&sthalotka ; VHB -dfiadi (with palatal sibilant) ; H sthamuro yan na, B 
sthOsuro yan na. (d) K prerayatfls tdn; V hUfukftenOgrago, HB hUffthfte- 
nd^grargo, J hUtikaten^rago, K hufflkftdir agranih, K iti sUtavartianam 
(for ity aruftavarnanam) . 


pinorahpreritabhraill caramakhuraputigrasthitaih prataradrav 
adirghahgair udasto haribhir apagatasanganih&ibdacakrah 
prahne llreyo vidhattam savitur avataran vyomavithim radio 

The^ car of Savitar (Surya), ascending' the pathway of the sky 
in the morning, is drawn upwards by his horses, 

Who, on (Mem), the Dawn Mountain, dispel the clouds with 
their rounded chests, and rear up on the tips of their hol- 
lowed hind hoofs. 

Extending their bodies to full length.* The wheel* is noiseless, 
being free from contact [with the ground]. 

And the car tips back — ^the result of the force of the [backward] 
bending of the head of Anuru (Aruna), who is supine.* 

May this car of Savitar (Surya) cause you happiness! 

Notes, z. Stanzas 62-72 inclusive are devoted especially to the descrip- 
tion and praise of Surya's chariot ; cf . stanza 8, note 2. a. Lit avataran 
means 'descending/ but the gloss is adhirohan, 'ascending.' 3. Lit. 
adlrghSngair means 'with long bodies.' 4. For the single wheel of 
Surya's car, see stanza 8» note 2. 5. Lit ' possessing an inverted bend- 
ing arising from the force of the bending of the head of the supine 
Anuru.' As the car mounts straight upwards, Arupa, although standing 
upright in the car, assumes a horizontal position with reference to tfie 

1 84 THE suryaSataka of mayura 

earth. The weight of his body, his head being the point of greatest 
leverage, makes the car tip back. Bemheimer (see Introd., p. 105) would 
render this difficult piida as follows: 'mentre e necessariamente invertito 
il vostro inchino ad Anuru, che vi giace supino, col capo ripiegato indietro.' 

VX. (a) VHB -putaprasthitaih. (b) VH OdUrghdni^or udasto, B OJfr- 
ghUnior udasto, J Hdirghatfi Ogdir udasto ; H upagatOsan-. (d) B prahne 
(with dental nasal) ; K preyo vidhattHtti. 

63 (64 in VJHB) 

dhvantaugfaadhvaxnsadiksavidhipatu vahata prak sahasram 

aryamna yo garimnah padam atulam upaniyata 'dhyasanena 

sa Srantanam nitantam bharam iva marutam aksamanam 

• • • • • 

skandhat skandham vrajan vo vrjinavijitaye bhasvatah syan- 
dano 'stu 

The* car of the Shining (Surya) has been brought to an incom- 
parable position of dignity* through the occupation [of it] by 
Aryaman (Surya), 

Who at dawn ushers in his thousand rays that are skilled in the 
performance of their initiatory rite,* [which is] the destruc- 
tion of the mass of darkness ; 

And it passes from shoulder to shoulder* of the Maruts (Winds), 
who become, as it were, weary and unable to bear its exces- 
sive weight.* 

May this car of the Shining (Surya) make you triumphant over 
your sins ! 

Notes I. This stanza is no. 64 in VJHB; cf. In trod., p. 83. a. The 
term garimnah, 'dignity/ has punningly the meaning of 'weight,' the 
thought being that the car ' has been brought to such a degree of weight ' 
that the Maruts are unable to hold it up. 3. Just as boys, at the begin- 
ning of their life as adults, undergo the initiatory rite of investiture with 
the Brahmanical thread, so the rays, at the beginning of each day, per- 
form an initiatory rite, which, in their case, is the destruction of the dark- 
ness of night 4. The commentary says: *The shoulders of the Vasrus 
(Winds) are subject to the car of Ravi (Surya), [are], indeed, its sup- 
ports. And these [shoulders] are many. The Blessed (Sursra) goes 
around Meru from left to right, passing over these [shoulders] in due 
order. So say those versed in the sacred lore.' 5. The commentary notes : 


'Just as one [burden] is unable to be borne by one [person] because of 
the excessive weight of the burden, [and as] it, [therefore], goes from 
shoulder to shoulder, being carried by many in turn, even so this [car] 
also.' This imagining of the Winds in the guise of human beings who 
become weary carrying burdens, is an instance of the rhetorical figure 
utprekfa, * Poetic Fancy ' ; cf . stanza i, note 6. 

V.L. (a) VJHBK -vidhiguru vahata ; K drak sahasram, H sahairatfi (with 
palatal sibilant) . (b) VJHB aryamna (with dental nasal) ; VHB garimnah 
(with dental nasal), (c) V akfamUnaffi (with dental nasal) ; H vifofhum, 
B vifotufft. (d) VHB vrjinavihataye ; HB hhiUvatah (with palatal sibilant). 

64 (65 in VJHB) 

yoktribhutan yugasya grasitum iva puro dandaSukan dadhano 
savitrah syandano 'sau niratisayarayapnnitanurtir enah 
ksepiyo vo garutman iva haratu hariccliavidheyapracarah 

The* car of Savitar (Surya) is like Garutmat (Garuda). 

For [the car] <bears in front snakes as the pole-thongs of its 

yoke>, [and Garuda] <prefers snakes, like the pole-thongs of 

a yoke>, to devour* ; 
[The car] <possesses a beauty through the moving of its mighty 

wings, which consist of the rows of clouds that are divided 

into two parts>,* 
[And (jaruda] <possesses a beauty by reason of the flapping of 

the mighty wings with which he is endowed, and which 

scatter the rows of clouds on either side> ; 
[The car] <pleases* Anuru (Aruna) by its matchless speed>, 

[and (jaruda] <delights Anuru (Aruna) by his unsurpassed 

swiftness> ; 
[The car's] <movements are subject to the will of the horses>, 

[and Garuda's] <wandering is obedient to the wish of Hari* 

May that car of Savitar (Surya) speedily destroy your sin ! 

Notes. I This stanza is no. 65 in VJHB ; cf. Introd., p. 83. a. The 
Vi^nu Purdna, 2. 10 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 289), states that 'the serpents draw 
[Surya's chariot] (vahanti pannagHh)* which is explained by its com- 
mentary as meaning 'harness the chariot {rathaip saff^nahyanti) * A literal 
translation of the pdda would be: 'Bearing snakes in front, like the 

1 86 THE suryaSataka of mayura 

thongs of a yoke, as if to devour/ For Gamma's diet of snakes, cf. stanxtt 
47, note 3. 3. The sun's beauty, and so also the beauty of his car, is 
revealed as that luminary breaks through a cloud. The two parts of the 
cloud then appear to be like wings of the sun. 4. Aruna's pleasure is 
natural, since he is the brother of Garu^a, and driver of the car; cf. 
stanza 8, note i. 5. As was pointed out above (stanza 47, note 3), 
Garuda was the vehicle of Vi$nu. For other puns on the meaning of hart, 
cf. stanza 51, note i. 

V.L. (c) HB -rayaprinitii- (with dental nasal). 

65 (69 in VJHBK) 

ekahenaiva dirgham tribhuvanapadavfm Vanghayan jro lagfai- 


• • • 

prsthe meror gariyan dalitamanidrsattvimsi pim^aS fiir&mai 
sarvasyaivoparistid atfaa ca punar adhastid iva 'stidrimiirdhni 
bradhnasya 'vyat sa evam duradhigamaparispandanah syan- 
dano vah 

The* car of Bradhna (Surya) [is] very light, [for] it verily tra- 
verses in one day the long path of the three worlds, 

[Yet it is also] very heavy, [for] on the top of Meru it crushes 
the summits which [consequently] sparkle with pulverized 
precious stones*; 

Moreover it is above the imiverse, and yet is also, as it were, 
beneath [it] when on the summit of the Sunset Mountain.* 

May this car of Bradhna (Surya), whose movements* are thus 
so inscrutable, protect you ! 

Notes. I. This stanza is no. 69 in VJHBK; cf. Introd., p. 83. a. 
For Meru's composition of gold and precious stones, see stanza i, note 4. 
3. The astadrif * Sunset Mountain/ behind which the sun was supposed to 
set, is mentioned frequently in the Mahabhdrata; cf. e.g. 1.3.52; many 
other references are given in Sorensen's Index to the Names in the 
Mahdbhdraia; cf. also stanza 42, note 11. 4. Lit parispandanafi means 
'throbbing/ 'vibration.' I have rendered as 'movements/ The move- 
ments, or nature, of Surya's car are inscrutable, because it is both light 
and hea'uy, both above and beneath. 

V.L. (a) K krtsfUlifi tribhuvana-, V dlrghafistribhuvana-. (b) H -dfiat' 
tTntfifi, VB 'drsattviffifi, (c) VJHB yah sarvasyopariif^d atha ca. (d) 
V 'parifpandanah (with lingual sibilant), HB -parifyandanafi. 



dhurdhvastagryagrahani dhvajapatapavanandolitenduni duram 
rahau grasabhilasad anusarati punar dattacakravyathani 
SrantafivaSvasaheladhutavibudhadhuninirjharambhamsi bhad- 

deyasur vo davfyo divi divasapateh 83randanaprasthitani 

The car of (Surya), Lord of Day, in its joumqrs scatters the 

principal planets* with its pole, and violently* agitates the 

moon by the wind of its cloth flags ; 
And its wheel fills with fright anew [the demon] Rahu,* who 

pursues [Surya] with intent to swallow [him], 
While the water of the cascades in the River of the Gods* is 

sportively agitated by the panting of the tired horses. 
May the joumqrs, far off* in the sky, of this car of (Surya), 

Lord of Day, bestow prosperity upon you ! 

Notes. I. Lit 'the journeys of the car of the Lord of Day scatter the 
principal planets, etc' a. I have rendered dUrafft, which commonly 
means ' to a distance,' by ' violently.' The gloss is advataya, * excessively.' 
For a similar usage of dUram, cf. stanza 61, note 5. 3. After the nectar 
had been produced by churning the ocean with Mount Mandara, the demon 
Rahu attempted to swallow some of it, and so attain to immortality. 
While in the act of drinking, he was seen by the Sun and Moon, who 
called Vi$ntt's attention to the theft about to be perpetrated. Vi$nu at 
once cut off Rahu's head with his discus (cakra). Since the nectar had 
got no farther than Rahu's throat, only his head became immortal, and 
this head still seeks to revenge itself on the Sun and Moon by swallowing 
those luminaries in eclipses ; cf. MahObhUrata, 1. 19. 1-9, and SUrycJataka, 
stanza 79, note i. In this stanza the poet points out that Rahu, in his 
pursuit of Surya, has a wholesome fear of the cakra (wheel) of Surya's 
car, presumably because it reminds him of the cakra (discus) of VifQU, 
which had cut off his head. 4. The ' River of the (jods ' is the celestial 
Ganges; cf. stanza 47, note 7. 5. The commentary says that daitAyo, 
'far off,' may be taken adverbially as equivalent to advatardtn, 'more 
excessively,' and construed with bhadratu deydsur — 'may they grant you 
excessive prosperity.' 

V.L. (a) VJHB dhUrdhvastOgragrahani; K -andolitendilni dUrdt 


akse raksam nibadhya pratisaravalajrair yojasrantyo yngagram 
dhuhstambhe dagdhadhupah prahitasumanaao gocare kubar- 


' carcafi cakre carantyo mala)rajapayasa siddhavadhvas trisam- 
vandante yam dyumarge sa nudatu duritany amfiumatsyandano 

Along the pathway of the sky, Siddha* women worship the car 
of the Ray-possessing (Surya) at the three twilight periods,* 

Tying their amulets to the axle, encircling the end of the yoke 
with their [nuptial] thread-bracelets,* 

Burning incense on the pillar-shaped axle-pin,* placing flowers 
along the pole,* 

And anointing the wheel with sandal water.* 

May this car of the Ray-possessing (Surya) remove your sins I 

Notes. I. On the Siddhas, see stanza 6, note 8. a. According to the 
commentary, the word trisatitdhyaffi, which I have rendered 'at the three 
twilight periods/ is 'used as an adverh (kriydvUefanam) ' The three 
satndhyds, or ' twilights/ came at dawn, noon, and sunset They are men- 
tioned also in Can(f^ataka, stanzas 4 and 49. 3. I have rendered praH- 
saravalaydir as '[nuptial] thread-bracelets/ following the gloss kdutukor- 
nOkankanair, 'wool bracelets [constituting] the marriage-threads/ On 
this kind of adornment, see Alfred Hillebrandt, Ritual'Liiteratur (in 
Buhler's Grundriss), p. 65, sec. 6, Strassburg, 1897; cf. also KumHra" 
sambhava, 5. 66, and Raghuvatfiia, 8. i (third ed. with Engl, transl. by 
G. R. Nandargikar, Poona, 1897). 4. Lit. dhuhstamhhe means 'on the 
pillar of the axle-pin,' but the commentary explains as stambha iva dhufi, 
'an axle-pin like a pillar/ 5. Lit. 'placing flowers in the realm of the 
pole.' 6. Lit. 'making anointings on the wheel with sandal water.' 

VX. (a) HB pratisavavalayOir, (b) VJHB dhastambhe; VJHB prati- 
hatasumano gocare, (c) K carcSip cakre; VJHB dadatyo malayajarajasd; 
VJ siddhasddhyas, HB siddhasHdhvyas, (d) VJHB dahatu duritdny. 

68 (63 in VJHB) 

utkirnasvarnarenudrutakhuradalita parfivayoh fiaSvad afivair 
afirantabhrantacakrakramanikhilamilanneminimna bharena 


meror murdhany agham vo vighatayatu raver ekavithi rathasjra 
svosmodaktamburiktaprakatitapulinoddhusara svardhum 'va 

The* single^ track of the car of Ravi (Surya) on the summit of 
Meru is, because of the weight' [of the car], 

Indented* by the felly which is connected in its entirety with the 
course of the wheel that is unweariedly revolving ; 


And it is like the River of Heaven** ; for [the ground] <on both 

sides [of the track] is repeatedly trampled by the swift hoofs 

of the horses that scatter the golden dust>, 
While [the ground] <on both banks [of the river] is frequently 

trampled by the swift hoofs of horses that scatter its golden 

sand> ; 
[Moreover the track] <is yellowish-white because its sandy spots 

are exposed to view through being emptied of the water [of 

its mud-puddles] that has evaporated* by its own heat>, 
[And the river] <is ydlowish-white because its sandy flats are 

exposed to view through [the river's] being emptied of water 

which has evaporated by its own heat>. 
May the single track of the car of Ravi (Surya) destroy your sin ! 

Notes. I. This stanza is no. 63 in VJHB ; cf. Introd., p. 83. a. The 
track of Surya's car is single, because the car had but one wheel; cf. 
stanza 8, note 2. 3. I have rendered 5Aareffaby*becauseof the weight'; 
its gloss, however, is prdgbhdrena hetunH, 'because of the slope/ and the 
reference would seem to be to Mount Mem, with the idea that the track 
has a downward trend (-nimnd) because of Meru's slope. It is difficult, 
however, to connect the remainder of the poda, referring to the felly, etc, 
with this conception. 4. I have rendered -nimna by ' indented.' A more 
literal translation would be 'bent' The gloss is avanatd, 'bent down.' 

5. The ' River of Heaven ' was the celestial Ganges ; cf . stanza 47, note 7. 

6. I have rendered udakta by ' evaporated ' ; literally it means ' drawn up.' 

V.L. (a) K -svarnarenur druta-, (b) V abhrantabhrdnta-; J 'cakra- 
bhramanikhila-; VJH -nemni nimna, B -nemnimna, (c) H raver eka- 
dvithi. (d) VHB svo^odastHmbu-, K svofmodastambu-, J svof^odak^ 
tUmbu-; VHB -pulinoddhu^ard (with lingual sibilant); VJHB svardhunl 

69 (68 in VJHB) 

nantum nakalayanam anisam anuyatam paddhatih panktir eva 
ksodo naksatraraSer adayarayamilaccakrapistasya dhiilih 
hesahrado harinam suraSikharidarih purayan neminado 
yasya 'vyat tfvrabhanoh sa divi bhuvi yatfaa v]raktacihno rathe 

The* car of the Hot-rayed (Surya) exhibits the [same] charac- 
teristics* in the sky, as if [it were running along] on the 


[For] its roadway is the line of the heaven-dwellers that follow 

continually to render obeisance, 
And its dust is the pulverized bits of the masses of the stars, 

ground oflF by the wheel that is endowed with merciless 

speed* ; 
[It is also accompanied by] the sound of the neighing of horses, 

and the noise* of the felly with which it fills the caverns of 

(Meru), the Mountain of the Gods. 
May that car of the Hot-rayed (Surya) protect you ! 

Notes. I. This stanza is no. 68 in VJHB ; cf . Introd., p. 83. a These 
characteristics are that it moves on a roadway, raises dust, and is accom- 
panied by the neighing of horses and the sound of wheels. 3. Lit 
'joined with merciless speed' (adayarayamilac-) . 4. Here the noise 
of the felly is mentioned, but in stanza 62 we are told that ' the wheel is 
noiseless ( nihMdacakrafi ) .' 

V.L. (a) VJHB anUam upanatdm, K anUam upayataffi. (b) VHB 
k^ode nakfatra- ; VJHB akfiarayamilac', (c) VJB hrefdhrado, K he^HnUdo, 
(d) H yas povy&t flvrahhUnoh. 


nihspandanam vimanavalivitatadivam devavrndarakinam 
vrndair anamdasandrodyamam api vahatam vindatam vanditum 

mandakinyam amandah pulinabhrti mrdur mandare man- 

mandarair manditaram dadhad ari dinakrtsjrandanah stan 

mude vah 

Not slow is the car of (Surya), Maker of Day, [as it runs] over 
the Celestial Ganges and its sand-banks, but [it does go] 
slowly over [Mount] Mandara which is like a city* ; 

[And] it bears a wheel whose spokes have been adorned with 
coral-tree blossoms by multitudes 

Of the foremost of the gods, who fill the sky with the rows of 
their vehicles, but who, having become wearied,* 

Do not succeed in [overtaking and] pajring homage [to the car], 
although riding along with joyful eflFort.' 

May the car of (Surya), Maker of Day, bring you joy* ! 


Notes. X. The idea in this poda seems to be that the sun quickly passes 
over and floods with light any flat surface like a river or sand-bank, but 
in a city there is more or less shadow, and the sunlight is slow in reaching 
all the nooks and crannies. Mount Mandara, with its dells, ravines and 
lesser peaks, in this respect resembles a city. Similarly, a car moves 
rapidly over flat places, but its speed is retarded as it passes through the 
crowded and contracted confines of a city. The commentary says: 'For 
a city causes the speed of a car to slacken (lit stumble) because of its 
unevenness (or, crowded condition). For this reason, slowness is con- 
nected with it' a. Lit nihspanda means ' motionless,' but is here glossed 
by Jrdnta, * wearied.' 3. If the gods cannot move fast enough to over- 
take Surya, we must conclude that they adorned the wheel with the coral- 
tree blossoms before the car started on its daily round. Or, as is also 
suggested in the commentary, we could take devavrndO^dkanHtft vpidnir 
. . . vindatUffi as genitive absolute, and render: 'while the principal gods, 
in troops, do not succeed, etc' 4. Note in this stanza the alliteration 
(anuprdsa) of v and m, and the assonance (yamaka) occasioned by the 
prevalence of vnd and mnd sounds. 

V.L. (a) VJHB nifPandandfti ; K vimHtUlvaUvalitadUdffi ; VHB devavfn^ 
darakHfUifn, (c) VJHBK mandare mandarObhe, (d) J manddrOir man" 
4ito 'raffi ; VJ dadhad apt, HE dadhad avi ; VJHB dinakrtsyandanastHn. 


cakri cakrarapanktim harir api ca harin dhurjatir dhurdhva- 

aksam naksatranatho 'runam api varunah kubaragram kuberah 
ramhah samgfaah surintoi jagadupakrtaye nityayuktasya 

stauti pritiprasaxmo 'nvaharn ahimaniceh so 'vatat syandano 


A* multitude of gods, filled with joy,^ day after day praises the 
speed of the car of the Hot-rayed (Surya), 

Which is ever employed in benefiting the universe : 

(Visnu), Possessor of the Discus, praises the row of whed- 
spokes, Hari* (Indra) praises the horses, and Dhurjati* 
(Siva) praises the ends of the flags on the yoke; 

The (Moon), Lord of the Stars, praises the axle, Varuna praises 
Aruna, and Kubera praises the tip of the pole. 

May that car of the Hot-rayed (Surya) protect you**! 


Notes. I. This stanza is quoted in the KavyaprakdSa of Mammata, 
10. 56. 1 (stanza 580). Chapter 10 of that work deals with ' Ideal Figures 
of Speech/ and Mayura's stanza is given as an example of 'Defects of 
Alliteration/ After quoting the stanza, Mammata says (p. 268 of the 
translation by Ganganatha Jha, Benares, 1898) : ' Here the nominatives 
and objectives of the "eulogy" are made such only for the sake of Allit- 
eration ; they [i.e. the gods] are not so described in the Puranas, and thus 
this is contrary to generally recognized facts.' It will be noticed by the 
reader that each god praises that part of the car which most nearly 
resembles in sound his own name, e.g. Hari praises the hari, Cakrin 
praises the cakra, Varuna praises Aruna, etc. Mammata would seem to 
imply that the Puranas nowhere state that Hari praises the horses, or 
Cakrin the wheel, etc., but that Hari is made to praise the horses here 
merely because hari (horses) resembles in sound his own name Hari, and 
so on. For somewhat similar cases of assonance {yamaka)^ cf. stanza 81, 
and CandUataka, stanzas 36 and 52. 2. Lit. pfitiprasanno means ' bright 
with joy.' 3. The term Hari is more often applied to Vi§nu, but here, 
and also in stanza 72, and in CandUataka, stanzas 15 and 19, it is used to 
designate Indra. For other word-plays involving hari in its double sense 
of * horse' and 'Indra' (or, 'Vi§nu'), cf. stanza 51, note i. 4. The 
term Dhurjati (Siva) means, according to Monier-Williams, Skt.-EngL 
Diet S.V., ' He who has matted locks like a burden ' ; but in MahObh9rata, 
7. 202. 129, it is said : dhUmrarilpatn ca yat tasya dhUrjatis tena cocyate, 
'and since his form is [like that of] smoke, he is for that reason called 
Dhurjati.' In stanza 99 also, and in CandUataka, stanza 80, Siva is desig- 
nated by this epithet 5. According to Thomas {Kavindravacanasamuc" 
caya/ introd., p. 68), this stanza of the SHryaiataka is cited by Ujjvala- 
datta, on UnSdisUtra, 4.213 (Aufrecht's edition, p. 19). 

V.L. (a) VJHB and Jhalakikara's edition of the K&vyaprakiUa (see 
note i) read dhUrdkvajUgr&n, (c) HB jagadupakutaye ; VHB nityjmuk" 
tasya, (d) K ahimarucah, 


netrahinena mule vihitaparikarah siddhasadhyair marudbhih 
padopante stuto 'lam baliharirabhasa karsanabaddhavegah \ 
bhramyan vyomambura&av aSisirakiranasyandanah samtatam 

dUyal laksmim aparam atulitamahimeva 'paro mandaradrih 

(iti ratfaavarnanam) 

The car of the Hot-rayed (Surya), like a second Mount Mandara, 
continually* turns about in the ocean^ of the sky ; 

Moreover, the car <is made ready by its driver (Aruna), who is 
maimed in the lower part of his body>,* 


And Mandara <is encircled at its base by Ahlna* [serving as] the 
twirling-cord> ; 

The car <is warmly praised by divine Sadhyas** and Maruts 
[standing] near its wheeh,* 

And Mandara <is warmly praised by divine Sadhyas and Maruts 
[standing] among its {oothills> ; 

The car < obtains its speed from the impetuous pulling of the 
strong horses>,^ 

And Mandara <obtains its speed from the impetuous pulling of 
Bali and Hari* (Indra)>. 

May that car of the Hot-rayed (Surya), which possesses incom- 
parable majesty, bring you tmbounded prosperity ! 
(Here ends the description of the car). 

Notes. I. The commentary authorizes the translating of satntataffi, 
'continually/ both with hhrdmyan, 'continually wandering about,' and 
also with dUydt, 'may it continually bring.' a. For the twirling of 
Mount Mandara in the milky ocean, cf. stanza 42, notes 3, 6, 12, 14. 3. 
Lit * has its girding up attended to by its driver, who is mutilated at the 
root' Aruna was legless; cf. stanza 8, note i. Resolve netiUhinena here 
as netrd hlnena, but in the second rendering as netra-ahlnena, 4. In 
the churning of the ocean (cf. note 2), Vasuki, or Ahfna (King of Ser- 
pents), acted as the twirling-cord which was pulled by the gods and 
demons, the former holding the tail of the serpent king, and the latter 
the head. In this stanza Indra and Bali are to be taken as representatives 
of their respective classes, gods and demons. The compound netrdhlnena, 
* by Ahina [serving as] twirling-cord,' is an example, as noted by the com- 
mentary, of the type of compound that omits its middle member. Such 
composites are called JdkapHrthiva, from Jaka-[priya]'P(irthiva, 'a king 
[dear to] his era'; cf. Vamana's KHvyalaffikarasUtrani, 5.2.15 (ed. by 
Durgaprasad and Parab, in the Kavyamala Series, Bombay, 1889), and the 
commentary thereon. Monier- Williams, Skt.-EngL Diet. s.v. ^Ukaporihiva, 
states that Patafijali explains as ^Ukabhoft purthivafi, * a king fond of vege- 
tables.' 5. Or, perhaps, stddhasHdhydir is to be taken as meaning 
' Siddhas and Sadhyas ' ; the gloss is devavUefdih, * kinds of gods.' For 
the Siddhas, see stanza 6, note 8. According to Monier-Williams, SkU* 
Engl. Diet, s.v. sddhya, the Sadh3ras are mentioned as early as Rig Veda, 
10.90.16; they lived in the Bhuvarloka (YSska, Nirukta, 12.41) and had 
exquisitely fine natures, like the gods (Manu, i. 22) ; in the Puraiiias, their 
number is usually 12 or 17, and in the later mythology they arc super- 
seded by the Siddhas. 6. The term puda in podopunte is glossed by 
earana, * foot,' but must certainly mean ' wheel ' ; cf. stanza 82 (see note 
6), where anga, 'limb,' is used to designate the wheel 7. Lit 'obtains 



its speed from the pulling, because of the impetuosity of the strong horses/ 
The commentary and Bemheimer (see Introd., p. 105) read -rabhasa' 
karfartil-. 8. For Bali and Hari, see note 4. For the use of the epithet 
Hari to designate Indra, see stanza 71, note 3. For word-plays on the 
double meaning of hari, see stanza 51, note i. 

V.L. (b) H karfanavaddha- (with dental nasal), (c) HB vyomombu-; 
VJ santataip vo, B soifitatafu voh, (d) VJHBK lak^mlm atulyOm; HB 
atunitamahimevoparo ; B mandddrih (one syllable too few to suit the 


y^j jy^yo bljam ahnam apahatatimiram caksusam anjanam 

dvaram )ran muktibhajam yad akhilabhuvanajyotisam ekam 

yad vrstyambhonidhanam dharanirasasudhapaxiapatram mahad 

difiyad i&isya bhasam tad avikalam alam maiigalam mandalam 


The* disk of (Surya), Lord of Rays, is the pre-eminent cause of 

days, and destroys <darkness> as an qre-salve [destroys] 

<semi-blindness> of the eyes* ; 
It is [also] the doorway for those who obtain emancipation,* and 

is the sole abode of the splendors of the entire universe ; 
It is the reservoir of rain-water,* and the mighty drinking-cup 

[full] of the water [that is as] ambrosia to the earth. 
May that disk of (Surya), Lord of Rays, bestow upon you a 

very full [measure of] prosperity ! 

Notes, z. Stanzas 73-^ inclusive are devoted especially to the de- 
scription and praise of Surya's disk. a. Lit 'is the /imiro-destroying 
eye-salve of the eyes.' The term titnira means both ' darkness * and * semi- 
blindness.' 3. For the idea that the sun is the doorway to emancipation, 
cf. stanza 9, note 7, and Btihler, Die indischen Inschriften, as cited above 
in stanza 6, note 8. 4/ For the notion that the sun ' draws water ' from 
the earth, and afterwards pours it down again in the form of rain, cf. 
stanza 9, note 2. 

V.L. (a) KjySyo yat bijatfi, B yaj jydyo zHjanmaham ; VJHBK apahrta- 
Hmiram; VJHB anjanam yat. (b) J yadvdram mukti-, VH yad dvHratft 
mukti', B yad dvaraffi mukti-. (c) J vfftyambho'. (d) K diiyOd devasya 
bhanoh tad adhikamam alatfi, J bhilsarft satatam atnkalatfi manifalaffi 
mangalattt, VHBK man^alatfi mangalaffi. 



velavardhifnu sindhoh paya iva kbam iva Vdhodgatagryagra- 

stokodbhinnasvadhnaprasavam iva madhor asyam Rsyan 

pratah pusno 'fiubhani prafiamayatu fiirahfiekharibhutam adreh 
paurastsrasyodgabhasti stimitatamatamahkhandanam man^- 

1am vah 

The disk of Pusan (Surya) <that increases in the course of 
time>* is like the water of the ocean <that rises with the 
tide> ; 

And since it <niakes the eastern planets and constellations to ap- 
pear dim>,* it is like the dome of heaven < whose principal 
planets and constellations are [sometimes] only half-visible> ; 

And while <the manifestation of its innate characteristic — [its 
splendor] — is only just b^nning>,* 

It captivates the minds [of men], like the advent of spring* 
<whose flowers — its peculiar characteristic — are only just 
[beginning to] expand>. 

May this radiant disk of Pusan (Surya), which at dawn destroys 
the very thick darkness' [of night]. 

And which appears as a diadem on the head of (Meru), the 
Eastern Mountain,* blot out your sins ! 

Notes. I. That is, the disk seems to grow larger, for as time advances 
more of it appears above the horizon. a. Lit. 'possessing half -risen 
eastern planets and constellations.' The commentary explains: 'They, [the 
planets], are said to be somewhat perceived [i. e. dimly seen] because of 
being outshone [lit. excelled] by the brightness of that (disk).' The 
commentary glosses agrya, 'principal,' by pHurastya, 'eastern.' 3. Lit 
'the manifestation of its own characteristic is broken out a little'; i.e. 
the splendor, which is the disk's innate characteristic, is just beginning to 
appear. 4. Lit. 'mouth of spring.' 5. Lit. stitniiatamatamah means 
'very fixed darkness.' 6. Lit. 'becoming the head-diadem of the Eastern 
Mountain ' ; for a similar conception, cf . stanza 8, note 4. 

V.L. (a) J -ardhodgato 'gragrahotfu, VHB -Urdhodgatogragrahoifu. (b) 
The reading stokodbhinnasvacihnaprasavam is that of JH and the com- 
mentary; the KavyamSU text reads stokodbhinnasya cihnaprasavam, B 
reads stomodbhinnasvacihnaprasavam, and V reads siomodbhinnasvacihna' 
prabhavam; VJHBK asyan mahUmsi. (d) VHB paurasiyasyodgabhas- 



pratyuptas taptahemojjvalarucir acalah padmaragena yena 
jyayah kimjalkapiinjo yad alikulaSiter ambarendivaras)ra 
kalavyala8)ra cihnam mahitatamam ahomiirdhni ratnam mahad 

diptamtoh pratar avyat tad avikalajaganmandanam mandalam 


The disk of the Hot-rayed (Surya) [constitutes] at dawn the 

entire ornament of the universe ; 
Because of it, Mount (Mem), which possesses the dazzling 

splendor of molten gold, [appears to be] studded with ruby ; 
[And] it is beautiful* [like]* the mass of the filaments of the 

celestial blue lotus that is black with a swarm of bees' ; 
[And] it [also serves as] the most revered crest-ornament* of the 

Serpent of Time,' [and] as a mighty jewel on the head of 

May that disk of the Hot-rayed (Surya) protect you*! 

Notes. I. The term jyOyah, which I have rendered as 'beautiful/ regu- 
larly means * elder/ * superior/ a. The commentary supplies iva, * like.' 
3. Apparently the yellow disk of Surya is here compared to the round 
yellow cluster of filaments and anthers in the center of a lotus. The sur- 
rounding blue petals, covered with the dark-colored bees, may be likened 
to the blue-black sky which serves as background for the solar disk. 4. 
The commentary, which I have followed, glosses cihnaffi by Jiroratnatfi, 
'crest-jeweL' 5. By ' Serpent of Time' is perhaps meant the thousand- 
headed serpent Se$a (cf. stanza 35, note 8), who served as Vi$nu's couch 
at the bottom of the ocean. He was regarded as the emblem of eternity, 
one of his epithets being Ananta, 'Endless One.' He was said to have 
a thousand jewels on his crest, and to bear the entire world on his diadem 
(cf. Vi^nu Purana, 2.5 [Wilson, vol. 2, p. 211-213]), but I have nowhere 
seen it stated that Surya's disk formed his crest- jewel. 6. The com- 
mentary quotes from an unnamed source, which I find to be Satapatha 
Brahmana, 10. 5. 2. i : yad etan mantfolaftt tapati iti iruHh. It is worthy of 
note that stanza 89 of the SUryaiataka opens with nearly the same words, 
viz. ' dad yon man<falatft khe tapati.' 

V.L. (a) HB padmaragena (with dental nasal), (b) VJHB kitftjalka- 
punjam; VJHB alikulasiter (with dental sibilant), (c) HB ratnaip 
mahat tat, (d) H -jaganmanifanaffi (with last nasal a lingual), B -jagan- 
man^alaffi; VJHB mangalatfi vaft. 



kas trata tarakanam patati tanur avafiyayabindur yathendur 
vidrana idrk smararer urasi muraripoh kaustubho nodgabhastih 
vahneh sapahnaveva dyutir udayagate yatcB, tan mandakim vo 
martandi3ram punitad divi bhuvi ca tamamsi Va musnan 

The disk of Martanda* (Surya) destroys, in heaven and on 

earth, all splendors as if [they were] darknesses* ; 
For when this [disk] has risen,* the splendor of fire [becomes], as 

it were, concealed, 
And the moon, like a tiny drop of dew, disappears,* leaving the 

stars without a protector,* 
The eye of (Siva), Foe of Smara,* is feeble,^ and the kSustubha 

jewel* on the breast of (Visnu), Foe of Mura,* is not 

May that disk of Martanda (Surya) purify you! 

Notes. X. On the etymology of Martanda ('destroyed egg')» cf. stanza 
14, note 2. a. That is, the sun's splendor outshines all splendors. 3* 
In udayagate yaira, ' when this [disk] has risen/ we have a locative abso- 
lute construction with one member (yaira) an adverb; cf. Whitney, Ski, 
Grammar, 303, d; and for other instances of the same usage, see stanza 
20, note I. 4. Lit patati means 'falls' or 'flies [away]'; I have ren- 
dered as ' disappears.' 5. Lit ' who is the protector of the stars ? ' The 
moon is called Nakfatranatha, 'Lord of the Stars/ as e.g. in stanza 71. 
6. Smara is Kama, who, as is well known, was burnt up by iSiva's third 
eye ; cf . stanza 55, note 9. 7. Lit vidrana means ' roused from sleep,' 
or 'run away*; the gloss, however, is mlUna, 'weak,' 'faded'; I have 
rendered as 'feeble.' 8. The kHustubha jewel was one of the products 
of the churning of the ocean. It was appropriated by Vi^nu, and worn 
by him on his breast; cf. stanza 43, note 4. 9. The slasring of the 
demon Mura by Kr$na ( Vi$nu) is mentioned in Mahahhdrata, 5. 158. 7. 
la The term udgabhasti, which is apparently not found in the ordinary 
lexicons, is here glossed by unmayHkha, ' radiant,' a meaning which I have 

V.L. (a) HB tarakandtft (with dental nasal) ; H yathendrur, J yaihendu, 
(b) J nidrana dfk, HB vibhrHna drk; J smararer ufasi; HB madhuripoh 
kdustubho no gabhasiih, (c) By an evident typographical error, B has 
inserted pada (c) of stanza 77 between podcu (b) and (c) of stanza 76, 
thus giving stanza 76 an extra pada, and making stanza 77 one puda short 
JHB vahneh sdpahnutdiva, (d) JHB punlyOd divi. 



yat prac3ram prak cakasti prabhavati ca yatah pracy asav 

iddham madhye yad ahno bhavati tataruca yena cotpad)rate 

yat paryayena lokan avati ca jagatam jivitam yac ca tad vo 
vifivanugrahi vi£vam srjaid api ca raver mandalam muktaye 


The disk of Ravi (Surya) first shines in the east, and that east 
attains pre-eminence because of the [disk's] rising out of it; 

In the middle of the day it is blazing, and by it, through the 
diffusion of its splendor, day is produced ; 

It also protects mortals by its regular recurrence, and is the life 
of the worlds* ; 

And shows favor to the universe, which it also creates.* 

May that disk of Ravi (Surya) bring about your emancipation* ! 

Notes. X. Buhler (Die indischen Inschriften, cf. stanza 6, note 8), has 
noticed the expression of a like sentiment, viz. that the Sun is the life 
of the world, in the Praiasti of Vatsabhatti. A similar idea is expressed 
also in stanza 87 (note i). In this connection the commentary quotes from 
an unnamed source the following verse : aditydj jHyate vr^tir vrffer annatfi 
tatah prajah \ prajdsdukhyOc ca devandtn pard trptir iti Jrutih, 'From 
Aditya (Surya) rain is produced; from rain, food; from that (food), 
creatures; and the chief satisfaction of the gods [arises] from the com- 
fort of their creatures; so says revealed tradition.' The first half of 
this ^loka is found in Mahdbharaia, 12.263. 11; I have failed to locate the 
source of the second half. The first three words of the ^loka — ddityaj 
jdyate vrflih — are quoted in the commentaries on stanzas 30 and 93; cf. 
those stanzas, notes 4 and 5, respectively. a. Lit. 'May that disk of 
Ravi (Surya), which, besides creating the universe, shows favor to the 
universe, bring about your emancipation.' 3. The commentary quotes 
the Veda (Satapatha Brdhmana, 10. 5. 2. 3) as follows : vede : etasmin 
mandate puru^o *py etad amftatfi yad etad arcir dipyate iti ^rutih. This 
is rendered by J. Eggeling in his translation of books 8-10 of the Satapatha 
Br&hmana (pub. in Sacred Books of the East, vol 43, p. 366, Oxford, 
1897) as follows: 'and that man in yonder (sun's) orb [is no other than 
Death] ; and that glowing light is that immortal element' For the idea 
that the way to emancipation is through Surya, cf. stanza 9, note 7. 

V.L. (b) B digdhatfi madhye yad ahno, (c) This third psda is found, 
in B, between padas (b) and (c) of stanza 76; see note in V.L. of stanza 76. 

THE sOrya^ataka OF mayOba 199 


fiu^yanty udhanukara makaravasatayo maravinam sthafinam 
yenottaptah sphutantas taditi tilatulam yanty agendra yu- 

tac candamfior akandatribhuvanadahanaiankaya dhama krc- 

samhrtya 'lokamatram pralaghu vidadhatah stan mude 

mandalam vah 

• • • • 

At the destruction of the world/ the habitations of the sea- 
monsters* are dried up [by the disk of Surya],* and bear 
resemblance to desert places, 

And the lordly motmtains are scorched, rent astmder with a crash, 
and ground to dust* ; 

[But now], through fear of an untimely' burning up of the three 

The Hot-rayed (Surya) modifies his effulgence, [though] with 
difficulty, and reduces the intensity of his splendor.* 

May that disk of the Hot-rayed (Surya) bring you joy! 

Notes, z. Lit 'at the end of a yuga* The universe was supposed to 
be destroyed and recreated at the end of every yuga or ' age ' ; cf . stanza 
23, note 6. a. By * habitations of the sea-monsters ' the ocean is meant 

3. In Mahdhhdrata, 3. 3. 57, it is said : satfthSrakale satuPrdpte tava krodha- 
vinihsftah \ samvarttakHgnis trailokyaffi hhasmlkrtya 'vatiffhate, 'when 
the time of universal dissolution cometh, the fire satttvartaka, bom of 
thy [i.e. Surya's] wrath, consumeth the three worlds and existeth [alone].' 

4. Lit 'go to the resemblance of small particles.' 5. By 'untimely' is 
meant that the burning up and destruction of the world might occur before 
the end of a yuga or kalpa; cf. note i. 6. Lit 'making small the 
measure of his splendor.' I have departed here from the commentary, 
which would render this pada as follows : ' making small his e£Fulgence 
(dhdma)f whose measuring-standard (mStrd) is visibility, having modified 
[it] with difficulty.' 

V.L. (a) J Qifhandhakara, HB afandhakara, (b) K cafiti tilatuktm- 
(c) JHBK dhama kftsnant, (d) K ahrtydloka-, B manthrtyaloko'. The 
reading of JHB and the commentary, adopted here, is 'tnHtrarft pralaghu; 
the Kavyamala text reads -rndtra pralaghu; K pratanu zndadhatah; J 
vidadhatastan mude, HB nidadhatastHn. 



udyad dyudyanavapyam bahulatamatamahpankapuram vi- 

prodbhinnam pattraparSvesv aviralam arunacchayaya visphur- 

kalyanani kriyad vah kamalam iva mahan mandalam canda- 

anvftam trptihetor asakrd alikulakarini rahuna yat 

The disk of the Hot-rayed (Surya) is like a lotus, [for] it is oft 

pursued by Rahu as [a lotus is visited] by a swarm of bees,^ 
And it <rises up in the sky' as in a garden-pool>, while a lotus 

<rises up in a garden-pool [which is like] the sky>* ; 
Moreover, it <cleaves the stream of mud-like very thick dark- 

ness>, as a lotus <cleaves the mass of mud [which is like] 

very thick darkness> ; 
And it <is constantly reflected* on the flanks of the horses by the 

flashing splendor' of Aruna>, 
While a lotus <is constantly tinted* on the sides of its petals with 

a flashing red luster >. 
May this mighty disk of the Hot-rayed (Surya), [who is] the 

cause of happiness,^ bring you prosperity ! 

Notes, z. Lit ' followed by Rahu possessing the semblance of a swarm 
of bees/ The term dkSrind is presumably a possessive formation from 
dkOra, ' form ' or ' semblance ' ; the gloss is vibhramena, which sometimes 
has the meaning of 'illusion' or 'semblance.' On Rahu, and his pursuit 
of Sursra, see stanza 66» note 3. a. Vardhamana's Ganaratnamahodadhi, 
2. 149 (p. 185 of the edition by Julius Eggeling, part i, London, 1879), 
quotes the first puda of this stanza of Masrura as an illustration of the 
use of the dyu- stem (for div-) meaning * sky.' 3. That is, the pool, or 
well, is round, like the firmament The word gagana, here used as the 
gloss of dyu, *sky,' means both *sky' and 'cipher.* A cipher, of course, 
is round. 4. Lit 'germinated (prodbhinnatu) on the flanks of the 
horses.' 5. The term chayd, which I have rendered here as 'splendor,' 
more commonly means 'shadow'; but the gloss is prabhA, 'splendor.' 
6. The word prodhhtnnafji, 'germinated,' is glossed by ranjitaffl, 'tinted' 
or ' colored.' 7. Or, tfptihetor may mean ' for the sake of satisfaction,' 
and be construed, as it is in the commentary, with anvftoifi rdhuna, 

VX. (a) JH udyadyUdyanav&pydffi, B udyadyQdydnavHyyaifi; K baha- 


latanui-, H vahulatatatnatahpankapUrratft, B bahulatatamatahpankapUratn. 
(b) B patraparh/e^; JHB avimalam arunac-, (c) K man(falafri cantfor 


cak^iu: daksadviso yan na tu dahati purah purayaty eva kamam 
na 'stam justam marudbhir yad iha niyaminam yanapatram 

yad vitafiranti Safivad bhramad api jagatam bhrantim abhranti 

bradhnasya 'vyad viruddhakriyam atha ca hitadhayi tan 

mandalam vah 

• • • • 

(iti mandalavarnanam) 

Though the disk of Bradhna (Surya) is inconsistent* in its ac- 
tions, it is also a bestower of benefits ; 

Though it is the eye of (Siva), Foe of Daksa,* it does not bum 
<Kama>* [standing] before [it], but verily fulfils <desire> ; 

Though it is, in this world,* a ship" for the yogins^ on the ocean of 
transmigration, yet it is not driven by the Maruts (Winds), 
but is worshiped [by them] ; 

Though it wanders unceasingly without weariness, yet, being free 
from sin, it destroys the sin of the [three] worlds. 

May this disk of Bradhna (Surya) protect you ! 

(Here ends the description of the disk.) 

Notes. I. The inconsistencies are noted in the course of the stanza; 
e.g. ' though the disk is iSiva's eye, it does not bum ' ; ' though it is a ship, 
it is not driven by the wind,' etc. In the third and fourth pddas, however, 
the inconsistencies noted are such only by virtue of word-puns. Thus, in 
pada (c), if the inconsistency is to be made apparent, bhramad api abhrdnti 
should be rendered 'though sinning, yet free from sin'; but bhramad is 
not applicable to Surya in the sense of ' sinning/ but only in its meaning 
of 'wandering [over the universe].' Again, in pdda (d), to apprehend the 
inconsistency, viruddhakriyam would have to be rendered 'hostile in its 
actions,' thus forming a contrast to hitadhayi, 'bestower of benefits,' but 
since Surya is not ' hostile in his actions,' the translator must confine him- 
self to the rendering 'inconsistent in his actions.' Such inconsistencies 
as are here set forth, inconsistencies which are not real, but only appar- 
ent, are examples of the rhetorical figure virodha, 'apparent contradic- 
tion'; cf. Dan<)in, Kdvyddaria, 2.333-339, s^nd Mammata, Kdvyaprakaia, 


10.23 (P- ^33-^5 of transktioa by Jhi; ed of JhalaJnkara, 166 [iio]» 
ttanzas 482-491), for explanation and examples; cf. also stanza 86^ note 
4; Can4Uataka, stanza 62, note 2; and Introd., p. 93. a. iStva is called 
die ' Foe of Dalc^a,' since he interrupted Dak^a's sacrifice, and pierced the 
embodied Sacrifice with his arrow; cf. Makobhdrata, iai8.i3; 13. 161. 
10-24; BhOgatfata Purdna, 4.2-6 (Dutt, voL i, book 4, p. 6-25); VOyu 
Purdna, 30 (cf. synopsis of this Pnrina by Th. Anfrecht, Cataiogus Cod. 
SanscriUcorum Bibliothecae Bodleianae, p. 54» Oxford, 1864, and transla- 
tion of the account of Dak^a's sacrifice, taken therefrom by Wilson, and 
indnded in his translation of the Vi^nu PurOna, voL i, p. 120-134) ; 
Can4Uataka, stanza 62, note 5. 3. The burning of Kama by diva's third 
eye, which here is said to be the disk of Surya, has already been referred 
to in the SUryaJataka; cf. stanza 55, note 9. 4. I have rendered tAa, 
' here,' by ' in diis world.' 5. In stanza 9, the rajrs of Surya are said to 
be ' ships for crossing the ocean of the fear of transmigration ' ; cf . stanza 
9, note 7. 6. The adjective niyamindfn, 'of the controlled ones,' is 
glossed by yogindffi, ' of the yogins.* 

V.L. (a) K na dahati nitaritffi (for na tu dahati purah) ; K punaft 
Pllrayaty, JHB purU pHrayaty^ (b) HB nHsta»n y^f^^l B ydnapatrafu, 
(c) J yad tdtabhrHnH JaHnid; B bh(f)mad apt; JHB jagatHifi bhriinH' 


siddhaih siddhantamifiram firitavidhi vibudhais caranaii catu- 

• • • • 

gitya gandharvamukhyair muhiu: ahipatibhir yatudhanair 

sargham sadhyair munihdrair muditatamamano moksibhih 

pratah prarabhjramanastutir avatu ravir vi&vavandyodayo vah 

Ravi* (Surya), at his rising, is worthy of being adored by the 

universe, and [tmto him], at dawn, h3mins of praise are 

[He is praised] by the Siddhas,^ with various canonical texts*; 

by the gods, with performance of ceremonial rites* ; 
By the Caranas,' with full measure of flattery* ; by the foremost 

of the Gandharvas,^ with song ; by the Lords of the Serpents, 

again and again ; 
By the Yatudhanas,® with [proper] restraint* ; by the Sadhyas,*® 

with oblations**; by the chief Rsis, with feelings of great 

joy" ; and by those seeking emancipation,** with partiality.** 
May Ravi (Surya) protect you! 


Notes. I. Lit *may Ravi, whose rising is worthy, etc, protect you.* 
It is worthy of note that in the first three podas of this stanza the words 
are arranged in pairs, a noun with an adverb, and that in each pair the 
adverb begins with the same letter as the noun, or else some word or 
syllable in the noun-compound imitates in sound some word or syllable 
in the adverb-compound. This constitutes an interesting example of 
yamaka, * assonance ' ; cf . Introd., p. 91, and, for somewhat analogous in- 
stances of assonance, cf. SHryaiataka, stanza 71, and Caniiiataka, stanzas 
36 and 52. a. The Siddhas have been mentioned in stanzas 6 (see note 
8), 20, 52, ^ and 72 (see note 5). Biihler, when comparing the opening 
stanzas of the Praiasti of Vatsabhatti with the SUryaiataka (cf. Die 
indischen Inschriften, as cited in stanza 6, note 8), notes how in both 
poems it is stated that Surya is praised by the semi-divine beings, such 
as Siddhas, Gandharvas, etc. In this connection, cf. MahabhUrata, 3. 3. 40, 
where it is said that the Siddhas, Caranas, Gandharvas, Yak$as, Guh3rakas, 
and the Nagas (Serpents), desirous of obtaining boons, follow the course 
of Surya's car through the sky ; see also Vifnu PurOna, 2. 10 (Wilson, 
vol. 2, p. 284-289), which tells us that the Adityas, K$is, Gandharvas, 
Apsarases, Yak$as, Serpents and Rak$asas guide the car of Surya, one 
of each class being assigned to this service during each of the twelve 
months. 3. Lit. 'with a mixture of established truths.' The commen- 
tary, however, explains this as meaning 'accompanied by the ceremony 
called siddhanta/ The commentary further notes that siddhantamUraff^, 
'with a mixture of established truths,' and Mtcnndhi, 'with performance 
of ceremonial rites,' are adverbs {kriyOviU^anam) , 4. Lit iritavidhi 
means 'ceremonial acts having been resorted to.' 5. The Caranas, 
according to the commentary, were the 'bards of the gods (devavarna- 
kith),* In the Mahibh&rata they are often mentioned as praising or wor- 
shiping some person or object, especially in company with the Siddhas 
and Gandharvas; cf. Sorensen, Index to the Names in the Mahdbhdrata, 
s.v. C&rana, 6. Lit 'with a fulness of flattery'; this the commentary 
amplifies into 'with flattery, chiefly consisting of a reiteration of his 
good qualities.' 7. According to the commentary, the foremost of the 
Gandharvas was Visvavasu. He is the reputed author of Rig Veda 10. 
139, being mentioned in that hymn (stanza 5) as its composer. For the 
Gandharvas as a class, cf. stanza 36, note 2. 8. According to the com- 
mentary, the Yatudhanas were the goblin PiSacas. They are mentioned in 
the Rig Veda (1.35. 10; 7. 104. 15; 10.87. 12-13), and appear to have been 
flesh-eaters and causers of disease; cf. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 
163. 9. Lit ' with self-restraint' 10. The Sadhyas are mentioned in 
stanza 72 (see note 5). 11. The argha (sometimes spelled arghya), 
which I have rendered as 'oblation,' is defined in Yajiiavalkya's Stnrti 
(ed. in 2 vols, by H. N. Apafe, Poona, 1903-1904), 1.289: darudsarfapa- 
pu^panam dattva 'rghatn ('rghyam) parttam anjalim, ' having given as an 
oblation a full handful of dUrvH grass, mustard and flowers.' za. Lit 
'with very joyful mind.' 13. According to the commentary, the 'eman- 
cipated' are the yogins. 14. The term pak^apatat, which I have ren- 


dered as 'with partiality/ is glossed by HtmabhOvdt, 'with attachment' 

VX. (b) J gandharvamUkhyOir, H gandharvamurkhyer; J6 yaMma, 
(c) JHB sarghyatfi sOdhyair; K mok^ubfUh pak^apatat. (d) HB prartt- 
bhyanUinastutir (with dental nasal). 


bhasam asannabhavad adhikatarapatofi cakravalasya tapac 
chedad acchinnagacchatturagakhui^putanjrasanihSankatank^ 
nihsangasyandanangabhramananikasanat patu vas triprakaram 
taptam£u8 tatpariksapara iva paritah paiyatan hatakadrim 

The Hot-rayed (Surya), traveling completely over (Mem), the 

Golden Mountain,* [is], as it were, intent* upon a threefold* 

testing of it ; 
[For it tests the gold] by the heat [arising] from the nearness of 

the excessively intense multitude of its rays. 
By cutting with the firm* chisels [which are] the blows' of the 

hollow hoofs of the horses that continually botmd along, 
And by the touchstone, [which in this case is] the wandering of 

the wheel' of the freely-moving chariot. 
May the Hot-rayed (Surya) protect you! 

Notes. I. For the golden composition of Mem, of. stanza i, note 4. 
a. Lit 'having the testing of it as its chief object' 3. The com- 
mentary notes: 'Gold is tested in three ways — ^by burning, cutting, and 
by the touchstone/ 4. Lit ' fearless (nihJanka) chisels.' 5. Lit ' the 
placing down of the hollows of the hoofs, etc' 6. I have rendered 
a^ga, Mimb,' by 'wheel'; cf. stanza 72 (note 6), where pilda, 'foot,* is 
used in the sense of ' wheel.' 

V.L. (a) JHB 'bhavddhikatarapatula^ cakravalasya; B patat (for 
tapnc), (b) B chedac chinnagacch- (one syllable short) ; HB 'tura- 
gakhara-; K -putanyasta-, (c) HB nih^ankasyandan- ; K patu vas /n- 


no fiuskam nakanadya vikasitakanakambhojaya bhrajitam tu 
pluflfta naivopabhogya bhavati bhrfiataram nandanodj^ana- 

no firngani drutani drutam amaragireh kaladhautani dhauta- 


m 'ddham dhama dyiimarge mradayati dayaya yatra so 'rko 
'vatad vah 

Since^ Arka (Surya), through pity, softens his blazing splendor 
in the pathway of the sky. 

The River of Heaven^ does not dry up, but is embellished by the 
expanding of its golden lotuses' ; 

The beauty of the garden of Nandana* [in Indra's paradise] is 
not scorched, but becomes indeed much more enjoyable; 

And the golden' peaks of (Meru), the Mountain of the Im- 
mortals, do not melt, but are quickly made to glisten.* 

May that Arka (Surya) protect you! 

Notes. I. The construction here is locative absolute — mradayati yatra 
— ^with the adverb yatra as one member; for similar usages, cf. stanza 20^ 
note I. a. The 'River of Heaven' is the celestial Ganges; cf. stanza 
47, note 7. 3. Lit 'it is not dried up, but is embellished by the River 
of Heaven, whose golden lotuses are expanded/ According to the Hindu 
grammarians, iu^ka, 'dried up,' is reckoned as a participle; cf. Whitney, 
Skt, Grammar, 958. 4. The grove in svarga (Indra's paradise) was 
called Nandana; cf. V. Fausboll, Indian Mythology, p. 86, London, 1903. 
It is so designated, as Fausboll points out, in Mahdbharata, 3. 43. 3 ; 3. 168. 
44. 5. The term kdladhHutani, 'purified by time (?),' is glossed by 
hiranmayHni, 'golden.' 6. The dividing of dhUutini, so that its last 
syllable is carried over into puda (d), is unusual. 

V.L. (a) JHBK -kanakambhoruha; H bhrajitantu, B bhrajitantuh, J 
bhrajitantuifi, (b) B -odyHnalak^ml, (c) HB ifngdni (with second nasal 
dental) ; HB kamadhautdni. (d) HB dayaya yaf^ sa vo 'vydd ino vah, J 
dayaya yatra so 'vyad ino vah. 


dhvantasyaiva 'ntahetur na bhavati malinaikatmanah papmano 

prak padopantabhajam janayati na param pankajanam prabo- 

karta nihSrejmsanam api na tu khalu yah kevalam vasaranim 
so 'vyad ekodyamecchavihitabahubrhadviSvakaryo 'ryama 


Aryaman (Surya) arranges many and great activities in the uni- 
verse in accordance with [his own] will, and by the efforts 
of [himself] alone*: 


He is not only the cause of the destruction of darkness whose 
nature is one with vileness,* but also [the cause of the de- 
struction] of sin ; 

He not only brings about the <expanding> of the lotuses at dawn, 
but also [brings] <enlightennient>' to those^ who enjoy 
proximity to his rays ; 

He is verily not only the <maker> of days, but also the <bestower> 
of final beatitude." 

May that Aryaman (Surya) protect you! 

Notes, z. Bemheimer (cf. Introd., p. 105) renders this psda as follows: 
'Vi protegga 11 sole die pur essendo solo, al suo levare molte e grandi 
cose compie nel mondo.' a. The commentary, which I have followed, 
takes the epithet nuilinOikdtmanah as a modifier of dhvSntasya, Bem- 
heimer (see note i) makes it modify pupmano, and renders: 'ma anche 
al maleficio dalla nera anima.' 3. I have rendered prabodham as 'en- 
lightenment,' taking it to mean intellectual or spiritual enlightenment 
The gloss is tattvadarianatfi, ' perception of truth.' 4. The reference is 
probably to the yogins, who enjoy proximity to the sun's rays in a meta- 
physical or spiritual sense. 5. Lit nikheyasAnUm means 'of final 

V.L. (a) H dhvdntasyOivUntahettur, (b) B pankajinUfft tnabodham. 
(d) B -vUvakHryyoryyabhOvah, 


lotaml loBtavicestah &rita£ayanatBlo nihsahibhutadehah 
samdehi prinitavye sapadi da&a, di£ah preksamano 'ndhakSrah 
nihSvasayasanisthah param aparavafio jayate jivalokah 
fiokeneva 'nyalokan udayakrti gate yatra so 'rko 'vatiid vah 

When Arka (Surya) has gone to other worlds,* to make his ap- 
pearance [there], 

Mortals* become, as it were, very miserable* with gfrief , and prcme 
to sighing and weariness ; 

They lie on their beds^ and toss about, as incapable of exertion 
as a clod,' their bodies without power, 

And doubtful as to the duration of their lives, as they see the 
ten quarters* [of the sky] all at once plunged in darkness.^ 

May that Arka (Surya) protect you! 


Notes, z. Lit. 'when he, making a rising, has gone to other worlds/ 
When Surya rises on other worlds, it is night on the earth. Note the 
locative absolute construction gate yatra, with the adverb yatra as one 
member; for similar constructions, cf. stanza 20, note i. a. Lit 'the 
world of mortals (jlvalokah).* 3. Taken literally, aparavaia seems to 
mean 'subject to others,' but the gloss, which I have followed, is duhsthita, 
* miserable.' 4. Lit ' having recourse to the surface of their beds.' 5. 
The compound loft^viceftah is glossed by loffavac ce^to^ahitah, * deprived 
of motion, like a clod.' 6. For the 'ten quarters,' cf. stanza 4, note 3. 
7. Lit ' seeing the ten quarters all at once as darknesses.' 

V.L. (a) HB lofhal lo^f^. (c) K -ni^thah cirataram avaio. (d) J 
iokenOnyatra lokobhyudayakfti, K iokenevUnyalokObhyudaya-, HB Soke- 


kramaml lolo 'pi lokams tadupakrtikrtav ajritah sthairyakotim 
nniam drstim vijihmam vidadhad api karoty antar atyanta- 

yas tapasya 'pi hetur bhavati niyaminam ekanirvanadayi 
bhuyat sa pragavastfaadhikataraparinamodayo 'rkah Sriye vah 

The rising* of Arka (Surya) effects a transformation superior to 

the previous condition ; 
Although he passes over the worlds [with constant] coming and 

going, he yet attains the acme of fixity in bestowing favors 

upon them* ; 
Although he causes the eye of man to look sidelong,* yet he makes 

the [eye] within* exceedingly happy; * 
Although he is the cause of heat, he is also, to the yogins, the 

sole giver of final beatitude.* 
May that Arka (Surya) bring you prosperity! 

Notes. I. The idea is that Surya, though transitory (lola), is fixed 
(sthdirya) ; though he constantly moves, yet he attains fixity. Such 
apparent contradiction is an instance of the rhetorical figure virodha; cf. 
stanza 80, note i. Other instances of the same figure are found in the 
two following pSdas of this stanza; cf. notes 3 and 4. a. Lit. 'makes 
the eye turned away.' No one can look straight at the mid-day sun with- 
out painful results. 3. The antar, *[eye] within,' is the soul; so, at any 
rate, I gather from the commentary, which explains: antahkarananw 
mpam, *[the eye] assuming the form of the seat of feeling.* The virodha 
(cf. note i) lies in the conception that Surya causes both misery and hap- 


piiMM ; misery to the pbyskal eye that tries to gaze oo the son's darring 
4>leiidor, and happiness to the sool, man's inner eye. 4. To make the 
virodka (cf. note i) ^iparcnt, Uipa, 'beat,' most be taken in its odier 
mrantng, 'pain.' Tbe son gires pain, and also gires extin ction of pain, 
or final beatitude. For the idea that the way to emancipation is titron g ji 
Sfirya, cf . stuza % note 7. 

VX. (a) HB krUmal toto; JHB -dsikitak sthairyckofim. (b) JHB 


vyipasmartur na kalo vyabliicarati phalaxn namadtiir vrstir 

ntf^oM trpyanti. devi na hi vahati mamn ninnalabhani bhani 

ifiah ftanta na bhindanty avadhim udadhajro bibhxati ksma- 

bhrtah ksmam 

• • • ■ 

yasmims trailokyam evam na calati tapati stat sa surjrah sriye 

When^ Surya shines, die seasons succeed each other at their 
r^^ular time,^ the fruit does not fail [to grow on] the plants. 

The wished-for rain [comes], the gods are not without pleasure 
in sacrifices,* the wind blows, the constellations are of spot- 
less splendor. 

The quarters [of the sky] are tranquil, the oceans do not break 
their bounds, the mountains [continue to] support the earth ; 

And thus, [through Surya's aid], the [r^^ular course of events in 
the] three worlds goes on undisturbed.* 

May Surya bring you prosperity ! 

Notes, z. This stanza is quoted by Buhler in Die indischen Inschriften 
(cf. stanza 6, note 8). He there comments on the emphasis here laid on 
the conception of Surya as the nurturer of gods and men, and as the main- 
tainer of the universe. In this regard, see stanza 77, where Surya is 
called the 'life of the worlds {jagatdtfi jlvitaifi)' Compare Surya's name 
Pu^an, which probably means ' Nourisher ' or ' Prosperer ' ; cf. Macdonell, 
Vedic Mythology, p. 37. In stanza 2 of the Gtualior Stone Inscription of 
Mihirakula (cf. CII, vol. 3, p. 162), Surya is said to be artihartH, 'a dis- 
peller of distress ' or ' remover of assailants ' ; and King Har$avardhana, 
the emperor of Northern India in the seventh century, says, in stanza 3 
of his Madhuban Plate (cf. EJ, 7.157)1 his father Prabhakaravardhana 
was ekacakraratha iva prajQnUm Urtiharah, 'like (Surya), the possessor of 


the one-wheeled car, relieving the distress of mortals.' a. Literally, 
'time is not possessed of disarranged seasons.' 3. Note the double 
negative in ne^iais tfPyanti devH na At, ' the gods are not tm-pleased with 
sacrifices'; for other double negatives in the SUryaSataka, cf. stanza 23, 
note 9. 4. Literally, ' the three worlds do not tremble.' 

V.L. (a) HB vyapannarttun na, (b) JHB ne^tOis tufyanti, (c) JHB 
and Biihler in Die indischen Inschriften (see note i) read bhindanty, 
which I have adopted; the Kavyamala text reads bhindaty, J k^mUbhf' 
takftndfft, B k^mObhftdk^mHtn, (d) Buhler, in Die indischen Inschriften 
(cf. note i), reads tapati sydt, 


kailase krttivasa viharati virahatrasadehodhakantah 

• • • 

firantah iete mahahav adhijaladhi vini chadmana padmana- 

yogodyogaikatano gamayati sakalam vasaram svaxn svayam- 

bhuri trailokyacintabhrti bhuvanavibhau yatra bhasvan sa vo 


While^ the Shining (Surya), Lord of the Universe, is constantly 
taking thought for [the good of] the three worlds, 

(Siva), who is covered with a skin,* takes his diversion on Mount 
Klailasa,* carrying in his body* his beloved (Parvati), be- 
cause of his fear of being separated [from her], 

(Visnu), whose navel is a lotus," wearied, reposes on the Great 
Serpent* (Sesa) in the ocean,^ without disguise,* 

And the Self -existent (Brahma) passes the whole of his own 
day* intent only on the effort [involved] in meditation.^* 

May that Shining (Surya) protect you"! 

Notes, z. Note the locative absolute construction with yatra, an adverb, 
as one member ; cf . stanza 20, note i. a. diva's epithet krttivdsas, ' whose 
clothing is a skin,' is presumably traceable to his wearing the skin of an 
elephant ; cf . Can4l^ataka, stanza 29, where ^iva is advised to exchange his 
elephant's skin for the softer hide of the buffalo-demon Mahi$a. iSiva is 
referred to as kfttivOsas in Mahabharata, 2. 46. 14 and 8. 33. 59, and in other 
places noted in Sorensen's Index, 3. Mt Kailasa is sometimes called 
the abode of Siva, as e.g. MahabhSrata, 3. 109. 17, but more often (cf. 
Sorensen's Index, s.v.) the home of Kubera; cf. e.g. Mahabh/trata, 3. 139, 
11-12. See, however, the illustration in Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 11, 



where iSiva and Pirvat! are pictured sitting together on Mt Kailasa. 4. 
This is a reference to iSiva's ardhanOrUa form, wherein he appears as 
half man and half woman; cf. Monier- Williams, Brdhmanism and Hin- 
duism, p. 85, 225, London, 1887. The conception of iSiva as the ardha- 
nUrUa is seemingly a late one, finding no place, so far as I have been able 
to discover, in either Vedas or Epics. Further reference to this form of 
iSiva is found in CanifUataka, stanzas 26, 28 and 80, and also in Mayura's 
stanza entitled 'The Anger of Uma,' translated below, p. 240. 5. Accord- 
ing to one account, Brahma was tm folded from a lotus that grew from 
Vifnu's navel ; cf . stanza 13, note 4. 6. Vi$nu becomes wearied by the e£Fort 
expended in the work of creation; therefore, in the intervals between the 
creations, he reposes on the great snake lSe$a, in the depths of the ocean ; 
cf . stanza 35, note 8. 7. The compound adhijaladhi, as noted in the Intro- 
duction (cf. p. 96), belongs to the class of composites called az/ya^bhdva; 
cf. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 1313, b. 8. The meaning of znnii chad- 
mand, which I, following the gloss avyOjena, 'without deceit,' have ren- 
dered 'without disguise,' is not quite clear to me. The commentary ex- 
plains by the gloss yogas tdpodicchalatit vind, which seems to mean ' medi- 
tation without pretense of austerities, etc.' 9. A day of Brahma equaled 
approximately four and one third billion years of mortals; cf. stanza 23, 
note 6. zo. The commentary quotes, though without so stating, from 
Patanjali's Yoga SUtra, 1.2: yogas citta- [vftti-] nirodhas, 'meditation is 
the hindering [of the working] of thought,' meaning that spiritual con- 
sciousness is gained by control of the versatile psychic nature; cf. the 
translation of the Yoga SUtra by Charles Johnston, New York, 1912 ; but see 
also the more recent translation by James H. Woods, appearing as volume 
17 of the Harvard Oriental Series, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1914. And 
the commentary adds, by way of explanation : tatrodyoga udyamas tatrOi- 
katana ekdgrah, 'intent on the effort involved in that [i.e. in meditation].' 
zi. The commentary notes: 'These [i.e. Siva, Vi$nu and Brahma] are 
earth-protectors in name [only], being intent only on their own affairs, 
but this Blessed (Surya) is [really an earth-protector], being girded up 
for action.' 

V.L. (b) J vind cchadmanH. (d) HB hhuvanavidhdu, 


etad yan znandalam khe tapati dinakrtas ta rco 'rcimsi yard 
dyotante tani samany ayatn api puruso mandale 'niu: yajumsi 
evam yam veda vedatritayaznayatn ayam vedavedi samagro 
vargah svargapavargaprakrtir avikrtih so 'stu suryah Sriye vah 

All the^ host versed in the Veda knows that Surya consists of 

the threefold Veda* ; 
That which blazes in the sky as the disk of (Surya), Maker of 

Day, [constitutes] the Verses (i. e. Rig Veda) ; 


The rays which scintillate [constitute] the Songs (i. e. Sdma 
Veda) ; and that atomic Soul* in the disk [constitutes] the 
Sacrificial Formulas (i. e. Yajur Veda)* 

May that Surya, who is Unchangeableness* [personified], and 
who is also the fundamental cause of heaven and emancipa- 
tion,* bring you prosperity ! 

Notes, z. Lit. ' all this host, etc/ a. The identification of Surya with 
the Vedas is a conception found also in Markan(feya PurAna, 103.6 (Par- 
giter, p. 557), Vi^nu Purdna, 2. 11 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 294-295), and accord- 
ing to Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, p. 346, in the SUrya NirHyana Upan" 
ifod. With reference to this identification, Wilson in his translation of 
the Vi^nu Purana (vol. 2, p. 295, footnote) suggests that 'this mysticism 
originates, in part, apparently, from a misapprehension of metaphorical 
texts of the Vedas, — such as sQif& trayy eva vidytt tapati, "that triple 
knowledge (the Vedas) shines" and fcas tapanti, " the hynms of the Rich 
shine," — ^and, in part, from the symbolization of the light of religious truth 
by the light of the sun, as in the Gayatri.' 3. The conception of puru^a 
as the * Soul ' seems to have originated in the teachings of Samkhya phi- 
losophy, a conception seemingly distinct from that found in the Puru^a 
hymn (10.90) of the Rig Veda; cf. A. A. Macdonell, Skt, Literature, p. 
132-133, 137, New York, 1900 ; id., Vedic Mythology, p. 166 ; cf . also Paul 
Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 239-250, Edinburgh, 1906. 
According to the commentary, the ' Soul ' or puru^a is * attainable by yoga 
(yogagatnyah) .' 4. The commentary quotes the following phrases, which 
I find occur in Satapatha BrUhmana, 10. 5. 2. 1-2 (cf. Eggeling's translation 
in Sacred Books of the East, vol. 43, p. 366) : trayl vH e^i xndya tapati 
(cf. note 2), *this threefold knowledge shines'; ta rcah sa fcatft lokah, 
* the verses : this is the realm of the Rig ' ; yad etad arcir dipyate tan 
mahUvrataifi tOni sdmdni sa sdmnafft lokah, * that which shines as the ray 
is a great religious observance, the h3rmns : this is the realm of the Saman ' ; 
ya efa etasmin man<fale puru^ah so 'gnis tdni yajUffi^i sa yaju^dm lokafjt 
iti ^rutih, 'that which is the man in this disk is Agni, the sacrificial 
formulas: this is the realm of the Yajus; so says tradition/ 5. Bern- 
heimer (Introd., p. 105) takes ainkriih, ' unchangeableness,' to be an 
adjective, and renders: Mmmutabile causa della beatitudine celeste.' 6. 
For the idea that Surya is a means for the attaining of emancipation, cf. 
stanza 9, note 7, and stanza 29, note 4. 


nakaukahpratyanikaksatipatiunahasam vasavagresaranam 
sarvesam sadhu patam jagad idam aditer atmajatve same 'pi 
yena "dityabhidhanam niratisayagunair atmani nyastam astu 


stutyas trailokyavandyais tridafaiminiganaih so 'mSumaxi 
Sreyase vah 

Although sonship to Aditi^ is common to all [the deities] who 

well protect this imiverse, 
Who are led by Vasava* (Indra), and whose might is able to 

destroy the foes of those dwelling in heaven, 
[Yet] the Ray-possessing (Surya), who is worthy to be praised 

by troops of the gods and sages that are revered in the three 

[Is the only one who], because of his matchless qualities, 

[rightly] applies to himself the name of * Son of Aditi/ 
May that Ray-possessing (Surya) bring you prosperity! 

Notes. I. Aditi, whose name may mean 'boundless' or 'endless' (Faus- 
boll, Indian Mythology, p. 76), was the mother of the Adityas; cf. Mac- 
donell, Vedic Mythology, p. 120-121, and MahObMrata, i. 65. 14. Sunra 
was one of the Adityas, or perhaps it is more accurate to say that the 
twelve Adityas (cf. stanza 94, and Cani^iataka, stanza 42) were but mani- 
festations of Surya in the twelve months of the year. The names of 
these deities, as given in Mahabhdrata, i. 65. 15-16, are : Dhatar, Mitra, 
Aryaman, Sakra (Indra), Varuna, Aipsa, Bhaga, Vivasvat, Pu^an, Savitar, 
Tva§tar, Vi§nu. According to Vi^u PurHna, 2. 10 (Wilson, vol 2, p. 
264-289), where a slightly different list is given, 84 special attendants were 
assigned to the care and superintendence of Surya's car, one for each 
month of the year, from each of the following seven groups : Adityas, R$is, 
(jandharvas, Apsarases, Yak$as, Sarpas (Serpents), and Raksasas. a. 
Indra was called Vasava as being chief of the Vasus, or closely associated 
with them ; he is invoked along with them in Rig Veda, 7. 10. 4 and 7. 35. 6. 
In the MahUbhOrata, Vasava is one of Indra's most common designations ; 
cf. Sorensen's Index, s.v. Indra, 

V.L. (a) The Kavyamala text reads ndkdukah pratyanlka-; I have 
emended to nakHukahpratyanlka-, which seems to receive support from 
the gloss devapratipanthi-. We cannot look to J or H or B for help on 
such a point, because in those texts the words are frequently crowded 
together or very oddly divided. B -patamahasiitti, (c) JHBK niratUaya- 
gunena "tmani, (d) HB stutyatrSilokyavanddis, 


bhumim dhamno lihivrstya jagati jalama3rim pavanim saxn- 

smrtav apy 
agneyim dahaSaktya muhiu: api yajaminam yatfaaprarthi- 



linSm aka&i eva 'mrtakaraghatitam dhvantapaksasya parvany 
evam suryo 'stabhedam bhava iva Uiavatah patu bibhrat 

Surya, like Bhava (Siva), possesses an eightfold form.* [As 

Siva] is the <earth>, [so Surya] is the <repository> of 

splendor ; 
[As Siva is water, so Surya] consists of water, [as proved] by his 

shedding rain upon the universe* ; 
[As Siva] is <wind>*, [so Surya] is a <purifier>, even in recalling 

[his name] ; 
[As Siva is fire, so Surya] is fiery, [as proved] by his ability to 

[As Siva is the sacrificing priest, so Surya] is frequently like the 

sacrificer because of the desired gifts* [which he bestows] ; 
[As Siva is ether, so Surya] is identical with the sky in which he 

is merged ; 
[And as Siva is the stm and moon, so Surya, the sun], is united 

with the moon at the conjunction in the dark half [of the 

lunar month] . 
May Surya protect you' ! 

Notes, z. The commentary quotes from an unnamed source : kfitijala- 
PavanahutaianayajamdndkaJasomasttrydkhyah, 'Earth, Water, Wind, Fire, 
the Sacrificer, Sky, Soma (Moon), and Surya [are] the names [of the 
eight forms of iSiva]. These eight forms or aspects are also allotted to 
iSiva in the opening verse of Kalidasa's Sakuntald ; see also Mahdbhdrata, 
3.49.8, where Mahesvara (^iva) is called oftamUrti, 'possessing eight 
forms/ a. For the idea that Surya is a reservoir of rain-water, sec 
stanza 9, note 2. 3. The term pdvanlm, ordinarily meanyig ' purifjring,' 
is here, punningly, to be regarded as an adjective from jfovana, 'wind,' 
and to mean ' consisting of wind.' Its gloss is vdyumaylm, ' consisting of 
wind,' and a footnote to the commentary points out that there is a pun 
involved. The far-fetched likeness to the wind is probably not real, but 
only such by virtue of the word-pun, although there may possibly be 
involved a reference to the inspiration of the breath, or of air, as a stimu- 
lator of thought and of the intellectual faculties — like the 'rhsrthmic 
breathing' of the present-day swamis. The literal translation of pdiKinlfn 
samsmrtdv apy is 'purifying, even in remembering,' and this doubtless 
means that a devotee of Surya gains purification by merely recollecting, or 
meditating on, that deity. The gloss smarane 'pi krte sati pdvanlm 

214 ^^K sOrya^taka of icatOsa 

hiddhikarim, ' porifying, even when remembrance is made,' seems to bear 
ottt this idea. Bemheimer (Introd^ p. 105) also is in accord, and renders : 
'come jmrificazione, nell' espressione del suo nome.' 4. As the sacri- 
ficer bestows gifts on the officiating priests, so Suryz on his devotees and 
worshipers. 5. It is of passing interest that this stanza compares Surya 
with iSiva, and that the two following stanzas, 92 and 93, compare Surya 
with Vi^pn and Brahma, the other members of the so-called 'Hindu 
Trinity ' ; cf . stanzas 16 and 88^ where is attested Surya's superiority over 
these three deities. 

VX. (a) HB dhamtMhivrftyd, K dhamno 'tha vrfm- (b) JHB 
diihaiaktiffi muhur; J yajamdndtmikam prartkitdndm, HB yajamOnitmi' 
kAprartkitandfn, K yajamandtmikatn prarthUorthOih. (c) JHB niam akdia ; 
HB "fnftakaraghatitafft, (d) JHB sQryo 'ffabkedo, 


bfaaktyi tyaktorukhedodgati divi vinatasununa nijramanah 
8apta£vaptaparant§ny adhikam adharayan jro jaganti stuto 

devair devah sa pa3rad apara iva muraratir ahnam patir vah 

The divine (Surya), Lord of Days, is like a second (Visnu), Foe 

of Mura* ; 
For <the beauty of the feet [of Visnu] is made apparent by 

massage' at the hands of Padma* (Sri), [who] from of old 

[has been] attentive* [to his wishes] >, 
And <the splendor of the rays [of Surya] is enhanced' by the 

perfume* of the clusters of lotus that expand at the time of 

dawn> ; 
[Visnu] <is conducted in heaven by (Garuda), Son of Vinata,^ 

who, because of his devotion, feels no weariness>,® 
[And Surya] <is conducted in the sky with devotion by (Aruna), 

Son of Vinata, who mounts upward without feeling pain in 

his thighs>*; 
[Visnu] <is loudly praised by the gods as he constantly traverses^® 

the seven worlds,*^ quickly reaching their farthest Hmits>, 
[And Surya] <is loudly praised by the gods as he constantly 

traverses the worlds, reaching their western extremities with 

his seven horses>.** 
May that (Surya), Lord of Days, protect you! 


Notes, z. On Mura, see stanza 76, note 9. For Suiya's relation to 
Vi^pu, see stanza 91, note 5. 2. The term parimalana, which is not 
found in the ordinary lexicons, is glossed in the first rendering by 
hastasatflvdhana, 'massaging with the hand/ In the second render- 
ing its gloss is avagdhana, 'plunging.' I have followed the commen- 
tary in the first rendering, but in the second, I translate by 'perfume,' 
thinking it possible that parimalana may be a variant form of pari- 
mala, 'perfume.' It seems to me also possible that the original read- 
ing may have been parimilana, 'touch,' which would fit both renderings. 
3. Padma or ^ri, the wife of Vi$nu, is presumably called Padma, ' Lotus,' 
because she appeared, when the ocean was churned, resting on the expanded 
petals of a lotus ; cf . stanza 2, note 2, and stanza 42, note 3 ; cf . also Moor, 
Hindu Pantheon, plates 3 (p. 12) and 4 (p. 19), where Padma is pictured 
in the act of massaging Vi§nu's feet 4. Lit unnidra means ' sleepless ' 
or 'expanded.' It is glossed both by jdgarita, 'long awake,' and by 
sOvadhdna, 'attentive.' I have adopted the latter rendering, but Bem- 
heimer (Introd., p. 105) prefers the former, translating 'che presto si e 
desta.' 5. Lit dvirhhavat means 'manifest' 6. For parimalana in 
the sense of ' perfume,' see note 2. The commentary would render : * the 
splendor of the rays is made manifest by plunging into {avagdhana) the 
clusters of lotuses that expand at dawn'; cf. note 2. 7. Garucja, son 
of Vinata, was Vi§nu's vehicle; cf. stanza 47, note 3. 8. Lit. 'who, 
through devotion, abandons the mighty {uru) rise of weariness.' Bem- 
heimer (Introd., p. 105) renders: 's'innalza nel cielo, appena la fatica ha 
abbandonato le zampe di quello.' The compound tyaktorukhedodgati must 
be taken as an adverb. 9. Aruna, son of Vinata, as already often noted, 
— see especially stanza 8, note i, — was the driver of Surya's car. He was 
born thighless (cf. stanza 8, note i). Bemheimer (Introd., p. 105) ren- 
ders: 's'innalza nel cielo, appena la fatica ha abbandonato le zampe dei 
suoi cavalli.' 10. Lit adharayan means 'excelling,' but the gloss is 
langhayan, 'traversing,' 'crossing.' 11. The seven lokas are meant; 
these are bhUrloka or earth, hhuvarloka or sky, svarloka or heaven, mahar- 
loka or the middle region, janarloka or the place of re-births, taparloka or 
the mansions of the blest, and satyaloka or the abode of truth ; cf. Vi^nu 
Purdna, 2.7 (Wilson, vol. 2, p. 225-227). For this rendering, resolve the 
compound as sapta dh/ dpta-. la. Resolve the compound here as sapta- 
aiva-dpta-, * reached by the seven horses.' For the ' seven horses,' cf . 
stanza 8, note 2. 

V.L. (c) B yo jayanti stuto. (d) JH devdir ddivah ; HB murdvdtir ahndtfi. 


3rah srasta 'pam purastad acalavarasamabhyunnater hetur eko 
lokanam yas trayanam sthita upari param durvilanghyena 


sadyah siddhyai prasannadyuti^ubhacaturaSamukhah stad vi- 

dvedha vedha iva 'viskrtakamalarucih so 'rdsam akaro vah 

(Surya), the Mine of Rays, is like (Brahma), the Creator, who 

was divided into two parts^ ; 
[For Brahma] <revealed the splendor of the lotus [from which 

he was bom]>,* [and Surya] <lays bare the splendor of 

[ordinary] lotuses>*; 
[Brahma] <in the beginning was the creator of waters, and the 

sole cause of the elevation of the Principal Mountains>,* 
[And Surya] <is a creator of waters," and the sole cause of the 

rise [to fame] of (Meru), the Best Mountain,* in the east> ; 
[Brahma] <is superior to the three worlds^ by reason of his posi- 
tion,® to which it is very difficult to ascend>, 
[And Surya] <is situated above the three worlds with a splendor 

that is very hard to excel> ; 
<The faces [of Brahma], four* [in number], like the quarters 

[of the sky], are radiant with bright splendor>, 
[And Surya, as he rises], <causes the faces of the four quarters 

to be radiant with bright splendor>. 
May that (Surya), Mine of Rays, speedily bring you prosperity! 

Notes, z. The golden egg, created by Brahma, regarded as identical 
with Brahma, and from which Brahma and the universe were evolved, was 
divided into two parts by the power of that god's meditation as the Self- 
existent One, one part becoming heaven, the other, earth ; cf. Manu, i. 9-13. 
Hence Brahma is here said to be 'twofold' or 'divided into two parts.' 
For Surya's superiority over Brahma, as attested in the SUryaJataka, see 
stanza 91, note 5. 2. According to some accounts, Brahma was pro- 
duced from a lotus that grew out of Vi$nu's navel; cf. stanza 13, note 4. 
3. The meaning is that the light of the sun causes lotuses to open. 4. 
The ' Principal Mountains ' were the kulaidilas, or kulak^mUbhrtas, which 
have been discussed above; cf. stanza 56, note 3. 5. The commentary 
quotes for the third time: Hditydj jHyate vrftih, 'from Aditya (Surya) 
rain is produced'; cf. stanza 30, note 4, and stanza 77, note i. For the 
conception of Surya as a reservoir from which the earth is supplied with 
water, cf . stanza 9, note 2. 6. According to the commentary, the ' Best 
Mountain' is Meru. The commentary explains: 'For Meru is brought 
to fame (gauravarn) as the " Sunrise Mountain " through the rising of the 
Blessed (Surya)'; cf. stanza i, note 4. 7. Lit. 'stands above the three 


worlds/ 8. The gloss of dhdmna is sthdnena, 'place/ 'position/ The 
meaning is that Brahma has reached hrahmiUoka, or satyaloka (cf. stanza 
92, note 11), the seventh heaven, which is far above the three lowest 
worlds. 9. For the four heads of Brahma, and the anecdotes accounting 
for the loss of an original fifth head, cf. stanza 13, note 3. 

V.L. (a) HB parast&d; J -samamyunnater, HB 'SamabhyunnatehOitur, 
(b) JHB upari pade durvi-, (c) B prasannadyati-, K prasanwidyutihici- 
catur- ; JHB 'tnukhastad zHbhakto. 


sadridyurvinadi^a difiati dafia di§o darsayan prag dtio yah 
sadriyam drSyate no sadaiafiatadrii traidaSe 3ras3ra deSe 
diptam^ur vah sa dUyad aiivayugada^dar^itadvadaiatma 
iam Sasty a^vamS ca yasya "sayavid atifiayad dandaSukafia- 

The Hot-rayed (Surya) at dawn bestows [on us] the power of 
sight,* revealing the ten quarters,* with the mountains, sky, 
earth, and oceans'; 

His like is not to be seen in the realm of the gods, presided over 
by the Thousand-eyed* (Indra) ; 

His twelve personalities' will be made manifest by fate at the 
destruction of the world ; 

And (Aruna), the elder brother* of (Garuda), Devourer of 
Snakes, curbs his steeds, knowing well their [every] inten- 

May that Hot-rayed (Surya) bring you prosperity^! 

Notes, z. Lit. 'bestows eyes.' The meaning, of course, is that Surya 
brings light whereby we are enabled to see. a. For the 'ten quarters' 
of the sky, see stanza 4, note 3. 3. The commentary notes that the com- 
pound sddridyUrvlnadUd, 'with the mountains, sky, earth, and oceans,' 
embodies an instance of the rhetorical figure tulyayogitd. This is defined 
by Apte (Skt.-Engl. Diet, s.v.) as the 'combination of several objects 
having the same attribute, the objects being either all relevant or all 
irrelevant'; cf. also Dancjin, KdvyHdarsa, 2.48; and Visvanatha Kaviraja's 
Sdhityadarpana, 10, stanza 695 (ed. by Jivananda Vidyasagara, Calcutta, 
1895). The rhetorical figures occurring in the SUryalataka have been 
grouped and discussed in the Introduction, p. 90-95. 4. Lit. 'with its 
Thousand-eyed One.' In Mahdbharata, i. 211. 22-28, it is related that 
Indra's eyes (like Brahma's heads— cf. stanza 13, note 3) were multiplied 


so that he might see the maiden Tilottama, whichever way she turned. 
Another accoimt says that Indra once violated Ahalsra, the wife of the 
sage Gautama {MahahhUrata, 5.12.5-6; 12.266.45-50; ROmdyana, 7.30. 
25-34)* Gautama thereupon cursed the god, ordaining, among other 
things, that his body should be disfigured with a thousand 'sex-marks' 
(so Roy renders bhaga, meaning perhaps the pudendum muliebre; cf. 
Mbh,, 13. 41.21). Afterwards the sage relented, and allowed the thousand 
disgraceful marks to be turned into eyes; cf. Mbh., 13. 41. 21; 13.34.28? 
(13.2137 of the Calcutta text, which is cited here because the latter part of 
13* 34 is out of place, and apparently missing, in the copy that I have used 
of the Bombay text). It is worthy of note too that the Skanda Purdria, 
17-18, (quoted by Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, p. 363) records how Indra, 
on one occasion, in order to escape from the demons who had besieged 
him and other gods in the city of Amaravati, turned himself into a pea- 
cock, a bird that, as noted in SUryaiataka, stanza 25, has many 'eyes in 
its tail.' See Cati4Uataka, stanza 42, and also stanza 57, which refers to 
Indra's 'row of eyes.' 5. The 'twelve personalities' are the twelve 
Adityas, on whom comment has been made in stanza 90, note i, and 
Can4Uataka, stanza 42. From Venlsatfthara, 3. 8 (ed. Parab and Macjgav- 
kar, Bombay, 1898), dagdhuffi vUvatfi dahanakiranHir nodita dvddaia 'rkd 
'the twelve Arkas (Suryas) have not [yet] risen to bum up the universe 
with their scorching rays,' we may infer that the twelve Adityas formed 
one of the destructive forces that became active at the end of every kalpa. 
In this connection, compare also MahdbhOrata, 3.3.59, krtva dvMaiadhA 
"tmUnaffi dvlidailidityataffi gatah \ saffthftydikdrnavafti sarvaffi tvaffi sofayasi 
raimibhih, 'having divided thyself into twelve parts, and becoming as 
many suns, thou (Surya) destroyest the whole ocean and driest it up with 
thy rays.' 6. On Aruna's relationship to Garucja, see stanza 8, note i ; 
and on Garucja's fondness for devouring snakes, see stanza 47, note 3. 
7. The indeclinable particle Jam, 'prosperity,' used substantively, is com- 
mon in the Veda, but rare in the later language; cf. Monier- Williams, 
Skt'Engl. Did. s.v. Note in this stanza the alliteration (anuprOsa) of 
d, and the assonance (yamaka) due to the prevalence of d and i sounds. 
The letter d occurs twenty-five times, and i occurs twenty-seven times. 

V.L. (a) J sUdridyanHnadlkH; J and the Kavyamala text read pmk 
dfso, K dariayan drak dfio. (b) B sadaiaiatadf^i (with last sibilant 
lingual), (d) HB satfi JOsty (with dental sibilant in satfi) ; JHB atiiayaffi 


tirthani vyarthakani hradanadasarasinirjharambhojininam 
nodanvanto nudanti pratibhayam a^ubham ivabhrapatanu- 

apo nakapagaya api kalusamuso maj jatam ndiva yatra 
tratum yate 'nyalokin sa difiatu divasasyaikahetur hitam vah 


When* (Surya), the Sole Cause of Day, has gone to other 

worlds, in order to afford [them] protection. 
The sacred bathing-places at pools, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and 

lotus-ponds are of no avail,^ 
The oceans do not wash away the fearful^ sin that has as its 

consequence a descent into hell, 
And even the waters of the River of Heaven* do not absolve 

from impurity those that take ceremonial baths [in them]. 
May that (Surya), Sole Cause of Day, bestow upon you what 

is salutary ! 

Notes, z. Note the locative absolute construction with yatra as one 
member; cf. stanza 20, note i. When the sun has gone to other worlds, 
it is night on the earth ; cf . stanza 85, which, like this stanza, describes the 
effects and consequences of Surya's absence from the world of mortals; 
cf. also MahUbharata, 3.3.53: tava yady udayo na sydd andha*f% jagad 
idaffi bhavet \ na ca dharmdrthak^hne^u pravartteran manlpnah, * If thou 
(Surya) shouldst not rise, this universe would be blind, and the learned 
would not employ themselves in [the attainment of] virtue, wealth and 
pleasure.' 2. The purport of this stanza is that ceremonial bathing is 
not efficacious as an absolver from sin, except in the da3rtime when Surya 
is shining. In the commentary to stanza 55 (cf. note 3) we are told that 
sacrifice also is fruitless if performed before the coming of dawn. 3. 
The commentary takes pratibhayam as a noun meaning 'sin' (p^pam), 
and reads a^ubhaSvabhra- as a compound meaning 'inauspicious abysm,' 
glossing it by naraka, * hell.' 4. The ' River of Heaven ' is the celestial 
Ganges, whose descent from heaven is recorded in the Mahobhdrata, 3. 
108-109, a^nd in RUmdyana, 1.43.35-38; cf. CandUataka, stanza 3, note 2, 
and SUryaiataka, stanza 47, note 7. 

V.L. (b) JHB nudanti pratidinatn; JHB alubhatft subhra-; the com- 
mentary suggests aiubhahjabhra-. (c) K dpo svargapagdyHh, (d) K 
ydte 'nyalokam, 


etat patalapatikaplutam iva tamasaivaikam udgadham asid 
aprajiiatapratarkyam niravagati tatha 'laksanam suptam antah 
yadrk srsteh purastan niSi niSi sakalam ja3rate tadrg eva 
trailokyam yadviyogad avatu ravir asau sargatulyodayo vah 

The entire three worlds, when separated from Ravi (Surya), 

whose rising is like creation,^ 
Become, each night, such as they were before the creation ; 


[For then] they were utterly [plunged] in darkness, [being] 
indeed one [mass], and, as it were, submerged in the mire of 

Uncomprehended and incomprehensible; also, incapable of per- 
ception by the senses,* without distinguishing marks, and 
immersed in sleep * 

May that Ravi (Surya) protect you! 

Notes, z. The rising of Surya is like creation, for as creation quick- 
ened into life the dormant mass of matter, so Surya arouses the sleeping 
universe to activity. 2. Lit. ' they were as if submerged in the mire of 
Patala, being indeed utterly one because of darkness.' 3. I have ren- 
dered niravagati by 'incapable of perception by the senses'; its gloss is 
Pratyak^asyd 'vUayatn, 'beyond the reach of perception by the eye.' 4. 
This stanza recalls Manu, i. 5, where the condition preceding creation is 
described as follows: ajUd idatu tamobhutam aprajn&tam alakfanam \ 
apratarkyam avijneyatfi prasuptam iva sarvatah, 'This (universe) existed 
as darkness, uncomprehended, without distinctive marks, incomprehensible, 
unknowable, and, as it were, wholly immersed in sleep.' Lit suptam 
antah means 'asleep within.' 


V.L. (a) JHB iva tamasa sSkam udgd4ham, (c) JHB niH nikhilaip 


dvipe yo 'stacalo 'smin bhavati khalu sa eva 'paratrodayadrir 
ya yaminy ujjvalendudyutir iha divaso 'nyatra tivratapah sah 
yadva^yau de^akalav iti niyamayato no tu yam de&dcalav 
avyat sa svaprabhutvahitabhuvanahito hetur ahnam ino vah 

The Mighty (Surya), the Cause of Days, by his own power brings 

about the welfare of the world, 
And he is not held in restraint even by time and place, for time 

and place are subject to him* ; 
For what in this quarter of the earth is the Sunset Mountain, in 

another, indeed, is (Meru), the Mountain of Sunrise; 
And when here it is night with brilliant moonlight, elsewhere it 

is day with intense heat.' 
May that Mighty (Surya) protect you! 

Notes, z. The commentary explains that ' time ' means ' dawn, etc,' and 
'place' means 'east, etc' For a similar conception of the relation of 


Surya to time and place, cf. stanza i8, note 8. a. The divisions (dvipas) 
of the terrestrial world were, according to different authorities, four, seven, 
nine, or thirteen in number, and were grouped around Meru as lotus petals 
are grouped around a lotus; cf. stanza 23, note 3. The commentary ex- 
plains: 'When indeed the blessed Thousand-rayed (Surya) rises in the 
south of Meru, then it goes to its setting in the north of Meru; [it goes 
to] mid-day in the east of Meru, and [it goes to] midnight in the west 
[of Meru] ; from this as a cause, these two — ^place, beginning with the 
east, and time, beginning with the dawn-twilight — are dependent on this 
Ravi (Surya), but Ravi is not dependent on these two — ^time and place. 
Therefore the measuring severally of time and place by the revolving 
of the wheel of Surya is renowned in the mathematical science of compu- 
tation.' On the ' Sunset Mountain,' cf. stanza 42, note 11. 

V.L. (a) HB 'stdcalesmin bhavati. (b) HB ujvalendudyutir \ JHB 
'nyatra diptatapalji sah, (c) K no nu yarn, HB niyamato no bhayatu 
deJakdlHv (one syllable short), J hi niyamato no bhayatfl deiakHldv. (d) 
H svapnabhUvUhitdbhuvanahito, B svaprabhOvdhita-, 


vyagrair agryagrahendugrasanagurubharair no samagrair 

pratyagrair isadugrair udayagirigato goganair gaurayan gam 
udgadharcirviUnanmianagaranagagravagarbham iva Imam 
agre §reyo vidhatte glapayatu gahanam sa grahagramanir vah 

(Surya), l-ord of Planets, as he approaches (Meru), the Moun- 
tain of Simrise, at the beginning of each day,^ gilds* the 
sky* with quivering* multitudes of rays. 

[These rays] are new, and shoot upwards, and [yet] have not 
attained their full length,' and are [only] slightly hot; 

Their difficult task* is to eclipse the moon and the principal 
planets, and, [as the sun rises higher]. 

They dissolve,^ as it were, with their intense splendor, the off- 
spring [of the sky], the clouds [that cling] about the moun- 
tain [which constitutes] the city of the gods.® 

May (Surya), Lord of Planets, [who]* bestows prosperity, cause 
[all] your distress^® to vanish" ! 

Notes, z. The phrase ahnOm agre, 'at the beginning of days,' should 
perhaps, from its position, be taken with the benediction glapayatu gaha^ 
natfi, * may he cause your distress to vanish.' The commentary, however, 


does not so take it, and I have followed the commentary. a. The par- 
ticiple gHurayan, 'gilding/ is seemingly a denominative formation from 
g&ura, 'yellow/ 3. Bemheimer (Introd., p. 105) takes gam, which I 
have rendered as ' sky/ to mean ' earth/ and renders : ' indorando la terra, 
per modo che coi suoi monti e roccie immerse nelle fiamme ardenti, sembra 
la citti degli dei/ 4. Lit. vyagrair means ' confused/ ' agitated,' ' bewil- 
dered'; I have rendered as 'quivering/ 5. Lit no samagrnir, which I 
have rendered 'have not attained their full length,' means 'not entire/ 
The full length of the rays cannot be seen, because the disk of the sun 
is still below the horizon; cf. stanza 19, note 6. 6. Lit. -gurubharair 
means ' heavy burden ' ; I have rendered as ' difficult task.' 7. Lit. zntina 
means 'melted,' the idea being that the clouds and mists appear to melt 
away under the action of the sun's rays. 8. Lit ' gilding the sky, whose 
offspring, the clouds [that cling to] the mountain [that is] the city of the 
gods, are melted by [their] intense splendor.' For Bemheimer's rendering 
of this pdda see note 3. It may be remarked that garbha, which I have 
rendered as 'offspring [of the sky]/ is used in a somewhat similar sense 
in Rdmdyana, 4. 28. 3, to denote the fogs and vapors that are drawn up by 
the sun's rays during nine months, to be poured out again from the clouds 
upon the earth in the form of rain : navamdsadhrtatu garbhaifi bh&skarasya 
gabhastibhifi | pltvd rasaip samudrdnHtft dySuh prasUte rasdyanam, 'The 
sky, having drunk the moisture of the oceans by means of the rays of 
(Surya), Maker of Light, brings forth the elixir [of rain] as an offspring, 
which it has carried for nine months.' 9. The omission of a yah as cor- 
relative to the sa in poda (d) is unusual and leaves vidhatte, 'bestows,' 
grammatically without a subject. I would suggest emending the text so 
as to read iatfi yo for ireyo. A similar omission of the relative occurs 
in stanza 33. Cf. stanza 24 (note 5), and CantfUataka, stanza 9 (note 4), 
where the demonstrative has been omitted. zo. Or, gahanatfi, ' distress,' 
may mean 'sin'; its gloss is p&pam, 'sin/ zz. Note in this stanza the 
alliteration (anuprSsa) of g, which occurs 25 times, and the assonance 
(yamaka) occasioned by the numerous recurrences of gr sounds. 

V.L. (a) JHB vyagrdir ugragraho<fugrasanagurutarair, K -gurutarltir ; 
the Kavyamala text reads -guru bharOir; I have emended as above, (c) 
J uddhUmHrcirvitind'; J -nagaranagagrdmagarbhdm, H -nagaranagagro^ 
garbhim, B 'nagaranagaragragarbhdm ; J -garbhlim ivUhram. (d) HB 
agre 'ireyo (with avagraha), 


yonih samnazn vidhata madhuripur ajito dhurjatih Saxnkaro 

mrtyuh kalo 'lakayah patir api dhanadah pavako jatavedah 
itthazn samjna davitthadivad axxirtabhujam ya yadrccha- 



tasam eko l)hidheyas tadanugunagunair j^ sa suryo 'vatad 

(Brahma)/ Creator, [is called] the Originator of the Songs,* 
(Visnu), Foe of Madhu," [is called] the Invincible; (Siva), 
who has a burden of matted locks,^ [is called] the Bene- 

Mrtyu (Yama) [is called] Time; (Kubera), Lord of Alaka," [is 
called] the Giver of Wealth; and Jatavedas* (Agni) [is 
called] the Purifier; 

These names of the gods thus originate by chance, after the 
fashion of Davittha^ and the like. 

And Surya alone is signified by them, by virtue of [his] qualities 
which are in accord with those [names] . 

May that Surya protect you ! 

Notes, z. This stanza offers difficulties at best, and the explanation of 
the commentary is not quite clear to me, but the meaning seems to be as 
follows : The epithets of the gods, such as Saifikara, Pavaka, etc., arc, by 
convention, arbitrarily applied to Siva, Agni, etc., but are pre-eminently 
applicable to Surya only, because Surya alone is really the Beneficent 
{Satfikara)^ the Purifier (Pavaka), etc Thus, by virtue of having the 
same name, Surya is to be identified with all these deities. With refer- 
ence to this identification, Biihler (Die indischen Inschriften, as cited in 
stanza 6, note 8) notes, in connection with this stanza, that Surya, in the 
Praiasti of Vatsabhatti> is extolled as Creator and Destroyer of the uni- 
verse and so is identified there also with Brahma and Siva. Cf. also 
SHrya Upanifad (as quoted by Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, p. 346), where 
it is said: 'Praise, therefore, be to thee, O Aditya (Surya), who art 
manifestly Brahma, Vi§nu, Rudra (Siva), and all the gods.' 3. The 
commentary notes that by 'Songs (sUmfUltft)* is meant the Sdma Veda; 
Brahma is usually credited with the production of the Vedas, as e.g. in 
Vifftu Purana, 1.5 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 84-86). 3. The slaying of the 
demon Madhu by Vi§nu is described in the MUrkantfeya PurSna, 81. 50-76 
(Pargiter, p. 469-472); cf. MahObharata, 3.203.9-35. 4, On the ety- 
mology of DhUrjati, ' Possessor of a burden of matted locks,' cf. stanza 
71, note 4. 5. Kubera's city Alaka, which stood on a peak of the 
Himalayas, is described in the MahObhUrata, 3. 160. 36-41, as embellished 
with golden houses and crystal palaces, surrounded by a golden wall, and 
peopled by dancing, jesting women; cf. V. Fausboll, Indian Mythology, p. 
186. 6. On the etymology of J&tavedas (Agni), see stanza 44, note 11. 
7* The term 40'Vittha, which is said to mean ' wooden antelope,' is glossed 
by 4^ttha. The latter is defined in the major St. Petersburg lexicon as 










The stanzas attributed to Mayura, both in the published and 
also in the unpublished anthologies, have been listed by Thomas 
in his recent edition of the KaTHndravacanasamuccaya.^ They 
are seventeen in number, not counting citations from the SUrya- 
iataka, and of these seventeen, sixteen are found in anthologies 
that have been already published. The exception is a stanza in 
Jalhana's SUktimuktQvali (i 247-1 260 A.D.),* an anthology as 
yet unedited. I have not been able to secure a copy of this verse, 
but from its opening words, sdbhiprQyam pranayasarasam (quoted 
by Thomas, op. cit, p. 67), it appears to have been composed in 
the mandakrHnta meter. 

Of the sixteen published stanzas, some are quoted here from 
the Subhdsitdvali (after 1469 A.D.) of Vallabhadeva, others 
from the Paddhati (1363 A.D.) of Sarngadhara, and still others 
from the Saduktikarnamrta (1205 A.D.) of Srfdhara Dasa." 
The other anthologies which also cite some of these stanzas of 
Ma)rura are, as listed by Thomas (loc, cit), the Padydvall of 
Rupagosvamin* (reported published in Calcutta),' and the follow- 
ing, which are as yet unpublished: the PadyQfnrtataranginl of 
Haribhaskara, the Sdrasamgraha of Sambhudasa, and the Su- 
bhUsitaratfuikoia of Bhatta Srfkrsna.* 

^F. W. Thomas, Kat/lndravacanasatnuccaya, introd., p. 67-68, Calcutta, 

2 Sec above, Introduction, p. 9, note 3. 

8 For the date of the Saduktikarnamfta, see above, Introduction, p. 62, 
note I. 

*The Padydvall is earlier than 1541 A.D.; cf. J. Eggeling, Catalogue 
of the Skt. MSS in the Library of the India Ofke, Sanskrit Literature: 
B, Poetical Literature, part 7, p. I534-I537, no. 4034, London, 1904. 

s See Thomas, Kat^ndravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 11. 

* Thomas, op, cit.. Corrections and Additions, p. xi, states that one stanza 
of Mayura is quoted in the unpublished SUktiratnOvati of V&idsranatha. 



The titles appended below to these miscellaneous stanzas have 
been supplied by myself, except that in the case of those quoted 
from the SadukHkarnOmfta, the titles I have used are suggested 
by the headings of the SaduktikarnHmrta chapters in which 
Ma3rura's stanzas appear. 

I have not included in the following group the four stanzas 
attributed to Mayura in the Bhojaprabandha. These were given 
above/ and one of them, it will be remembered, was a quotation 
from the Pancatantra (i. 32). 

Siva and ParvatT 


vijaye kufialas tryakso na kri^itum aham anena saha iakta 
vijaye kuialo 'ami na tu tryakso Inadvayam idam paniu 

kim me durodarena prayatu 3radi ganapatir na te l>himatah 
kah pradvesti vinayakam ahilokah kim na janasi 


vasurahitena krida bhavata saha Iddrii na jihresi 
kim vasubhir namato 'mun surasurin eva pafya purah 



candragrahanena vina ni 'smi rame kim pravartayasy evam 
devyai yadi rucitam idam nandinn ahuyatam rahuh 


hS rahau fiitadamstre bha]rakrti nikatasthite ratih kasya 
yBdi necchasi samt]raktah sampraty evaisa harahih 


aropayasi mudha kim na *ham abhijiia kila tvadafUcassra 
div3ram varsasahasram sthitveti na jruktam abhidhitum 

^ See above, Introduction, p. 44, 46^ 47. 



ittham pa£upatipdSalapa£akainapra3ruktavakrokteh 
haraavafiataralatarakam inanam avsraid bhavanya vah 


Parvati*: *0 Vijaya,* the Three-eyed (Siva) is [too] skil- 
ful ; I cannot play with him.' 
Siva: *I am skilful at winning, but I am not supplied 
with three dice^ ; here are [but] a pair of dice in 
[my] hand/ 


Parvati : ' Why do I bother with this dice-play ? ' " 

Siva: 'Let Ganapati (GaneSa)* 

depart if he is not wanted by you.' 
Parvat! : ' Who hates [i. e. wants to get rid of] Vinayaka^ 

(Gane^) ? ' 
Siva: *The snake-world 

[hates Vinayaka^ (Garuda)]. Do you not 
know that?' 


Parvat!: '[Now],® what sort of play is this with Your 

Highness minus ftmds* [to stake] ? Are you 
not ashamed?' 
Siva: 'What [do you want] with the Vasus,* [my 
attendants] ? Just see before [you] those gods 
and demons making obeisance.' 


ParvatI : ' I have no joy, if I don't get the moon.^* Why 

are you thus devising [ptms] ? ' ** 
Siva : ' Nandin,** let Rahu^' be stunmoned, since it [so] 
pleases Devi (Parvati).' 



PArvatI : ' Mercy ! Who can take any comfort," when that 

sharp- fanged, awe-inspiring Rahu is present?' 
Siva : * If you do not like [my] snake-necklace,^^ I'll take 
it oflE at once.'^' 


Parvat!: 'Why do you uselessly produce [these pims]?^^ 

I made no reference to your ornament.'*® 
Siva : ' [What ! not know my lap ?] *• That's not a nice 
thing to say when you have been sitting in it** 
for a divine millenium.' 


Benediction: So may the face of Bhavanl (Parvati), the 

pupil of whose eye is tremulous with joy, pro- 
tect you! 
[This is that Parvati] to whom (Siva), the Lord 
of Cattle, uttered <clever> puns, <like <soft> 
nooses*,*® <while at dice-play>.** 

Notes, z. These seven stanzas are given under Mayura's name in the 
SubhO^tavali of Vallabhadeva, 123-129 (ed. Peterson, Bombay, 1886), and 
also, but without indication of the name of their author, in the Alafftkara- 
sarvasva of Rajdnaka Ruyyaka (fl. between 1128 and 1149 A.D. ; cf. Duff, 
Chronology, p. 142, and especially H. Jacobi, in ZDMG, vol 62, p. 291). 
In Ruyyaka's work they are given as an illustration of vakrokH, which is 
defined in the Alatftkarasarvasva (translated by Jacobi in ZDMG, vol. 62, 
p. 609) as follows: 'Wenn ein in bestimmtem Sinne gesprochener Satz 
durch Betonung oder Sle^a in anderem Sinne genommen wird, (so ist das 
die Figur) VakrokH.' Perhaps 'punning in dialogue' best expresses in 
English the idea of vakrokH, For an exhaustive treatment of this rhetor- 
ical device, see the articles by Carl Bemheimer and Hermann Jacobi, in 
ZDMG, 63 (1909), p. 797-821 ; 64 (1910), p. 130-139, 586-590, 751-759. The 
AlatfikHrasarvasva has been edited, with the commentary of Jayaratha, in 
the K^vsramala Series, by Durgaprasad and Parab, Bombay, 1893 (see p. 
176-177 for Mayiira's stanzas), and translated, with valuable introduction 
and notes, by Hermann Jacobi, in ZDMG, 62 (1908), p. 289-336, 411-458, 
597-628 (Ma3rura's stanzas on p. 610) ; cf. also Luders, IVurfelspiel im 
alien Indien, p. 66, note i. a. I have adopted, in general, the text and 


arrangement of stanzas as given in the SubhOfitavali (see note i). De- 
partures are indicated in the notes or in the Variae Lectiones, For con- 
venience, in giving the variant readings, S is used to indicate the Suhht^i" 
tdvali text, and A the Alaffikarasarvasva, The stanzas portray ^iva and 
Parvati engaged in the pastime of throwing dice, and in the estimation of 
Peterson (SubhOfitavalt, p. 8 of the notes at the end of the volume), they 
formed the introduction of some work by Mayura, now lost 3. Vijaya 
was one of Parvati's attendants; cf. Candllataka, stanza 15, note 7. The 
pun rests on vijaye (vocative), 'O Vijaya,' and vijaye (locative), *in win- 
ning'; for a similar pun involving the two meanings of this term, see 
Can4Uataka, stanza 12. 4. The term tryak^a means both 'Three-eyed 
(Siva)' and 'supplied with three dice.' 5. Lit 'what is there of me 
with [this] dice-play?' 6. By kim me durodarena, 'What is there of 
me with dice-play?', Siva pretends that he understands Ariift medura- 
udarena, 'Away with Fat-belly (Gane^a).' 7. The pun rests on vinO^ 
yaka, 'Remover (of obstacles),' meaning (^anesa, and vi-nHyaka, 'Chief 
of Birds,' denoting Garucja. The latter was the inveterate enemy of all 
snakes, which formed the principal article of his diet; cf. SUryalataka, 
stanza 47, note 3. 8. In the arrangement of stanzas as given in the 
Alamkarasarvasva, this couplet is the fifth, and not the third, as it is in 
the SubhOfitdvali, 9. The pun here rests upon vasurahitena, 'without 
funds,' and secondarily, 'without Vasus.' 10. Lit. 'without the seiz- 
ing of the moon, I am not in joy.'^ Peterson (p. 8 of the notes at the 
end of his edition of the SuhhU^itOvali) renders: 'Unless you stake the 
moon, I do not play.' Siva wore the moon on his diadem; cf. SUryala- 
taka, stanza 42, note 10. 11. Jacobi reads pratdrayasy and renders: 
'Warum hintergehst du mich so?' la. Nandin was one of Siva's at- 
tendants. 13. Siva wilfully understands candragrahana, ' seizing of the 
moon,' to mean ' Seizer of the moon,' i.e. the demon Rahu, who is said to 
swallow the moon in eclipses; cf. SUryaJataka, stanza 66, note 3. 14. 
Lit 'whose is the pleasure?' 15. Siva pretends he understands not hH 
rahdunikafasthite,* mercy \ when Rahu is prtstnty* hut harShau nikatasthite, 
' when your snake-necklace is present.' 16. Lit ' if you do not like [it], 
this snake-necklace is just at once abandoned.' 17. Or perhaps, 'Why 
do you attribute falsely?', meaning 'Why do you put a false construction 
on everything I say?' Jacobi, however, reading mudrHifi (unmetrically) 
for mudha, renders : ' Was gebrauchst du als Siegel ? ', and in a footnote 
says : ' mudha ist wohl verlesen aus mudrStifi. Die Situation ist wohl die, 
dass Parvati Siva's Siegelring besehen will.' 18. Lit ' I am not knowing 
of thy ornament' By 'ornament,' Parvati means the hdraki, 'snake- 
necklace.' 19. Siva interprets tvadanka, 'your ornament,' as meaning 
' your lap.' ao. The puns are comparable to nooses, because they entan- 
gle, a I. The meter of these vakrokti stanzas is the flryfl. 

V.L. [In the following list of variants, the SuhhO^itHvali text is indi- 
cated by S, and that of the Alaifikdrasarvasva by A (cf. above, note 2).] 
Stanza 3 : S has vasubhinnamato ; A has surOsuran naiva paiyasi puraf^. 


Stanza 4: A has pratdrayasy evam. Stanza 5: S has fUkatasthe sita- 
doffiffre bhayakfti ratih kasya ; S has necchan tattyaktah ; A has safftpraty 
efOiva. Stanza 6: S omits kUa; S has sthiMUvaffi yuktam abhidkatum. 
Stanza 7 : A has iti kriapah^PiUipelavapiliakaUUiprayuktavakrokti. 

Stanza in Praise of Harsa 

bh&pilih faiibha8karanva3rabhuvah ke nama na "sadita 
bhartiiram punar ekam eva hi bhuvas tvam deva manyamahe 
ytxA 'ngain paiimrfiyia kuntalam adia Tu^ya vjrudasyayatani 
colam prapya ca madhjradefiam adhuna ka&c]r§m karah patitah 

What^ earth-protecting [kings] are there not found, forsooth, 

descended from the sun and moon? 
Yet we r^ard you, Your Highness, alone indeed as the [real] 

husband of the earth; 
For, having touched her person, and caressed her hair, and thrown 

aside her long robe,* 
And seized [her round] the waist, your hand is now laid upon 

her girdle. 

[Or, punningly]. 

What earth-protecting [kings] are there not fotmd, forsooth, 

descended from the stm and moon? 
Yet we r^^rd you. Your Highness, alone indeed as the [real] 

master of the earth ; 
For, having seized Anga, and drawn Ktmtala [under your sway], 

and scattered the uncontrollable Colas,' 
And taken possession of the Madhyadesa, your hand is now 

laid upon Kaiici. 

Notes, z. This stanza is quoted, under Mayura's name, in the Suhhdfi' 
tdvali of Vallabhadeva (stanza 2515 of Peterson's edition), and is supposed 
by Peterson (op, cit, in trod., p. 86) to refer to the conquests of the 
emperor Har^a, Mayura's patron. It should be noted, however, that 
Har^a never extended his dominions so far to the south as to include the 
Colas and ICUid, for he was prevented from entering Southern India by 
his rival, Pulakeiin II, the emperor of the South; cf. Vincent A. Smith, 
The Early History of India, p. 340, 3d ed., Oxford, 1914. Ettinghausen, 


who notes and translates the stanza in his Harfa Vardhana (p. 47), be- 
lieves it to be a stanza written before a campaign, forecasting what Har$a 
intended to do. If this is so, the date of its composition may be approxi- 
mately set as a little before 620 A.D., the probable year of the defeat of 
Har§a by Pulakesin II ; cf . Vincent Smith, op. cit, p. 340, 425. The meter 
of the stanza is the Iardnlavikfi4itO' According to F. W. Thomas, in his 
Kavlndravacanasamuccaya (Calcutta, 1912), introd., p. 68, this stanza of 
Mayura is also quoted in the following unpublished anthologies: Under 
the name of VidysL in thtSaduktikarnatnrta (book 3, stanza 71) of Sridhara 
Dasa (the Bibliotheca Indica edition of this work has not reached book 
3); anonymously in the Padydmrtatarangini (2.7) of Haribhaskara ; 
anonymously in the SubhOfttaratnakoia (4.41) of Bhatta Sriknna; and 
anonsrmously in the Sdrasatngraha (2.36) of Sambhudasa. According to 
Thomas, op. cit., introd., p. 107, this stanza is likewise quoted anonsrmously 
in the Padyaracand (3.1). This metrical treatise by Lak$mana Bhatta 
has been edited in the KavsramSla Series, no. 89 (Bombay, 1907-1908), 
but this edition is not accessible to me. a. Resolve vyudcuydyatatfi of 
the text as vyudasya dyatatfi. 3. Resolve vyudasyOyataifi of the text as 
vyudasya ayataifi. 

V.L. The text reads parimffya; I have emended to parimriya. 

The Cow and her Calf 

ahatya 'liatya murdhna drutam anupibatah prasnutam matur 

kimcitkubjaikajanor anavaratacalaccarupucchasjra dhenuh 
utkarnatn tarnakasjra prijratanayataya dattahuxnkaramudra 
visratnsatksiradharSlavafiabalamukhasya 'ngam atrpti It^kd 

While^ the calf repeatedly butts with its head, as it greedily 
drinks from its mother's dripping udder, 

With one knee slightly bent, and its pretty tail ceaselessly swish- 

The cow, contentedly lowing over her dear offspring,* whose 
ears are upraised. 

And whose nose is flecked by drops of the stream of milk falling 
[upon it], licks its body to her heart's content. 

Notes, z. This stanza is quoted, mider Ma3rura's name, in SirAgadhara's 
PaddhaH (stanza 597 of Peterson's edition; cf. Aufrechfs partial edition 
in ZDMG, vol 27, p. 70), in Vallabhadeva's Subhd^tdvali (stanza 2425 of 


Peterson's edition), and in Parab's SuhhH^taratnabhOn4(l^g(ira (p. 326, 
stanza 16). I have adopted the reading as given by Parab. The variants 
are given below. The meter of the stanza is sragdharH, a. Lit ' lowing 
contentedly because of having a dear offspring.' 

V.L. (a) Peterson {Subha^J), prasrutaffi mdtur. (b) Aufrecht, kitficit- 
kufficiikajanor; Aufrecht, -puchasya, (c) Peterson (Paddhati), uttltyUiffi 
tarnakasya; Peterson (Subhaf,) and Aufrecht, utttrnatii tarnakasya, (d) 
Peterson (Subhnf, and Paddhati) and Aufrecht, visraftisikflra-. 

The Traveler 

saxnvisto gramadevyah kataghatitakutikudyakonaikade&e 
fiite samvati vayau himakanini ranadidantapanktidvayagrah 
panthah kantham nifiithe parikuthitajarattantusatntanagurvitn 
grivapadagrajanugrahanacatacaUtkarpatam pravrnoti 

Having^ gone to rest in a certain spot in the angle of the wall of 

the straw-built house of the tutelary goddess of the village, 
While the wind, mixed with snowilakes, blows cold, and the edges 

of his two rows of teeth are chattering, 
The traveler,* at midnight, wraps about him his patched cloak, 

heavy with its texture of very malodorous old threads, 
[And] whose tatters crackle whenever he grasps his neck, or his 

toes, or his knees.' 

Notes, z. The text of this stanza is given, under Mayiira's name, in the 
Paddhati of SdrAgadhara, 138.13 (stanza no. 3947 of Peterson's edition), 
in Parab's modem anthology, the SubhOfitaratnabhanifUgara (p. 567, stanza 
21), and in Vallabhadeva's SubhO^tavali. It is not, however, included in 
Peterson's edition of the SubhOfitavali, because of its being in a corrupt 
state in Peterson's manuscript; cf. Peterson, SubhOfitOvali, introd., p. 86. 
According to Thomas (Kavlndravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 56), the 
Saduktikarndnifta (2. 870) ascribes it to Bana. The text I publish here is, 
with the exception of two words, that given in Peterson's Paddhati, The 
meter is sragdharH, 2, Perhaps 'wandering ascetic,' rather than 'trav- 
eler,' would better fit the individual here described as ponthah; and the 
word kantha, which I have rendered ' patched cloak,' is often used to denote 
the patched garments of a certain class of ascetics; cf. Monier- Williams, 
Skt.'Engl. Diet, s.v. kanthd, 3. A stanza very suggestive of this one by 
Mayura, but attributed to Bana, is given in the Paddhati (stanza 3946 of 
Peterson's edition; cf. Aufrechfs partial edition, ZDMG, voL 27, p. 52). 
The occurrence in both stanzas of the words panthah, gramadet/yOtt, vdti, 


himakanini, karpata, jarat, and kona, makes one wonder if they were not 
both worked out from the same samasyi (cf. above, Introd., p. 22, note i). 
Because of the alleged rivalry of Bana and Masrura, I have thought it 
would not be amiss to present here this stanza of Bana's, which runs as 
follows, the meter being sragdhari : — 

punydgndu pnrtiavilnchah prathamatn aganitaplo^ado^ah prado^e 
panthafi suptva yathecchafu tadanu tanutfne dhamani grSmadevyib 
utkatnpt karpafdrdhe jarati parijcufe chidrini cchinnanidro 
vite vHH prakamatu himakanini kanan konataft konam eti 

'The traveler, his desire [for warmth] satisfied at the public fire, [but] 

not at first taking into account the danger of being scorched, 
Forthwith at evening goes to sleep at his pleasure in the thinly-thatched 

dwelling of the tutelary goddess of the village. 
But when his slumber is broken, as the wind, mixed with snowflakes, 

blows at will through his old, cold. 
Half [-length] ragged garment that is full of holes, he, shivering and 

crsdng, goes from comer to comer.' 

It may be noted that this stanza is cited under Bana's name in the 
SadukHkarnHmfta (2.869), suid the Sdktimuktdvali (127, b) ; and anony- 
mously in the SuktimuktOvali'safngraha (104, a) and the SubhOfiUlvali (no. 
1857), cf. Thomas, in his Kavindravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 55-56. It 
is also cited by Parab in his Suhha^taratnabhdn4iig(ira (567.20). 

V.L. to Majnira's 'Traveler/ (a) The reading kata^ (for Peterson's 
kuta-) is supplied by Aufrecht (ZDMG, vol. 27, p. 71). (d) The reading 
'karpafatfi (for Peterson's -karpafaffi) is that of Parab. 

VX. to Baca's ' Traveler.' (b) I have adopted Peterson's yathecchaffn ; 
Aufrecht reads yathechaifi, (c) Peterson reads cchinnanidre, and Aufrecht 
reads chinnanidro. I have emended as above, the double cch in cchinna^, 
being necessary for metrical reasons, (d) Peterson reads kanat konatah. 

The Two Asses 

aghraya ''ghraya gandhatn vilcrtamukhaputo darjayan danta- 

dhavann unmuktanado muhur api rabhasa 'Icrstaya prsthalag- 

gardabhyah padaghatadvigunitasuratapritir akrf tafii&io 
vegad aruhya muhyann avatarati kharah khanditecchafi cirijra 


An^ ass, repeatedly sniffing the scent of a she-ass, his hollow 
mouth distorted,* displaying a row of teeth. 

Lets out a bray again and again as he runs along, eagerly follow- 
ing close at her heels* because of [her] attraction* [for him], 

And, with his amorous delight redoubled by her kicks, he [at 
length], with membrum virile extended. 

Mounts [her] with impetuosity. [Finally], stupefied [by his 
ecstasy], he descends [again to the ground], his desire" at 
last sated.* 

Notes. I. This stanza is assigned to Mayura in Vallabhadeva's SubhUfi- 
tOvali (stanza 2422 of Peterson's edition), in Sarngadhara's Paddhati 
(stanza 585 of Peterson's edition), and in Parab's SuhhO^itaratnahh&nda- 
gdra (p. 327, stanza 17). I have adopted the text as given in the Subh^i- 
tdvali, and have given the variants below. The meter of the stanza is the 
sragdhard. 2. Lit * with hollow of mouth distorted/ the meaning being 
that the lips are drawn back and the jaws held apart. 3. The compound 
Pffthalagnah, which I have rendered ' following close at her heels ' (cf . 
Monier- Williams, Skt-Engl, Diet. s.v. Pr^fha), may perhaps be taken lit- 
erally, meaning 'clinging to her back [in copulation],' but such a rendering 
rather anticipates vegSd druhya, * having mounted [her] with impetuosity,' 
of the fourth p&da. 4. The word akr^faya appears to be an instrumental 
from a hypothetical nominative akr^f^; I have rendered by 'attraction.' 
5. Lit. *with desire destroyed.' 6. For the salacity of the ass as noted 
in Sanskrit literature, see Pischel and Geldner, Vedische Studien, vol. i, 
p. 82, Stuttgart, 1889. This stanza of Mayura is cited anon3rmously in the 
SuktiratfUivatl (423) ; cf. Thomas, Kavindravacanasamuccaya, Corrections 
and Additions, p. xi. 

V.L. (a) Peterson (Paddhati) and Parab, znkatamukhapulo, (b) Peter- 
son (Paddhati) and Parab, dhdvaty unmuktanOdo muhur api ca rasdd 
bhraftayd pr^thalagnah, (c) Peterson (Paddhati), gardabhyi psda-, (d) 
Peterson (Paddhati) and Parab, cirena (for ciriya). 

Maxim on Separation 

anudinam abhyasadrdhaih sodhum dirgho 'pi §akyate virahah 
pratyasannasamagamamuhurtavighno 'pi durvisahah 

Separation^ [of lovers], even though long, can be borne by those 
who are persevering at their studies day by day ; 

[But] even a momentary hindrance to a reunion that is close at 
hand is intolerable.* 


Notes. I. Text given in Peterson's edition of the SublUi^itOvali, stanza 
no. 2045, where it is ascribed to Ma3rura. However, in the introduction to 
the SubhdfitavaU (p. 86), Peterson marks this stanza with a (?), but 
gives no reason why he questions its authorship. This stanza is also given, 
though anonymously, in the Paddhati of Sarngadhara (no. 3958 of Peter- 
son's edition), which reads -vighnas tu durvirahah for -vighno 'pi 
duTvifahah, a. The meter of this stanza is aryS. 

The Burning of the City of Tripura 

samvyanamSukapallavesu taralaxn venigunesu sthitam 
mamdam kaiicukasatndhisu stanatatotsahgesu diptarcisam 
alokya tripuravarodhanavadhuvargasjra dhOmadhvajam 
hastasrasta§arasano vijayate devo dayardreksanah 

Glory^ to the God (Siva), whose bow fell from his hand, and 

whose eye became moist in pity. 
As he saw the fire trembling on the scarfs of the mantles of the 

crowd of women in the inner apartments of Tripura,* 
Running up their rope-like braids, slowly [creeping] over the 

folds of their bodices. 
And flaming brightly on their laps and their rounded breasts.* 

Notes. I. This stanza is attributed to Mayura's pen in the Saduktikar* 
nltmrta (i. 15. 3), an anthology consisting of a collection of 2380 miscel- 
laneous stanzas by 446 different poets. The stanzas deal with various 
subjects, five stanzas being devoted to each subject The collection was 
compiled by Sridhara Dasa, and was completed by him in 1205 A.D. (cf. 
Rajendralala Mitra, Notices of Skt. MSS, vol. 3, p. 134, no. 1180, Calcutta, 
1876). The Saduktikarnamrta is being edited in the Bibliotheca Indica 
Series by Ramavat§ra Sarma; the first fascicle, containing 376 stanzas 
(seventy-five full divisions of five stanzas each, and the first stanza of the 
seventy-sixth division), was published in Calcutta, in 1912. Thomas's 
analysis (given in his Kavindravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 67-68) shows 
that only four stanzas in the SaduktikarnHmrta bear Mayura's name. 
These four occur in the first part of that work, and I cite them here from 
Sarma's edition. 2. On the burning of Tripura, the triple city of the 
demons, by the flaming arrows of ^iva, see Can4^ataka, stanza 16, note 3. 
3. The meter of this stanza is the IardUlavikr%i/ita, The following variant 
is given by Thomas, who cites the stanza in his Kai/indravacanasamuccaya, 
introd., p. 67, n. 3 : (c) aloke. 


The Anger of Uma 

anyasyai samprati 'mam kiiru madanaripo svangadanapra- 

na liam sodhum samartha fiirasi suranadim na 'pi samdhyam 

ity uktva kopaviddham vighatayitum imiam atmadeham 

rundhanah patu fiambhoh kucakalasahathaspaxiakrsto bhujo 


* Now* bestow upon another woman this favor of gfiving [a dwell- 
ing-place in] thy body,* O (Siva), Foe of Madana; 

I am not able to carry on my head the River of the Gods,' nor 
can I make obeisance to Samdhi.'* 

As Uma,^ full of anger, and bent upon separating [her] own body 
[from Siva's], was saying these words, 

The arm of Sambhu (Siva), [though] strained by violent contact 
with her jar-like breasts, held her in check." 

May the arm of Sambhu (Siva) protect you'! 

Notes, z. This stanza is given under Mayura's name in the SadukH- 
karnHmrta, i. 28. 5. a. On the ardhanirUa form of Siva, see SUrya^ataka, 
stanza 88, note 4. 3. Ganga (Ganges), the River of the Gods, and 
Saipdhi, or Saipdhy^ the personification of Twilight, were other wives 
of Siva; cf. CantfUataka, stanzas 3 (note 2), 27 (note 3), 61 (note 4), and 
74 (note 5). Siva seems to have paid adoration to Saipdhi at the twilight 
periods, and he is said to have been fond of the twilight dance; cf. 
SUryalataka, stanza 55, note 10, and CanifUataka, stanza 16, note 4. 4. 
On Uma, see CanifUataka, stanza 17, note 4. 5* The picture presented 
is that of the enraged Uma pushing her breast against Siva's encircling 
and detaining arm in her efforts to escape from his body. 6. The meter 
of this stanza is sragdhard. The following variants are given by Thomas, 
who cites the stanza in his KatHndravacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 67, note 
i: (b) vo^hufn, suradhunltn, (d) rundhdnHh puntu iaffibhoh kucakala' 

The Claws of Narasimha 

asrasrotastarahgabhramisu taralita mamsapanke luthantah 
sthulasthigrantfaibhangair dhavalavisalatagrasam akalpajran- 


mayasitnhasya fiaureh sphuradarunahrdambhojasamSlesa- 

payasur daitjravaksasthalakuharasarorajahaxnsa nakha vah 

The^ nails of Sauri (Visnu), [who had assumed] the guise of a 

lion, dabbled in the whirlpools and waves of the stream 

of [Hiranyakasipu's] blood,' 
And wallowed in his flesh, [as if in] mud, and with fragments of 

the joints of his massive bones made a mouthful of white 

And they enjoyed their tight clutch on his red and palpitating 

lotus-like heart,* 
And were the king-flamingos of the pool-like hole in the breast 

of that Daitya. 
May the nails of Sauri (Visnu) protect you* ! 

Notes, z. Ma3rura is said to be the author of this stanza, which is re- 
corded under his name in the Saduktikarpdmrta, 1.41. 3. a. Vi^^u, in 
his incarnation as the Narasiipha, or Man-lion, tore open with his nails 
the body of the demon Hiranyaka^ipu ; cf. CantfUataka, stanza 11, note i. 
3. Literally, 'enjoying close contact with the red and palpitating lotus of 
his heart' 4. The meter of this stanza is the sragdhara. The follow- 
ing variants are given by Thomas, who cites the stanza in his Kctvindrc^ 
vacanasamuccaya, introd., p. 67, note 2: (a) mUfftsapanke 'bhyalantaf^. 
(b) -Change dhavalabisalatO-, (d) dOityavakfahsthala-, 

The Dream of Kksna 

• • • 

femibho svagatam asyatam ita ito vamena padmodbhava 
krauncare kufialatn sukham surapate vittefia no drfiyase 
itthatn svapnagatasjra kaitabharipoh firutva jralSoda girah 
kitn kim balaka jalpasi 'ty anucitam thuthukrtam patu vah 

*0 Sambhu^ (Siva), welcome! Be seated here; and thou, here 

on my left, O Lotus-bom (Brahma).* 
Hail to thee, O (Karttikeya), Foe of Krauiica,' and happiness to 

thee, O (Indra), Lord of the Gods! O (Kubera), Lord of 

Wealth, thou art not seen.'* 



When Ya&)da' heard these words of Krsna), Foe of Kaitabha,* 

as he lay dreaming. 
She said, with the indecorous accompaniment of a sound as of 

spitting : ' What possibly art thou babbling, child ? ' 
May Yasoda protect you^ I 

Notes. I. This stanza is attributed to Ma3nira in the Saduktikarndmfta 
( 1. 53.1), and also, according to Thomas {Kavindravacanasamuccaya, in- 
trod., p. 67), in the Kffnakarftamfta (2. 59), and in the PadyOvatl (stanza 
146) of Rupagosvdmin. This last-named work is reported to have been 
published at Calcutta (Thomas, op, cit, introd., p. 11), but neither this edi- 
tion nor any edition of the Kfptakarnamfta is available for my use. a. 
Siva appears to have the place of honor on Kf^na's right hand, while 
Brahma must be content with a seat on his left 3. In MahSbhOrata, 9. 46. 

80-92, it is related that K^rttikeya pierced with his weapons the mountain 
KrSufica, son of Himilasra, in order to get at the demon B&i(ia who had 
taken refuge within that mountain ; cf . MahSbharata, 3. 225. 33. 4. The 
words no df lyase may possibly signify 'thou art disdained'; compare 
Suryalataka, stanza 58, where the phrase t/lkfitHh stha, ' ye are glanced at,' 
embodies a gracious compliment addressed by Surya to the Rak^asas. 
5. Ya^odi was foster-mother to Kf^na; cf. the anecdote related in the 
notes to Can4Uatdka, stanza 25. 6. In Mahdbharata, 3.203.9-35, it is 
related that when Vi$nu (Kr^na) was reposing on the great snake Se$a 
in the depths of the ocean, two demons, Madhu and K&itabha, attempted 
to slay Brahmi as he lay in the lotus that grew from Vi^^u's navel 
Vi^nu, awakened by the trembling of Brahma, arose, and after some par- 
leinng, obtained from the demons the boon that he (Vi^nu) should be 
their slayer. He thereupon cut off their heads with his discus. A similar 
account of Kaitabha and Madhu is given in Markan4eya Purina, chapter 
81 (Pargiter's translation, p. 465-472) ; see also SUryaiataka, stanza 99, 
note 3. 7. The meter of this stanza is I0rduknnkf%4i^<i' 


— $ 


• • • 


Number and Form of the Stanzas 

Although supposed to contain a hundred stanzas, as the term 
iataka implies, the CandUataka really consists of one hundred 
and two stanzas. Of these, all but eight are in the 5iw or ' bene- 
dictive ' form, like the stanzas of the SUryaSataka, and these eight 
(viz. stanzas 3, 4, 21, 33, 38, 54, 71, 102) invariably contain, as 
substitute for the dMs, a jayati or jayanti, ' Hail to,' * Glory to,' 
'Victorious is,' etc. The dUs, or 'benediction,' usually asstunes 
some such form as 'May Candi protect you,' or 'May Candi 
grant you prosperity,' 'destroy your sins,' 'purify you,' 'grant 
your desires,' ' ward off troubles,' * further your joy,' etc. Pro- 
tection seems desired most, and is asked for in 55 stanzas. Some- 
times it is not the goddess herself who is invoked to grant the 
protection, prosperity, etc., but some part of her body, as, for 
example, her foot (stanzas 10, 12, 22, 92, loi), her lotus face 
(53)> her toe-nails (9), or else some other agency, as her utter- 
ances (59), or her arrow (18). In some instances the boon is 
invoked through the medium of her son Karttikeya (5, 67), her 
handmaid Jaya (19), Jaya's amazement (69), and even through 
the slain Mahisa's blood (40) . The benediction is commonly ex- 
pressed by a present imperative, active or middle, but seventeen 
times (stanzas i, 5, 12, 22, 27, 29, 31, 42, 50, 62, 63, 69, 73, 77, 
79, 82, 87) by a precative or root aorist optative, and seventeen 



times by the imperative in -tlit^ (stdt in stanzas 17, 19, 36, 39, 58 ; 
avatat in stanzas 20, 28, 48, 51, 65, 75, 89, 93, 96, 97, 99, 100). 

Mention should also be made of the dramatic touch given to 
nearly half of the total number of stanzas by the introduction 
into them of a character speaking in the first person. There is, 
however, no dialogue, since no reply is made to any utterance in 
any of the stanzas. As an illustration in point, we note that Candl 
is introduced as speaker in ten stanzas (viz.. i, 20, 24, 29, 31, 47, 
48, 59, 60, 61). Her utterances may be classified as (a) taunts 
to the gods for having run away in the battle (stanzas 24, 29, 59, 
60, 61) ; (b) an address to her limbs (stanza i) ; (c) a rebuke 
to Mahisa (31) ; (d) a speech to Siva (48) ; and (e) soliloquies 
(stanzas 20, 47). 

Mahisa is the speaker in 19 different stanzas. He taunts, re- 
viles, or derides the gods in general, and Visnu, Siva and Indra 
in particular, in stanzas 23, 34, 35, 57, 62, 65, 80, 83, 85, 91, 92, 
99, 100; and he heaps opprobrium on Candi and her sons in 
stanzas 27, 28, 76, 77, 81, 82. Many of his taunts are cx)upled 
with boasts of his own prowess, but in every instance his words 
are cut short by the coup de grace from the foot of Candi. 

Jaya, Candl's handmaid, is the speaker in 7 different stanzas. 
She at times jests with (stanza 32), or praises (89) Candi, or 
consoles the wives of the gods (33) ; at other times, she mocks 
the gods (15, 69, 86), or incites them to greater efforts against 
Mahisa (38). Vijaya, a second handmaid of Cand!, taunts the 
gods in stanza 21. 

Siva is quoted in 5 stanzas (12, 14, 16, 30, 88), and all his 
speeches are either addressed to, or are in praise of, Candi. The 
other speakers include Karttikeya, Candi's son (67), the gods 
(4), the gods and demons (70), the sages of the three worlds 
(97), the foot of Candi (90), and even the toe-nails of Candi's 
foot (11). In all, 48 different stanzas contain a speaking 

^ See above, p. 96, where this construction has been discussed in con- 
nection with the analysis of the SUryaiataka. 

introduction 247 


All but four of the stanzas of the Can^liataka picture some 
detail of the prolonged struggle between the goddess Candi, who 
is more generally known as Parvati, wife of Siva, and the bufialo- 
shaped demon Mahisa. The struggle of course ended with the 
death of the demon at Candi's hands, or in this instance we might 
rather say at Candi's feet, for it is worthy of remark that in 
more than 60 of the stanzas of this poem the killing of Mahisa is 
attributed directly to the power of the goddess's kick.* Of the 
four stanzas excepted, three (25, 45, 54) deal with the l^end that 
portrays Katnsa's attempted slaying of Candi (Yoganidra), and 
one (49) describes Siva on his knees, begging Candi's pardon for 
the humiliation caused her by the burning up of Kama. 

The Legend of the Demon Mahisa 

This legend of the demon Mahisa, the chief topic of the Con^f- 
iataka, can be traced to its source in the Mahdhhdrata and 
Puranas, but not until the Puranic period of the literature does 

^ See below, p. 251, and Can^iiataka, stanza 4, note 4. Apropos of this 
glorification of Canal's foot or kick, I cannot refrain from hazarding the 
suggestion that perhaps the Cant/Uataka was written by Bana to propitiate 
the anger of his wife by praising the foot with which she had spumed 
him. The reader will remember (see above, p. 22^3) how Mayura, while 
eavesdropping, heard a lover's quarrel in progress between Ba^a and his 
wife. Bana was saying: 'O faithful one, pardon this one fault; I will 
not again anger thee.' But she spurned him with her foot, and Mayiira 
heard her anklet tinkling (the tinkling of Can<ji'8 anklet is mentioned in 
stanzas 6, 13, 43 and 44 of the Can^Uataka). Then Bana recited a pro- 
pitiatory stanza in which he addressed his angry spouse as subhrU, * fair- 
browed.' Thereupon Mayura, unable to restrain his propensity for pun- 
ning, interrupted the quarrel and said: 'Don't call her Subhru (Subhru 
was one of the six kfttikOs, the Pleiades, who were accounted the six 
mothers of Skanda ; Can^i was his seventh mother ; cf . CatufUataka, stanza 
28^ note 2), but Ca^^i,' which, punningly, means 'Don't call her fair- 
browed, but a vixen.' May not therefore the title Canfiiataka have the 
underl3ring meaning of ' The Htmdred Stanzas to the Vixen? ' The matter 
is all legend, or mostly all ; but speculation, even in legend, is not without 


Candi make her appearance as the opponent of the buffalo-shaped 
demon. In the MahdbhQrata^ we are told that on one occasion 
Indra appointed Skanda (Karttikeya) to be commander-in-chief 
of the army of the gods, and sent him forth to do battle against 
the hosts of the demons. In the contest the gods at first swept 
everything before them, and were slaughtering their foes with 
unexpected success, when the champion of the demons, Mahisa, 
rushed forward to stem the tide. In his hand he carried a mass 
of rock as big as a mountain, and throwing it, he killed ten thou- 
sand of the celestial army. Then even Indra fled, and the 
chariot of Rudra fell into the hands of the raging demon. But 
just at this critical juncture, when the day seemed lost to the 
gods, Skanda, encased in golden armor, and riding in a golden 
car, came flying to the rescue, and hurling his iakti, severed 
Mahisa's head. And this head, we are told,* 'falling on the 
ground, barred the entrance to the country of the Northern 
Kurus, extending in length for sixteen yojanas, though at present 
the people of that country pass easily by that gate.'* 

Again, in another book of the Mahdbhdrata,* it is related in 
similar fashion that Skanda was made general of the army of the 
gods, and in one battle slew the demons Taraka, Mahisa, Tripada 
and Hradodhara, and, according to Auf recht, the Vdtnana PurHna 

^ Mahobhdrata, 3. 229-231. 

' I quote from the English translation of the MahabhSrata, by P. C. Roy, 
vol. 3, p. 706, Calcutta, 1884. 

« W. Crooke, The Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, 
vol. I, p. 45, 2d ed., Westminster, 1896, with evident reference to this 
passage, says: 'But besides these dragons which infest rivers and lakes, 
there are special water gods, many of which are the primitive water mon- 
ster in a developed form. Such is Mahishasura, who is the Mahishoba of 
Berlu-, and like the Bhains^ura already mentioned, infests great rivers and 
demands propitiation. According to the early mjrthology this Mahisha, the 
buffalo demon, was killed by Karttikeya at the Krauncha pass in the 
Himalaya, which was opened by the god to make a passage for the deities 
to visit the plains from Kailasa.' 

* See Mahabharata, 9. 44-46. especially 9. 46. 74-75 ; and cf . MahObhSrata, 
8.5*57 and 7. 166. 16. In a late book of the Mahabhdrata (13. 14. 313), 
Siva is addressed as Mahifaghna, * Slayer of Mahi^' 


likewise credits the six-faced. Skanda with the killing of the 
buffalo-shaped Mahisa.^ 

Literature subsequent to the Mahdbhdrata, however, notably 
the Puranic, is, with the exception of the passage in the Vamana 
noted above, seemingly unanimous in ascribing the death of 
Mahisa not to the prowess of Skanda, but to that of Skanda's 
mother, Siva's wife, who is variously denominated, although her 
most common appellatives are Devi, Parvati, Kali, Candf, or 
Durga.^ Even in the MahObhUrata, Durga is once" addressed as 
'Slayer of the Demon Mahisa {mahis!3^suran&Hni) *^ though the 
passage is supposed to be an interpolation.* Elsewhere in the 
Epic it is Skanda, as we have seen, who is described as Mahisa's 
conqueror. As there seems to be no way of surely settling the 
rival claims of Durga and Skanda to the honor of having killed 
the demon in question, we must either suppose that Durga has 
usurped the fame originally belonging to her son, or else that 
Mahisa, after being once killed by Skanda, was obligingly bom 
again in a second incarnation, so that the goddess might gain 
glory by bringing about his death a second time.' 

The best account of Candi's struggle with Mahisa is given in 
the DevimQfUttfnya section of the Mdrkan^^ya Purdna. A sjm- 

^Th. Aufrecht (Catalogus Codicum Sanscriticorum Bibliothecae Bod' 
leianae, p. 46, b, line 29, Oxford, 1864) says that the birth of Karttikesra 
and the death of Mahisa are described in chapters 57-70 of the Vdmana 

^For Canal's relationship to Skanda (Karttikeya), see CanifUataka, 
stanza 28, note 2. 

* Once, so far as I have discovered ; there may be other references that 
I have failed to unearth, but no other instances are given in Sorensen's 
Index to the Names in the MahObharata. The vocative mahi^&sfkpHye, 
though addressed to Durga in MahOhhdrata, 6.23.8, I take to mean 'O 
thou fond of buffalo's blood.' It is not cited by Sorensen as a proper 

* See MahObharata, 4. 6. 15. 

5 See B. C. Mazumdar, DurgH: Her Origin and History, in JRAS, 1906, 
p. 355-362. 

* In the Skanda Purdna it is related that the demons Can^a and Mun<ja, 
who had been slain by Can<ji, were bom again and subsequently slain a 
second, time by Siva ; cf . Vans Kennedy, Ancient and Hindu Mythology, 
P* 339-340, and footnote. 


opsis of this account is as follows.^ Once, during a conflict be- 
tween the gods and demons, Indra and the gods were vanquished 
and driven from heaven by the buffalo-demon Mahisa. Appeal 
for help was made to Visnu and Siva. As these two divinities 
listened to the tale of the defeat of their fellow-immortals, a great 
energy, full of intense anger, issued from their faces. This 
energy, amalgamating with the energies that proceeded from the 
bodies of the rest of the gods, became incarnate as the goddess 
Candi ('Angry One'). She was hailed by the gods as their 
champion against Mahisa, and weapons and gifts were showered 
upon her. Siva gave her his trident ; Krsna (Visnu), his discus ; 
Agni, a spear ; the Maruts, a bow and arrows ; Indra, the thunder- 
bolt ; Yama, a staff ; Varuna, a noose ; Kala, a sword ; Himavat, 
her father, a lion to ride on ; and Visvakarman, an ax and many 
jewels, including armlets and anklets. Candi, thus equipped, 
uttered a loud shout, and rushed forth to give battle to the army 
of the demons. Her thousand arms were kept busy hurling 
weapons, and immense numbers of the demons were slain. At 
length came the duel with Mahisa himself. The struggle was 
prolonged. In the form of a buffalo (mahisa), the demon bit, 
kicked and gored to death hundreds of the celestials immediately 
surrounding Candi, or lashed them with his tail, bellowing loudly 
meanwhile. Then, as he caught sight of the lion of the goddess, 
he pawed the ground, and tossed huge mountains. When he had 
approached within range of the goddess, and she had succeeded 
in entangling him with her noose, he on the instant turned him- 
self into a lion, and the fight b^an anew. After a further ex- 
change of blows, and as Candi was severing his head from his 
body, he became a man, then an elephant, and finally was meta- 
morphosed into his original shape — ^that of a buffalo — ^and began 
to toss hills and mountains at Candi with his horns. The god- 
dess, pausing only long enough to drink some intoxicating liquor, 

^ See the translation of the Mdrkandeya Purdna by F. Eden Pargiter, 
in the Bibliotheca Indica Series of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, chapters 
82-84. Cf. also Ludovicus Foley, Devimahatmyam (Sanskrit te;ct and 
Latin translation), Berlin, 1831. 


sprang at Mahisa, her cyt red with anger, and struck him with 
her foot. Then, as he lay stunned upon the ground, she pierced 
him with her trident and cut off his head.* 

In this account of the duel as given in the MUrkandeya, em- 
phasis seems to be laid on the efficacy of Candi's kick as the final 
coup de grace that ended the struggle. The same emphasis ap- 
pears in the Candliatakai As already pointed out, this little poem 
consists merely of a series of stanzas of which nearly every one 
contains a reference to, or pictures some incident in this battle 
between Candi and Mahisa, the dominant thought that gives unity 
to the whole being the glorification of the foot of Candi, and it is 
the kick of the goddess, rather than the goddess herself, that is 
praised in a majority of the stanzas as the conqueror of Mahisa. 

Prominence is also given to the foot of Candi as Mahisa's 
executioner in the following prayer addressed to Durga (Candi) 
by a character in one of the anecdotes of the Kathdsaritsdgara : — 

natnas tubhyatfi mah&devi pdddu te ydvctk^kitdu 
mfditdsuralagnHsrapankav iva namdmy aham 

paritrdtOs tvayH lokd tnahifdsurasUdani^ 

Homage to thee, O Mahadevi (Can<}i) ; I worship thy feet that are stained 

with lac-dye, 
As if with the clinging, clotted blood [lit. mud of the blood] of the demon 

that was crushed [by them] . . . 
The worlds were protected by thee, O Slayer of the Demon Mahisa. 

^ For a picture of this combat, see E. B. Havell, Indian Sculpture and 
Painting, plate 20, p. 61, London, 1908. Here is represented a stone relief, 
found at Singasari (Java), and now in the Ethnographic Museum at 
Leyden. It belongs to the period of Brahmanical ascendancy in Java, 950- 
1500 A.D. The goddess is portrayed standing over the prostrate carcass 
of a bufiFalo, tmder which form Mahi$a had concealed himself, and having 
seized the real dwarf-like person of the demon, who had issued from 
the bufiFalo, is preparing to deal him his death-blow. A somewhat similar 
picture is found in Moor's Hindu Pantheon, plate 19. According to an 
account given in EI, vol. 9, p. i6a-i6i, the cult statue in one of the temples 
at Dantewara (near Jagdalpur) shows the goddess, with eight arms, in the 
act of sla3ring the bufiFalo-demon. 

2 See Hermann Brockhaus, Katha Sarit Sdgara, 7. 37. 44-46, Leipzig, 1862 ; 
cf. C. H. Tawney, Katha Sarit Sdgara (Engl, tr.), vol. i, p. 337, Calcutta, 


Again, in two other passages of the Kathdsaritsdgara, the 
achievement of the goddess is mentioned ; in one of these allu- 
sions Durga (Candi) is addressed in the following words: — 

jaya mahi^Osuram&rini 

jay a jagadarcitacarane^ 

Hail thou Slayer of the Demon Mahi$a; . . . 
Hail thou whose foot is worshiped by* the universe. 

In the other passage it is said of a devotee of Durga (Candi) : — 

pravUya "yatanatfi tasyah pranamya ca vibhSvya ca 

padapadfnatalQkpptamaki^dsuramardinlm ' 

Having entered her temple, and having worshiped, and having meditated 

on her . . . 
As the Crusher of the Demon Mahi$a who was spurned by her lotus foot 

Compare also, in this connection, Bana's Kddambarl, where a 
certain candola maiden is said to be 

aciratnfditamahifllsurarudhiraraktacaranSm iva katydyatiim* 

like Katyayan! (Can<j!), whose foot was reddened by the blood of the 
demon Mahi^a who had recently been crushed [by it], 

and see the stanza in Padmagupta's NavasHhasankacarita which 
reads : — 

mahamahi^anifPe^akelih paratn agHd dvayofi 
rdjnas tasyH *Hcan4asya can(fikacaranasya ca* 

The sport of clashing [in fight] with a mighty buffalo (mahifa) reached 

its culmination [in the case] of [these] two— 
That very angry king and the foot of Can<jik§. 

In two inscriptions we find the same emphasis laid on the foot, 
or kick, of Candi. One is an undated copper-plate inscripticm 
found in the district of Gorakhpur, and now the property of 

^ See Brockhaus, 12. 78. 90-91 ; Tawney, vol. 2, p. 255. 

2 See Brockhaus, 12.80.27-28; Tawney, vol. 2, p. 263. 

^See Peterson, Kodambari, p. 11, 2d ed., Bombay, 1889; cf. also C. M. 
Ridding, Kadambarf (Engl, tr.), p. 9, London, 1896. 

* See the edition of the Navasahasdnkacarita by V. S. Islampurkar, part 
I, chapter 2, stanza 25 (p. 24), Bombay, 1895. 


the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The inscription is in Sanskrit, 
and is metrical, consisting of 23 stanzas. Its purport is the grant 
by Madoli, minister of a certain prince Jayaditya, of the village 
of Dummuddumaka to Durga (Candi), the intent of the donor 
presumably being that the income derived from the village should 
be applied to the support of that goddess's worship. The invoca- 
tion, consisting of four stanzas, is addressed to several deities, 
and the fourth of these stanzas, the one which invokes Parvati, 
runs as follows: — 

namo 'stu nirjitHJefamahi^asuraghdtine 
pHrvatlpadapadm&ya jagadHnandaddyine^ 

Salutation to the lotus foot of Parvati (Can<}i), which gives joy to the 

And which destroyed the demon Mahi$a by whom all had been overcome. 

The other inscription, in Sanskrit, and metrical, but undated, was 
discovered in 1785 A.D., cut in the rock near the entrance to a 
cave of the NagarjunT Hill in the Gaya District of the Bengal 
Presidency. It records the installation in the cave, by the Mau- 
khari chieftain Anantavarman, of an image of Candi under the 
name of Katyayanl, and the grant of a village to the same 
goddess. The opening stanza, in the i(irdulavikf%4ita meter, is as 
follows : — 

unnidrasya saroruhasya sakalUm Hkppya iohhdffi rued 
sdvajnatfi mahifllsurasya Sirasi nyastafi kvanannupurah 
devya vah sthirabhakHvUdasadfiiffi yunjan phalend 'rthitOffi 
dUyOd acchanakhUn^ujUlaja^lah pddah padatft sampadlhii^ 

The foot of Devi (Can^i), [which] excels in splendor the entire beauty of 

a full-blown lotus, 
Was, with its tinkling anklet, disdainfully placed on the head of the 

demon Mahi^a; 
And it endows with a [suitable] reward [that] state of supplication which 

is such as bespeaks firm devotion. 
May [this] foot of Devi (Candi), fringed with the rays of [its] pure nails, 

point out to you the path to prosperity! 

^ Edited, with text and translation, by H. T. G>lebrooke, Miscellaneous 
Essays, 2. 220, 222, 225, London, 1873 ; edited later by Prof. Kielhom, I A, 
vol. 21 (1892), p. 169. Kielhom believes the inscription may be dated as 
belonging to the beginning of the tenth century A.D. 

2 Text, translation and comment in CII, vol 3 (Gupta Inscriptions) p 
p. 226-227. 


But to return to the legend. According to Aufrecht, the 
origin of Katyayan! (Candi), and her killing of Mahisa, are also 
related in the VHmana PurQna, chapters 19-21.^ As I have no 
text or translation of the Vdmana accessible, I shall have to 
give the substance of the account as taken therefrom by Kennedy, 
and included by him in his Hindu Mythology* It differs some- 
what from the account given in the MSrkandeya, and runs as 
follows. Mahis§sura defeated the gods in battle, and they there- 
upon hastened to Visnu to implore aid. As they were all gath- 
ered together, there issued from their eyes and faces a mountain 
of effulgence, and from it Katyayan! (Candi) became manifest, 
blazing like a thousand suns, and having three eyes, hair black as 
night, and eighteen arms. The gods presented to her their 
several weapons, and thus equipped, she proceeded to the Vindhya 
Mountain. There she was seen by two demons, Canda and 
Munda, who reported to their master, Mahisa, the existence of a 
lovely maiden dwelling alone on the Vindhya. Mahisa sent 
forthwith, proposing marriage, but the wily goddess replied that 
the custom of her family required that its daughters should marry 
only those who were able to conquer them in battle. Mahisa 
accepted the challenge and marshaled his forces. The battle 
raged long and fiercely, and Candi had to contend against the 
great difficulty that Mahisa had been rendered invulnerable by a 
boon of Siva. Finally, however, she sprang upon the demon's 
back, and with her tender feet so smote his head that he fell 
senseless to the ground. She then cut off his head with her 

For still another account of the slaying of Mahisa, the reader is 
referred to the Vdrdha PurOna, where, according to Aufrecht's 

^ Aufrecht, Cat, Cod, Bibliothecae Bodleianae, p. 46, b, lines 10-12. As 
was noted above (p. 249), the Vdmana, in a later chapter, ascribes the 
death of Mahisa to the prowess of Skanda. 

* V. Kennedy, Ancient and Hindu Mythology, p. 335-337. 

*In the MUrkancfeya PurHna (chapters 85-92), there is a legend similar 
to this, but the demon who sues for Canal's hand is there said to be 
Kumbha, not Mahisa, and the mountain is Himalasra, not Vindhya; Cai^ija 
and Mun<ja play the same part in both accounts. 


sjmopsis* — I have no text from which to quote — ^the story is told 
in chapters 92-94. We should also note the stanza in Krsna- 
rtiisra's Prabodhacandrodaya, where it is said: — 

krodhatu . . . katyHyanl 'va mahifatri vinipatayStni^ 
I will destroy Anger, as K&tyzyzm (Can^O [destroyed] Mahi^a. 

See likewise the major St. Petersburg Sanskrit lexicon, where 
the following cognotnina ex virtute are listed as appellatives of 
Candi in recognition of her victory over the great demon: 
mahisaghnl* mahisamathanl,^ mahisatnardinl,^ mahisdsuragtUi- 
tinl,^ mahisSsurQrdinl,'' mahisHsurasUdafU^ ; mention is also made 
there of the mdhisamardinltantra, -mantra, -stotra? 

As r^ards other references to Mahisa in Sanskrit literature, 
the Bhdgavata Purdna states that he was one of the demons who 
fought with the gods for the possession of the nectar produced at 
the churning of the ocean, and that on that occasion his op- 
ponent was Vibhavasu (Agni, Soma, or Krsna — ^the epithet is 
applied to all three), while Bhadrakali (Candi) fought with 
Sumbha and Nisumbha.^® The Bhdgaiuata also gives Mahisa's 

1 Auf recht, op. cit, p. 59, a, line 12. 

3 See the ed. by H. Sastri, Calcutta (undated), act 4, stanza 45, p. 106. 

s In Durgotsavapaddhati and DevipurHna, which are cited in the ^abda^ 
kalpadrutna (vol. 3, p. 678, a), a modem encyclopedic work by Ridh§k§n- 

*See an inscription recorded in EI, vol. 4 (1896-1897), p. 317-318. 

>See Hemacandra's AbhidhOnacintdmani, 205 (ed. by Sivadatta and 
Parab, in the AbhidhdnaSangraha, no. 6, Bombay, 1896) ; see also Auf recht, 
op, cit., p. 94, b, line 44. At Rimtek, in the Central Provinces, there is a 
temple dedicated to an eight-armed Mahisasuramardini ; cf. I A, vol. 37 
(1908), p. 203. 

• See Harivafftia, 9428, or 2. 107. 11. 

^ See HarivafftJa, 10274 ; but the text which I am using— ed. by Niriya- 
natmaja Vina3rakar§ya, Bombay, 1891 — reads here (2.120.43): bandhana- 

B See KathOsaritsdgara, 7.37.46; cf. above, p. 251. 

* Auf recht, op, cit., p. 104, a, line 14 (tantra) ; p. 93, b, line 2 (mantra) ; 
p. 94, a, line 32 (stotra). 

!• See Bhagavata PurHna, 8. 10. 31-32 ; ed, by Tuk§r§ma jSvaji, Bombay 
(?). 1898. 


genealogy, making him the son of Anuhrada, grandson of 
Hiranyakasipu, and greatgrandson of Kasyapa and Diti. He was 
first cousin to Rahu, and had a brother named Baskala.^ In the 
Sdura Purdna^ there is described a combat between Candi and 

• • • 

Raktasura,' a son of Mahisa, but I have found no further refer- 
ence to a family of the demon. In the Vdmana PurQna he is said 
to be the son of Rambha,* and according to popular belief in 
India to-day, he was the son of Jambha." 

The reason why Mahisa is presented to us in the form of a 
buffalo is given by Crooke in his Popular Religion and Folk-Lore 
of Northern India. I quote from this work as follows*: 'Ac- 
cording to the l^end as told in the Mdrkan^eya Purdna,^ Diti, 
having lost all her sons, the Asuras, in the fight with the gods, 
turned herself into a buffalo in order to annihilate them. She 
underwent such terrible austerities to propitiate Brahma, that 
the whole world was shaken and the saint Suparsva was disturbed 
at his devotions. He cursed Diti that her son should be in the 
shape of a buffalo, but Brahma so far mitigated the curse that 
only his head was to be that of a buffalo. This was Mahisasura 
. . . who is supposed to be the origin of the godling Mahasoba, 
worshiped in Western India in the form of a rude stone covered 
with red lead.' 

In modem times Mahisa still 'lives in fame/ for Maisur, or 

^ See Bhdgavata PurOna, 6. 18. 10-16. 

^Wilhelm Jahn, Das SSurapurdi^m, ein Kompendium spdtindischer 
Kulturgeschichte und des Sivaismus, chap. 49, Strassburg, 1908. 

* This is doubtless the same as the demon Raktabija, whose death at the 
hands of Can<)! is described (MUrkantf^ya PurOna, chapter 88) as an inci- 
dent in the battle between Can<}i and the demons Kumbha and NiSumbha. 
The death of Raktabija is celebrated to-day in the Shyama Puja in honor 
of Kali (Can^i), India's most terrible and gruesome festival; cf. W. J. 
Wilkins, Modem Hinduism, p. 231-232, London, 1887. 

*In chapter 18 of the Vamana, according to the synopsis given by 
Aufrecht, op. cit, p. 46^ b, lines io-iitCf.^abdakalpadrutna,yo\,3,p.67g,^, 

' See the English translation of the MaMbhdrata, by P. C. Roy, vol. 4, 
p. 15, footnote. 

• Crooke, vol. 2, p. 237. 

7 1 have been unable to locate the passage in the Mdrkan4^ya. 


Mysore, is certainly derived from Mahisasura/ and the great 
festival of the Durga-Puja is annually celebrated in Bengal during 
the month Qhnna (Sept.-Oct.), to commemorate the demon's 
death at the hands of Durga or Candi. At this festival the 
goddess is represented, both in painting and image, with her many 
arms brandishing various weapons, in the act of slaying the 
buffalo-demon ; and the festival is r^;arded as such an important 
event, that the government offices are closed and business is 
suspended so long as the holiday is in progress.* It is also re- 
corded that at Sapta Srng, in the Chandor range of hills, a spot 
is pointed out where Mahisa, in the course of his struggle with 
Candi, flew directly through a rock.* And it may be noted, too, 
that the Candi-Mahisa l^end is probably responsible for the fact 
that even to-day buffalos are sacrificed to the goddess Durga 

Mythological Allusions 

Apart from references to the legend of Mahisa, m}rthological 
allusions are very common throughout the Can4^ataka, They 
are connected not only with Candi's life and acts, but also with 
many of the oft-told tales that form the basis of the Vedic, Epic, 
and Puranic mythology. To name only a few, there might be 
mentioned the allusions to the slaying of Hiranyakasipu by Visnu, 
to the descent of the Ganges from heaven, to the growth of the 
Vindhya mountain, the destruction of Tripura by Siva, Visnu's 
plunge into the waters of primeval chaos, Skanda and his foster- 
mothers, the thousand eyes of Indra, and so on. The more ob- 
scure allusions will be explained in the notes to the various 

^Crooke, vol. 2, p. 237; cf. Lewis Rice, Mysore and Coorg from the 
Inscriptions, p. 14, note i, London, 1909, where the derivation of Mysore 
is given as from MaisQru, meaning ' Buffalo-town.' 

2 B. C. Mazumdar, Durga: Her Origin and History, in JRAS, 1906, p. 
355; W. J. Wilkins, Modem Hinduism, p. 227-231; Monier- Williams, 
Hinduism, p. 183, London, 1877. 

» Cf. I A, vol. 2 (1873), p. 163. 

*Crooke, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 237; cf. Colebrooke, Essays, vol. i, p. loi, 
note I. 


258 the candl^ataka of bana 

Epithets of Candi 

Although Sana's poem is entitled CandUataka, the name Candi, 
or Candika, occurs in but five of the stanzas, and only 28 diflFerent 
appellatives in all are used in referring to the goddess, who is 
mentioned by some title in every stanza. These 28 epithets or 
titles are as follows. 

£2pithets belonging to Candi as the daughter of Himalaya. 
These include Parvatl, 'Daughter of the Mountain' (a patro- 
nymic derived from parvata, * mountain ' ; it is found in stanzas 10, 
13, 16, 18, 20, 34, 37, 47, 56, 60, 65, 72, 73, 74, 77, 80, 90, 97, 100, 
loi, and in stanza 23 as V.L. — 21 stanzas in all) ; Hdimavatl, 
'Daughter of Himavat' (stanzas 19, 33, 38, 59) ; Kanyd 'dreh 
(35, 84) ; Suta 'dreh (68) ; Sdilaputrt (82) ; AdrijQ (28), all of 
which mean 'Daughter of the Mountain'; and Umd (stanzas 17, 
24, 27, 31, 36, 39, 57, 58, 62, 63, 85, 91—12 times in all), which 
is etymologically explained as from u tnd, * O don't ! ' (cf . Candi- 
iataka, stanza 17, note 4). 

Epithets belonging to Candi as the wife of Siva. These 
include Siva (stanzas 2, 6, 23, 30, 32, 88, and stanzas 7, 11 and 
39 as V.L.) ; Bhavanl (21, 66, 79, 81, 94, and 30 as V.L.) ; 
Rudranl (70, 78, 92, 98) ; Sarvanl (64, 83, 95) ; they signify the 
female counterparts of Siva, Bhava, Rudra and Sarva, respec- 
tively. To these should be added Smararipumaliisl (69), 'Con- 
sort of (Siva), Foe of Smara (Kama),' and Matr (5, 67), 
'Mother (of Karttikeya).' 

Epithets belonging to Candi in her horrific aspects. These 
include Kdl% (11, 26, 41, 61) and Kalikd (51 as V.L.), which 
mean 'Black One'; Bhadrak&tl (22, 76, 89), meaning 'Honored 
Black One'; KalarUM (53), 'Night of Fate'; Durgd (8), 'In- 
accessible One'; CandJ (9, 71) and Candikd (46, 49, 102), mean- 
ing 'Angry One'; Lohitd (41), 'Red One' — ^the redness being 
due to anger; and Kstyayanl (14, 25, 43), referring, perhaps, to 
her fiery aspect. 

Epithets belonging to Candi in her benign aspects. These 
include Devi (i, 4, 7, 10, 15, 40, 42, 44, 50, 52, 97, and 8 as V.L.), 


signifying 'Goddess'; Ambikd (12, 48, 51, 75, 86, 93, 96, 99), 
meaning 'Mother' or 'Good Woman'; Saptalokljanani (54), 
'Mother of the Seven Lokas' \ Arya (3, 55), 'Noble One'; 
Ksamd (45), 'Patience/ or 'Earth,' or 'Able One,' or 'Mighty 
One'; and Gauri (29, 41, 87), 'White One.' 

Epithets of Mahisa 

Mahisa is mentioned by name or epithet in all of the stanzas, 
except five, viz., 25, 45, 49, 54, 71, He is regarded by the poet 
as having but three aspects — ^that of the buffalo, that of a. de- 
scendant of Diti and Danu, and that of a foe of the gods. His 
epithets may therefore be conveniently grouped under these three 
headings, although it should be noted that the epithets belonging 
to each group are often intermingled with those belonging to the 
other groups. 

Epithets belonging to Mahisa by virtue of his buffalo form* 
These include Mahisa (stanzas 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 22, 24, 
29, 30, 31, 39s 41, 42, 44, 48, SO, 5I1 55, 5^, 63, 66, 67, 68, 88, 92, 
93, 96), meaning 'Buffalo'; LuUiya (102), signifying 'Wal- 
lower'; Paiupati (37), 'Lord of Cattle'; MahisHsura (72), 
'Buffalo-demon'; Mahisasuraripu (5, 17, 77^ and 6 as V.L.), 
'Buffalo [-shaped] Foe of the Gods.' 

Epithets belonging to Mahisa by virtue of his being a de- 
scendant of Diti and Danu. These include Ditija (21), Diti-- 
tanaya (60), and DUitya (35), which all signify 'Offspring of 
Diti'; DaityOdhUa (7), Daiiyapati (56), Daityandtha (84), and 
Daityendra (80), all meaning 'Lord of the Daityas'; Dditya- 
senddhinatha (83), 'Overlord of the Army of the Daityas'; 
DQityah janamahisah iva (79), 'Daitya like an Ordinary Buf- 
falo'; Daityah mahisavapuh (38), 'Daitya with the Body of a 
Buffalo'; Daiiyah mahisitavapuh (52, 67, 74), 'Daitya whose 
Body had been changed into that of a Buffalo ' ; Daityah chala- 
mahisatanuh (86), 'Daitya in the Guise of the Body of a Buf- 
falo'; Daityah glrvanaSatruh (87), 'Daitya, Foe of the Gods'; 


Mahadaityah tridaiaripuh (43), 'The Great Daitya, Foe of the 
Gods'; Danuja (24, 27), and DSnava (62, 70), 'Offspring of 
Danu'; Ddnavah fnahisatanubhrt (82), 'Offspring of Danu, 
bearing the Body of a Buffalo'; Asura (57, 85, 91), 'Demon'; 
and Asurapati (47), 'Lord of the Demons.' 

Epithets belonging to Mahisa by virtue of his being a foe 
of the gods. These include DevUri (76, 93), Devadvis (40), 
Surdri (13, 94, 97, 99), Suraripu (20, 90, 97, 100), GlrvSnari 
(28), Amararipu (24, 98), Marudasuhrt (i), and Divdukoripu 
(23), which all mean 'Foe of the Gods'; Tridaiaripupati (59), 
and Vibudharipupati (78), both meaning 'Lord of the Foes of 
the Gods ' ; Tridaiapatiripu (6), ' Foe of the Lord of the Gods ' ; 
Dustadevdrindtha (81), * Lord of the Wicked Foes of the Gods ' ; 
Devdrih mahisacchadmd (69), 'Foe of the Gods, disguised as a 
Buffalo'; Devdrih kditavdviskrtamahisavapuh (75), 'Foe of the 
Gods, who had assumed as Disguise the Body of a Buffalo'; 
Surdrih nUsamahisatanuh (95), 'Foe of the Gods, disguised 
under the Body of a Buffalo'; Surdrih mahisitavapuh (loi), 
' Foe of the Gods, whose Body had been changed into that of a 
Buffalo'; G^rvdnasatruh mahisatanubhrt (73), 'Foe of the Gods, 
bearing the Body of a Buffalo'; Mahisdkdrah suradvesl (32), 
' Foe of the Gods in the Form of a Buffalo ' ; Dyudhdmndm vidvit 
mahisitavapuh (18), 'Foe of the Gods, whose Body had been 
changed into that of a Buffalo ' ; Chalamahisatanuh ndkalokadvit 
(10), * Foe of the Heavenly World, disguised under the Body of 
a Buffalo'; Trivistaparipu (SS), 'Foe of Indra's Heaven'; 
Gotrasya iatruh (24), 'Foe of the Family (of the Gods)'; Ari 
(II, 12, 15, 21, 29, 37, 46, 60, 94), Ripu (30, 33, 34, 38, 65, 88, 
89), Satru (11, 26, 58, 61, 64, 90), Dvis (12), Dvisat (14), Ardti 
(31), and Dvesin (67), all meaning 'Foe'; Dvit mahisavapuh 
(36), ' Foe who had the Body of a Buffalo ' ; and Kditavdviskrta- 
mahisatanuh vidvisan (35), 'Foe who had assumed as Disguise 
the Body of a Buffalo.' 

introduction 26 1 

Style and Rhetorical Devices* 

The style of the Can4Uataka appears to be the Gdudl, like 
that of the SUryaiataka, for it abounds in compounds, has 
strength and grace, and has a fair number of instances of 
onuprUso, 'alliteration/ As r^^ards rhetorical figures and de- 
vices, the poem presents examples of such as are typical of every 
kdt/ya composition. For instance, the HHs, as was noted above,' 
occtirs in almost every stanza. The Slesa, or * pun,' is also of fre- 
quent occurrence, and occasionally the paronomasia is carried to 
such an extent that nearly a whole stanza may be rendered 
throughout in two ways (see stanzas 13, 21, 27, 30, 34, 41, 55, 69, 
77, and especially stanzas 8, 46, 62, 65, 68, 70, 88). Frequent 
use is also made of yamaka, or * assonance,' the placing in juxta- 
position of words or syllables having similar sounds (cf . stanzas 
36 and 52) ; and the kindred device, anuprdsa, or * alliteration,' 
is not uncommon (cf. stanzas 38 and 70). Worthy of remark, 
too, are the examples of citra ('picture'), and venikd ('braid'), 
types of varndnuprdsa, or * syllable alliteration ' (cf . the notes to 
stanzas 40 and 66) , of virodha, or ' apparent contradiction ' 
(stanza 62), and of utpreksd,* or 'poetic fancy' (stanzas i, 22, 
40). Noticeable is the absence of the elaborate similes that ap- 
pear here and there in the text of the SUryaiataka, 

Grammatica Notabiliora 

Among the more or less unusual granmiatical constructions 
occurring in the CandUataka, I would call attention to the follow- 
ing: the imperative in -tdt (discussed above, p. 96) ; the impera- 
tive jahihi, with short penult for metrical reasons (stanza 34; cf. 
SUryaiataka, 59) ; the accusative devdn (stanza 38), used as a 
sort of object of the compound jayokte, ' in the address of Jaya 

^For explanation of the various rhetorical devices that are mentioned 
in this paragraph, see above, p. 89-95, where the style of the SUryalataka 
has been discussed in detail 

2 See above, p. 245. 

> Attention has been called to most of these rhetorical devices of the 
CantfUataka in the notes to the stanzas in which they occur. 


to the gods'; the genitive of the agent with gamy a (stanza 42; 
cf. Suryasataka, 23) — gamy am agner, 'assailable by Agni'; the 
imperative with na (stanza 57) — na avata, ' do not protect ' ; the 
phrase sthdtum gatabhayam (stanza 86), 'unafraid to stand/ 
with the infinitive depending on the compound; the adverbial 
gerund dhydyam dhydyam (stanza 97) ; the absence of a demon- 
strative correlative to the ye in stanza 9 ; the use of the particle 
purU (stanza 33) to give to a present tense the force of a future. 
For further discussion of these constructions, see the notes to the 
stanzas in which they occur. 


All the stanzas of the Can4liataka, except six, are composed 
in the sragdhard meter, which, as will be remembered, is likewise 
the meter of the SUryaiataka. The six exceptions — stanzas 25, 
32, 49, 55, 56 and 72 — ^are written in idrdulavikrldita. 



The CandUataka seems not to be widely cited either in the 
anthologies, the alamkdras, or in other Sanskrit works. The 
Paddhati of Sarhgadhara quotes but one stanza (no. 66), and 
none of the verses appear to have found their way into Valla- 
bhadeva's Subhdsitdvali. King Bhoja's rhetorical work, the 
SarasvatlkanthQbharana, cites stanzas 40 and 66 as illustrations 
of the rhetorical devices citra and venikd (see below, in the notes 
to CandUataka, stanzas 40 and 66), and also stanza 49, but I have 
not discovered any other citations in the alamkdra literature*. In 
Mahendra's commentary on Hemacandra's lexicographical work, 
the AnekOrthasamgraha, the use, in stanza i, of anghri (or, 
anthri) for p&da, * foot,' is considered worthy of note.* Stanza 66 

^ The editors of the Kav3ramala edition of the Cantf^ataka state (p. i, 
note 2) that this work of Bana is cited in the KGvyHnui&sana of Vagbhata, 
and in Arjtmavamiadeva's commentary on the Amart^ataka, 

2 See p. 59 of Zachariae's edition (cf. above, p. 100). 


appears to have been a favorite, for besides being quoted in the 
Paddhati and in the Sarasvatlkanthdbharana, it is found in the 
Harihardvali of Hari Kavi, in the Saduktikarnamrta of Sndhara 
Dasa, and in the Subhdsitaratnabhiinddgdra, Parab's modem 
anthology. References to these citations will be found in the 
notes to stanza 66. 


Aufrecht, in the three volumes of his Catdogus Catatogorum 
(vol. I, p. 177; vol. 2, p. 36; vol. 3, p. 38), lists six references to 
catalogues recording the existence of manuscripts of the Candlior 
taka. Possibly there are to be added to this list the manuscripts 
used by the editors of the Kavyamala edition of this work of 
Bana's, and the manuscript acquired and read by Biihler (cf. I A, 
vol. I, p. iii)» but it is more reasonable to suppose that these are 
included among those to which Auf recht refers. In a manuscript 
of the Whish collection (cf. Auf recht, vol. 3, p. 38), the Can^Uor 
taka is called the CanifikHsaptaH, apparently because it there con- 
tains only about the first seventy stanzas. 

Of commentaries on the Candliataka there appear to have been 
discovered two, or possibly three. One of these is by Dhanesvara, 
son of Somesvara of Dasakurajnati (cf. Aufrecht, vol. i, p. 177; 
S. R. Bhandarkar, Report of a Second Tour in Search of Skt, 
MSS made in Rajputana and Central India in 1904-5 and 
1905-6, p. 52, Bombay, 1907), and was used by the editors of the 
Kavyamala edition, as noted by them on p. i, note 2. A second, 
anonymous commentary, which was also used by the editors of 
the Kavyamala edition, is possibly the same as that recorded by 
Kielhom in his Report on the Search for Skt. MSS in the Bom- 
bay Presidency, during the year 1880-188 1, p. 84, no. 31, Bombay, 
1881. A third, of Jain authorship, and comprising marginal 
glosses for verses 1-84 (cf. Biihler in IA\^ vol. i, p. iii ; J. Eggel- 
ing, Catalogue of the Skt. MSS in the Library of the India Office, 
part IV, no. 2625, or 2538a), is perhaps identical with the fore- 
going anonymous tlkS. 



The only edition I have been able to find recorded is that 
printed in Kavyamala, IV (1887), p. 1-37, edited by Durgapra- 
sada and Paraba, with an abridged commentary extracted from 
the flkd of Dhanesvara and the anonymous commentary mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph. I have not discovered the existence 
of any translation from the original Sanskrit. 



The SUryaiataka and CandUataka, though by different authors, 
exhibit in some r^^ards noteworthy similarity. Both are iatakas, 
the SUryaiataka containing loi stanzas, and the CandUataka, 
102. The meter in both is the sragdharS, except that six stanzas 
of the CandUataka are composed in idrdillavikrl4ita. In both 
poems the stanzas, except eight in the CandUataka that contain a 
jayati or jayanti, are in the dHs, or * benedictive/ form. In 
both the (Uis is expressed by a precative or imperative, and the im- 
perative in 'tdt is a feature in both, occurring 21 times in the 
SUryaiataka and 17 times in the CandUataka. 

As regards subject-matter, both poems deal with well-worn 
themes — ^the praise of the deities Surya and Candi respectively — 
and both authors, Mayura and Bana, have embellished their pro- 
ductions with numerous allusions drawn from the vast and seem- 
ingly inexhaustible storehouse of Vedic, Epic and Puranic 

In the matter of style, both poems are in the GHudl rlti, and 
both exhibit the usual kdvya elements, such as Mesa, yamaka, etc. ; 
but the rhetorical devices are on the whole more marked and more 
ntunerous in the SUryaiataka than in the CandUataka. Espe- 
cially noticeable in this regard is the absence in the Candiiataka 
of the rather elaborate similes that occur here and there in the 
stanzas of the SUryaiataka. The use of descriptive epithets to 


indicate the chief characters is a marked characteristic of both 

Among the points of difference may be mentioned the fact that 
about half of the stanzas of the Candlsataka contain a speaking 
character, although there is no dialogue, whereas nearly all the 
stanzas of the SUryaiataka are descriptive in style. Again, the 
SUryaiataka contains subdivisions of the subject-matter, devoting 
some stanzas to the praise of Surya's rays, others to that of his 
chariot, horses, etc. ; but the Can^ataka has no such subdivisions 
and adheres closely to its set theme, the praise of Candi and of 
her victorious left foot. And it may be noted that the lack of 
variety thus engendered sometimes approaches monotony in this 
poem of Bana's. On the whole, the Sdryaiataka appears to me 
to be the more scholarly and thoughtful work of the two. The 
Candliataka is distinctly in lighter vein, and its stanzas, if meas- 
ured by occidental ideas and standards, often lack dignity and 
seriousness. Besides, among later writers the SUryaiataka seems 
to have enjoyed a greater reputation than its rival, the Cantf^ 
iataka, if we may judge by the greater number of times it is 
found quoted in Sanskrit literature. 


It seems not inappropriate, in view of their association in the 
Jaina tale, to compare the Suryaiataka and Candlsataka, which 
are more or less alike, with the supposedly rival poem of Mana- 
tuhga, the BhaktStmarastotra. There is really little basis for 
comparison. The BhaktHmarastotra is not a iataka, but consists 
of 44 stanzas (48 in some MSS) in praise of the Jina, the latter 
in most of the stanzas being directly addressed by the worshiper. 
The stanzas are not in the diis form, like those of the SUryaiataka 
and Candliataka, and their meter is vasantatUakd, not the srag- 
dhard in which the other two poems are composed. The Sanskrit, 
in spite of the numerous compounds, is comparatively simple, and 


there seems to be an almost utter absence of Mesa, or parono- 
masia, a fact that may perhaps be adduced as an argument in 
favor of adopting the earlier date — 3d or 4th century A.D. — 
which I have advocated above (p. 18) for the Bhaktihnarastotra, 
There are numerous mythological allusions, as in the SUryasataka 
and CandUataka^ and in several stanzas praise is heaped without 
stint upon Surya. On the whole, the BhaktSmarastotra is a 
much less elaborate work than either of its allied rival poems. 




ma bhahksir vibhramam bhrur adhara vidhurata keyam asya 

'sya ragam 
pane prany eva na 'yam kalayasi kalahairaddhaya kim tri- 

ity udyatkopaketun prakrtim avayavan prapayantyeva devya 
nyasto vo murdhni musyan mamdasuhrdasun samharann 

ahgfarir amhah 

' Spoil^ not thy coquetry, O brow ; O lower Up, why this distress ? 

O face, banish thy flushing ; 
O hand, this (Mahisa) is not* indeed living; why dost thou 

brandish a trident, with desire for combat?'* 
While Devi (Candi) caused by these words, as it were, the parts 

of her body that displayed signs of rising anger to resume 

their normal state. 
Her foot,* which took away the life of (Mahisa), Foe of the 

Gods, was set down upon his head.^ 
May the foot of Devi (Candi) destroy your sin! 

Notes, z. Professor G. Btihler, in a short article entitled On the 
Chantfikdiataka of Banabhaffa, in Indian Antiquary, voL i, p. 111-115, 
gives the transliterated text and the translation of stanzas 1-5, 9 and 102. 
3. The commentary offers also the alternative of taking nJ as meaning 
puru^ah, 'male/ and paraphrases: 'O hand, this male, a mere insect, is 
to be slain by a mere blow from my foot/ 3. Such personifying of 
parts of the body is an instance of the rhetorical figure called utprek^d, 
'Poetic Fancy'; cf. Introd., p. 92. 4. The use here of ahghri (or, 
amhri) for pida, ' foot,' is considered worthy of note by Mahendra in his 
commentary on Hemacandra's lexicographical work, the AnekHrtha' 
satfigraha ; see p. 59 of the edition of Zachariae, mentioned above, Introd., 
p. 100. 5. Biihler (I A, 1. 113) renders as 'placed on your heads,' but I 
have followed the commentary. 

• 267 


Lectiones. [Variant readings taken from Btihler's translitera- 
tion (cf. note i) are indicated by B. The great majority of the variants 
are those found in the footnotes of the Kav3ramala edition, and they are 
given without distinguishing letter, except that they are indicated by K in 
stanzas 1-5, 9 and 102, to distinguish them from the variants given by 
Buhler. The letters (a), (b), (c), (d) refer to the podas of the stanzas, 
taken in order.] For the first stanza the only variant is found in (c), the 
reading of K being sthapayantyeva devyH. 


huxnkire njrakkrtodanvati mahati jite £injitair nupurasya 
filiffyacchrhgaksate 'pi ksaradasrji nijatoktakabhrantibhiji 
skandhe vindhyadribuddhya nikasati mahisasya liito 'sun 

ajSanad eva yasjrij carana iti iivam sa £tva vah karotu 

While the mighty bellowing [of Mahisa], which [ordinarily] sur- 
passed the [roar of the] ocean, was outdone by the tinkling 
of [Candi's] anklet,* 

And while the wound [caused] by his horn that encircled [her 
foot], created, with its flowing blood, the mistaken impres- 
sion that it was her own lac-dye,* 

Her foot, being set down on Mahisa's scraping shoulder, in the 
belief that it was the Vindhya Mountain,' 

All unawares* took away his life. May that Siva (Candi) bring 
about your happiness ! 

Notes, z. The usual mighty bellowing had sunk to a dying moan. 2. 
As Siva's (Can<Ji's) foot rested on the demon's shoulder, it was encircled 
by his long horn (cf. stanzas 41 and 44), whose tip inflicted an insignificant 
wound as he writhed in the death agony. The wound was scarcely noticed 
by the goddess, who mistook the slight flow of blood for her foot-lac 
3. The commentator sees in vindhyadribuddhyd a Ile^a, and would permit 
a double rendering of it, as follows : ' Her foot, <in the belief that it was 
[resting on] the Vindhya Mountain>, was set down on Mahi$a's shoulder, 
that rubbed against it, <believing it to be the Vindhya Mountain>.' The 
reciprocal error whereby the foot of Siva (Can<Ji) mistook Mahi$a for 
the Vindhya, and vice versa, was due, the commentator informs us, to the 
dark color both of the buffalo-demon and of the foot of the goddess. 
Siva (Can<Ji), it will be remembered, was once taunted by Siva because 
of her dusky complexion; cf. Wilkins, Hindu Mythology, p. 289. The 
Vindhya range was one of the abodes of Siva, and if we adopt the double 


• • • ^ 

rendering here suggested, we shall have to suppose that Mahi$a was wont 
to use it as a rubbing-post. 4. The explanation of 'unawares ' (ajndnat) 
seems to be as follows: The foot of Siva (Can^i) cannot believe that 
Mahi$a is present; first, because of the absence of any bellowing; sec- 
ondly, because so powerful a demon would certainly have inflicted a much 
more serious wound than the slight scratch it has received; and in the 
third place, though the foot does see Mahi^a, it mistakes his dark body 
for the familiar Vindhya. Being thus unconscious of Mahi$a's presence, 
it 'unawares,' or 'unwittingly,' takes away his life. This appears to be 
the idea of the commentator, who concludes : ' Thus the error arose from 
the triple cause that has been mentioned.' 

VX. (a) B nudati jite. (b) B ^lifyachfngak^tepi, emended by Buhler 
to Slifyacchfngak^at&t prak^aradasfji, 


jahnavya ya na jata 'nunayaparaharaksiptaya ksalayantya 
nunam no nupurena glapitaiaSiruca j]^t8naya va nakhanam 
tarn iobham adadhana jayati navam iva 'laktakam pidayitva 
padenaiva ksipanta mahisam asurasadananiskaiyam arya 

[There is a beauty of Candi's foot]* that was not produced by the 

purifying JahnavP (Ganges), when sent by Hara (Siva), 

intent on conciliating her, 
Or indeed through her anklet that dims the luster of the moon, 

or through the gleam of her toe-nails. 
[But] Arya (Candi) acquired this beauty in her victory,' by 

crushing Mahisa and tossing him aside merely with her foot 
<As worthless through the taking away of his life-juice>, like a 

fresh lac-branch < which becomes worthless through the 

taking of its sap>.'* 

[In this stanza the usual benediction is omitted.]^ 

Notes, z. Three of the recognized means of adorning the feet among 
the ancient Hindus were anklets, polishing the toe-nails, and staining with 
red lac-dye. If we bear this in mind, the meaning of the stanza seems to 
be as follows : The beauty of foot which the wife of Siva never acquired 
by anklet or toe-nail, or by washing in the Ganges (also a wife of !§iva), 
whose stream was sent by him to pacify her jealousy, she does acquire 
when, as Arya or Can<)i, she slays the demon Mahi$a and receives the red 
stain of his blood, which, like lac, gushes over her foot as she stamps on 
him and crushes out his life. 3. The Ganges was brought down to earth 


by Bhagiratha, to purify the ashes of the sixty thousand sons of King 
Sagara. In order to lessen the force of its fall, ^iva caught it on his head 
and checked its course by his matted locks. He afterwards sent it on its 
way to earth by way of the Himalaya Mountain. This descent of the 
Ganges disturbed the sage Jahnu as he was performing a sacrifice, and in 
his anger he drank up its waters; but afterwards, relenting, he allowed 
the river to flow from his ear; hence the Ganges is called Jahnavl, 
* Daughter of Jahnu ' ; cf. Mahobharata, 3. 108-109 ; RUmayana, i. 43. 35-38 ; 
Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 7, 9, 11 ; John Dowson, A Classical Dictionary 
of Hindu Mythology, p. 108, London, 1879. 3* Lit. ' is victorious, appro- 
priating this beauty.' 4. I have treated the compound asurasOd&na- 
nifkHryam as a ilefa, and have given it a double rendering, following the 
suggestion of the commentary, which reads: 'Just as anyone, having 
crushed lac with his foot, and having extracted its juice, throws away the 
sapless part, so Devi (Can^T), having taken the life, which corresponds to 
the juice [in lac], threw away Mahi$a.' For a similar conception, cf. 
stanza 39, note 4. 5. A similar omission of the benediction occurs in 
stanzas 4, 21, 33, 38, 54, 71 and 102. In all of these stanz'sts, however, there 
is found, as substitute for the benediction, either a jayati or a jayanti, 
'victorious is (or, are),* 'glory to,' 'hail to.' 

V.L. (a) B jatdnunayaparihara-, K j&tn 'navamapurahara-, (c) B nijam 
ivH 'laktakam, 


mrtyos tulyatn triloldm grasitum atirasan nihsrtah kim nu 

kim va krsnanghripadmadjmtibhir arunita visnupadyah pada- 

praptah samdhyah smararefa svayam uta nutibhU tisra ity 

devair devitriiulahatamahisajuso raktadhara jayanti 

'What? Have the tongues of Mrtyu (Yama) issued [from his 

mouth] in his excess of greed to devour the three worlds all 

at once? 
Or are the streams of Visnupadi (Ganges) reddened by [contact 

with] the splendor of the lotus feet of Krsna ( Visnu) ? 
Or have the three twilights appeared voluntarily [in response] 

to the worship of (Siva), Foe of Smara?'^ 
Such was the speculation of the gods in r^ard to the victorious 


• • • * 

jets of blood welling^ from Mahisa who was slain by the 
trident^ of Devi (Candi).* 

[In this stanza the usual benediction is omitted,]^ 

Notes, z. The epithet Smara denotes Kama, the Hindu Cupid. For 
Siva's hostility to Kama, see SUryaiataka, stanza 55, note 9. a. Lit 
'victorious are the jets of blood dwelling in Mahi$a.' 3. The jets of 
blood issuing from the triple wound caused by the three-pronged trident 
are three in number and are red ; we should therefore expect the tongues 
of Yama, the streams of Ganges, and the twilights, which are all compared 
to the jets of blood, to be likewise three in number and red. As for the 
tongues of Yama, they may be assumed to have been red, like ordinary 
tongues, but I have been unable to find any reference to their number. 
The streams of Vi$nupad! (Ganges) are three, for it is stated in the 
MahdbhUrata (3. 109. 10) that Gafiga, on her descent from heaven (cf. 
stanza 3, note 2), divided herself into three streams; cf. also RamHyana, 
1.44.6. It may be significant, too, that the most sacred spot along the 
Ganges is Allahabad, or Triveni ('Triple-braided'), where the Ganges, 
Yamtma (Jumna), and the alleged subterranean Sarasvatl come together 
into one stream. Jacobi explains the three streams of Ganges as the three 
manifestations of Ganga — in heaven, on earth, and in Patala; cf. Jacobi, 
Br&hmanism, in Hastings's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 2, 
p. 809. The text of the stanza tells us that the Vi$nupadi (Ganges) was 
reddened by contact with the lotus foot of Vi§nu ; cf. Vi^nu PurHna, 2. 8 
(Wilson, vol. 2, p. 271-272), where it is said that Ganga has 'her source 
in the nail of the great toe of Vi$nu's left foot' We must assume that the 
lotus foot was a rosy pink color. As regards the twilights, there were 
three — the morning, noon and evening periods — ^and two of these, namely, 
the dawn and evening twilights, were marked by the red glow of sunrise 
and sunset The commentary adds: 'The twilights also are red-colored.' 
4. No mention of the foot of Can<)i is made in this or in the following 
forty-two stanzas: 14, iS, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 33, 34, 35, 38, 
40, 45, 50, 5h 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 77, 80, 
85, 87, 91, 96, 100. In several of these stanzas, however, the action of the 
foot is suggested in such expressions as 'trampled on' (51), 'crushed' 
(15, 24, 35, 62), etc. 5. For a similar omission of the benediction in 
other stanzas, cf . stanza 3, note 5. 

V.L. (a) K yUmyOs tulyam; B atirasdn nifkftHh, (d) K devyds tri- 


datte darpat prahare sapadi paidabharotpUtaddiavailistim 
^listam irhgasya kotim mahisasuraripor nupuragranthisimni 
musyad vah kalmasani vyatikaraviratav adadanah kumaro 
matiih prabhrastaUlakuvalayakalikakanmpuradarena 


<Kuniara>,^ <the son> of the Mother (Candl), out of r^^rd for 
her ear-adornment, an imitation lotus-bud,^ 

Which, [as he supposed], had fallen off, picked up, at the con- 
clusion of the battle,* the tip of the horn* <of Mahisa>, 

The <buffalo-shaped> Foe of the Gods, which had clung to the 
edge of the knot of her anklet — ^being all that was left of his 

Which had been crushed on the spot by the weight of her foot, 
when he presumptuously struck a blow. 

May Kumara* destroy your sins ! 

Notes, z. Kumara is one of the names of Karttikeya, reputed son of 
Siva and Parvati (Can<)i). His parentage, however, is variously given. 
He is usually called the son of Agni and Svaha, according to the story of 
his birth as given in MahOhhUrata, 3. 225. 15-17 ; but in Mahdbhdrata, 6. 23. 
12, Durga (Can^i) is identified with Svaha, and in 6.23. 11 is addressed 
as Skandamdtar, 'Mother of Skanda (Karttikeya)'; and again, in Ma- 
kabharata, 3.229.27-31, it is explained that Rudra, who is Siva, is some- 
times regarded as the father of Skanda (Karttikeya) . See also SUryaiataka, 
stanza 25, notes i, 4, 8; and Can<f^ataka, stanza 28, note 2. a. An ear- 
ornament in the shape of a lotus. 3. The word vyatikara, 'contact,' 
appears not to be generally used in the sense of 'battle'; but the com- 
mentary here glosses it by yuddha, ' battle,' and in stanza 72 also it must 
have that meaning. 4. The implication that the tip of the horn was 
shaped like a lotus-bud is plain. 5. According to the commentary, 
kunUXro is not the logical, but only the grammatical, subject of mu^ydd, 
' may destroy.' It reads : ' If any logical connection is intended in the 
words "may Kumara destroy your sins," then there would exist the con- 
dition of a logical connection with what is irrelevant, by reason of Kum^ra's 
not being connected with the subject-matter. Therefore we must para- 
phrase by supplying the following : " May that Mother, whose son picked 
up, etc. . . . destroy your sins." * 

V.L. (c) K mufyOd vah kilbi^Oni, 


feisvad visvopakaraprakrtir avikrtih sa 'stu Santyai Siva vo 
yasyah padopa^lye trida^patiripur duradusta^yo 'pi 
nake prapat pratistham asakrd abhimukho vadayan Srngakotya 
hatva konena vinam iva ranitamanim mandalim nupurasya 

Siva (Candi) is unchangeable,* and is a perpetual source of 
benefits to the universe.* 


Through contact with her foot,* (Mahisa), Foe of the Lord of 
the Gods,* although of utterly depraved mind, 

Obtained a place in heaven, [for], when facing her [in battle], he 
repeatedly caused her circular anklet, 

With its tinkling jewels, to resound, striking it with the tip of 
his horn, as if [he were striking] a lute with a quill." 

May Siva (Candi) bring you prosperity! 

Notes, z. In SUryalataka, stanza 89, Surya is called avikftih, 'the 
unchangeable.' a. Or» 'is continually the source of all benefits.' 3. 
Lit ' in the suburbs of whose foot' The commentary reads : ' He became 
an inhabitant of heaven through an excess of merit engendered by contact 
with her foot.' This contact occurred through his repeatedly striking her 
anklet with the tip of his horn. 4. Mahi$a, foe of Indra, who was the 
leader of the gods in their struggle with Mahi$a. 5. The commentary 
says: 'What one, indeed, causes a lute to sound on the sole of the foot 
of Devi (Can^i), that one, when dead, reaches heaven.' The noise of 
the anklet is referred to again in stanzas 13, 43 and 44. 

V.L. (b) mahifosuraripur. 


ni8th}n2to 'ngusthakotya nakhaiikharahatah parsniniryatasaro 
garbhe darbhagrasucilaghur iva ganito nopasarpan samipam 
nabhau vaktram pravistakrtivikrti yaya padapdtena krtva 
daityadhifo vinaSam ranabhuvi gamitah sa 'stu devi iriye vah 

Spumed* by the tip of [Candi's] great toe, struck by the point of 

her toe-nail, robbed of his strength by her heel, 
(Mahisa), Lord of the Daityas, who had been accounted as no 

more worthy of notice than the prick of a tip of darbha grass 

on one's foot,' 
Came creeping [back] into her presence. [But then], after she 

had doubled him up with a kick, so that his face, 
Which had taken on an altered appearance, was against his navel,' 

she put him to death on the field of battle. 
May that Devi (Candi) bring you prosperity ! 

Notes. X. Literally the word ni^thyUta means 'spat out,' 'ejected.' I 
have rendered as 'spumed.' s. Lit 'he, being as it were insignificant 
as the needle of a tip of darbha grass on the interior [of her foot — 



garbhe is glossed by pddamadhye], was not taken into account.' Can<j[i 
was not hurt by stepping on or kicking Mahi§a, any more than anyone 
would be hurt by stepping on a sharp spear of grass. It will be remem- 
bered (cf. stanza 2) that she received a scratch on the foot from the tip 
of Mahi$a's horn. See also stanza 51, where again Mahi§a is compared 
to a spear of grass. 3. Lit. ' by her, having by a blow of her foot made 
his face, into which a change of appearance had entered, in his navel, he 
was put to death.* The commentary regards pravi^fUkriivikrii as an ad- 
verb — (may it not better be neuter, modifying vaktraffi?) — ^and connects 
Pravi^ta with ndbhau. It reads : ' In the first place, his face was caused 
to enter his navel by a blow of her foot ; then afterwards, he was put to 
death ; or, in what [face] there was an alteration of its own appearance — 
the appearance that had entered [into it] — ^such a [face], the face of 
Mahi$a, she caused to enter his own navel by a blow of her foot' I sug- 
gest the following as another possible rendering of this third pada: 
* Having, by a blow of her foot on his navel, made his face to assume an 
alteration of appearance.' 

V.L. (a) pHrfnini^natasHrah, (c) praH^tfUtkftiwkftt. (d) sd *stu I&n- 
tyai HvH vah. 


grastaSvah &ispalobhad iva haritaharer aprasodhanalosma 
Bthanau kandum viniya pratimahisaruseva 'ntakopantavarti 
krsnam pankam yathecchan varunam upagato majjanayeva 

svastho l>hut padam aptva hradam iva mahisah sa 'stu durgi 

iriye vah 

Mahisa* devoured the horses of Surya^ as if through his longing 
for young grass, and would not brook the fiery pride of 
Anala (Agni) ; 

On Sthanu (Siva) he removed his itch,* and came near to Antaka 
(Yama) as if in anger at a rival buffalo*; 

He sought out Krsna (Visnu) as if he were mud,* and ap- 
proached Varuna (Ocean) as if for the purpose of plunging 
[into him]'; 

But when he came in contact with the foot [of Durga (Candi)], 
as with a sacred pool, he became emancipated. 

May that Durga (Candi) bring you prosperity^! 

Notes, z. The meaning of this stanza seems to be that Mahisa treated 
the gods with indifference and contempt, till he was brought to himself 


(sTHUtha) with a rotmd turn by Can(JI. There is also the underlying mean- 
ing that after many wanderings (in sin), which consisted in mistaking the 
gods for something they were not, he finally came to rest, and obtained 
emancipation (svastha) [the commentary glosses svastho by nirvrtafji 
svargasthah, * obtains nirvdna, is placed in heaven '] by touching the foot 
of Candi (cf. above, stanza 6, note 3). This latter interpretation, which 
appears to be that of the commentary, is more readily grasped if it is 
remembered that the Sanskrit root bhram means both ' wander ' and ' err,' 
and the Hindu mind would supply the idea of bhram as soon as the force 
of svastha, * coming to rest,' ' emancipation,' struck home in his intellectual 
consciousness. a. Lit. 'of Him whose horses are green.' Because the 
horses were greenish-yellow in color, Mahi$a shows his contempt for Surya 
by carelessly devouring them as if they were blades of fresh young grass. 
On the color of Surya's steeds, see SUryaiataka, stanza 8, note 2, and stanza 
46, note 8. 3. Mahi$a wilfully mistook Sth^u (Siva) for a sthanu 
(rubbing-post). For similar puns on the term sthltnu, cf. stanzas 88, 92, 
100 and Id. 4. Yama's vehicle was a buffalo (cf. SHryaiataka, stanza 
58, note 5), and so would be a rival of Mahi^a, whose name signifies 'buf- 
falo.' 5. The dark color (kffna) of Vi$nu in his incarnation as Kf$na 
led to the suggestion of mud in which Mahi$a might wallow. 6. Varuna 
was Ocean. Mahi$a lost sight of the person of the god, and saw only the 
water. 7. This stanza, as implied in part by the commentary, admits of 
a double rendering, except in the first part of pilda (a). Even there I 
have sought to find a £lefa, though my translation of grastOJvah by 'out- 
does a horse ' is hardly warranted by the Sanskrit The second rendering 
runs as follows: — 
A buffalo outdoes (?) a horse in his greed for young grass, and cannot 

endure the heat of the fire of the sun ; 
He dispels his itching on a rubbing-post, and comes near to death in his 

rage, as it were, at rival buffaloes ; 
He is, as it were, fond of [wallowing in] black mud, and goes to water, as 

if for the purpose of plunging [into it] ; 
And having found a pond he is content, as if he had found the foot [of 

Durga (C^ncji)]. 
May Durga (CandO bring you prosperity! 

V.L. (d) sa 'stu devJ mude vah. 


trailokyatahkaiantyai praviSati vivaie dhitari dhyanatandrim 
indradyesu dravatsu dravinapatipasrahpalakalanalesu 
ye sparSenaiva pistva mahisam atirusam tratavantas trilokim 
pantu tvam pafica candyai carananakhanibhena 'pare loka- 


When the Creator (Brahma), helpless/ entered into the lassitude 
of meditation for alleviating the distress of the three worlds. 

And when the Lord of Wealth (Kubera), the Guardian of Waters 
(Varuna), Kala (Yama), and Anala (Agni), headed by 
Indra, ran away,^ 

Five other world-protectors,* under the guise of the [five] toe- 
nails on the foot of Candi, 

Became guardians of the three worlds by crushing with a mere 
touch the exceedingly angry Mahisa. 

May [these]* other world-protectors protect thee! 

Notes, z. The commentary says : ' For he who is a prey to lassitude is 
verily helpless/ implying that the helplessness of Brahma was due to the 
lassitude of meditation ; hut it seems more natural to suppose that Brahma 
retired to meditate because he was helpless to offer aid against Mahi$a. 
2. It was because the gods had been defeated in battle and put to rout by 
Mahi$a that Candt was created to save them ; cf . Introd., p. 250. 3. For 
a list of the world-protectors {lokapnUu) , or guardians of the eight points 
of the compass, cf. SUrya^ataka, stanza 18, note 10. 4. There is no te 
correlative to the ye in pada (c)» but in Buhler's text (cf. stanza i, note 
i) there occurs an ime in pada (d). For another instance of the omission 
of the demonstrative, cf. SUryaJataka, stanza 24. The relative has been 
omitted in SUryaiataka, stanzas 33 and 98. 

V.L. (a) B trUilokyHtankanalye ; B dhyanatandrUm, (c) B spariendi" 
vHtra piftvd (omitting initial ye) ; K tratavanto jaganti, B trOsayantaffi 
jaganti, (d) B patu tvQm; B carananakham ime na 'pare lokapaUlh, K 
carananakhamifend 'pare. 


praleyotpldaplvnam nakharajanikrtam atapena 'tipanduh 
parvatyah patu 3rusman pitur iva tulitadrindrasarah sa padah 
yo dhairyan muktalilasamucitapatanapatapltasur asm 
no devya eva vamaS chalamahisatanor nakalokaidviso 'pi 

Very white is the foot of Parvati (Candi) because of the luster 
of the moon [-shaped whites] of her toe-nails — ^which whites 
are in a healthy state by reason of their pressing against the 
snow^ ; 

And that foot is like the foot* of her father* (Himalaya), and 
equals in strength the (Himalaya), Indra of Mountains : 


With resoluteness it took away the life [of Mahisa] in the instant* 
of its descent upon him — a descent that was suited to an 
absence of [any feeling of] playfulness* ; 

Nor was this the <inauspicious (left)> foot of Devi (Candi), 
although it was <inauspicious> to (Mahisa), Foe of the 
Heavenly World, who was disguised in the body of a buffalo. 

May that foot of Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes, z. The commentary says: 'Snow is white; there is a healthy 
condition of the whiteness [of the nails] through [their] pressing against 
that (snow) ; Bhagavati (Can<}i) as a rule walks about on the Snow- 
mountain (Himalaya)/ The meaning seems to be that the snowy whites 
of the nails are kept in a fresh or healthy condition by contact with the 
snow that presses against them as Can4i walks barefoot on the snows of 
Himalaya. Apparently the only reason offered by the commentator to 
explain why snow benefits the whites of the nails is that both are white — 
the action of the snow is in the direction of keeping the whites of the nails 
white. 2. The commentary says that the word podafi is to be read twice. 
It also suggests the following rendering : ' Her < foot > is, as it were, the 
< foothills > of her father Himalaya.' 3. The commentary explains that 
the comparison is complimentary to Can4ii because ' a girl who resembles 
her father is fortunate.' 4. For apsta, the commentary gives an alter- 
nate gloss, either arambhe, 'in the beginning,' or apHtatas, 'instantly'; I 
have inclined to the latter, and have rendered as 'in the instant' 5. 
The commentary says: 'Where there are resoluteness and prowess, etc 
as exponents of the " heroic " sentiment, there is no playfulness manifest- 
ing the " erotic " [sentiment] ; hence [arises] the mention of the " absence 
of playfulness," and because of this [absence of playfulness], the destruc- 
tion of an enemy is proper.' On these terms, ' plasrf ulness,' etc, cf. 
Da^arUpa, ed. and tr. Haas, New York, 1912, as follows : for ' resoluteness ' 
(dhairya), p. 62; for 'heroic sentiment' (t^rarasa), p. 128, 141; for 'play- 
fulness' (Wa), p. 62; and for 'erotic sentiment' (fyngSrarasa) , p. 128, 
130-140. 6. There is a pun here, vSma meaning both ' left ' and ' hos- 
tile.' Elsewhere in the poem, where the foot is specified, it is always said 
that Can<}i killed Mahi$a with her left foot; cf. stanzas 42, 47, 74, 75, 82, 
89, 93, 94 and loi. 

V.L. (a) pr(ileyotpl4adiptiiff% or prQleyotpl4adivyat, 


vakso vyajainarajah sa dafiabhir abhinat panijaih prak surareh 
paxicaiva 'stam nayamo yuvaticaranajah fiatrum etc vajram tu 
ity utpannabhimanair nakhaiSaiSimanibhir jyotsnaya svam£u- 


yasyah pade hatarau hasita iva harih sa 'stu kali §riye vah 

' In a former age, he (Visnu), in the g^ise of a lion,^ split open 
with his ten finger-nails the breast of (HiranyakaSipu), Foe 
of the Gods ; 

But we, these mere five toe-nails of a young woman, bring our 
foe (Mahisa) to utter destruction.'* 

In these words Hari (Visnu) is, as it were, mocked by the pride- 
filled toe-nails on the foe-killing foot of Kali (Candi) — 

Toe-nails that are veritable moon-stones by reason of their self- 
radiant splendor. 

May that Kali (Candi) bring you prosperity! 

Notes, z. The word enaraja means, literally, ' king of antelopes/ but is 
glossed by siffiha, * lion/ The reference is to Vi§nu in his fourth incarna- 
tion, when, as the nara-sitftha, 'man-lion/ he tore open with his finger- 
nails the breast of the demon Hiranyakasipu ; cf . Mahabharata, 3. 102. 22 ; 
Bhdgavata Purdna, 7.8. 12-31 (Dutt, book 7, cap. 8, p. 40-42) ; Harivatfila, 
the Bhavifya Parvan, 39 (Dutt, p. 919) ; Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 26, p. 
112. See also Masrura's stanza, entitled ' The Claws of Narasiqiha,' trans- 
lated above, p. 240. 2. The commentary says: *They were the finger- 
nails of Hari ( Vi$nu) ; we are but toe-nails of a woman ; they were ten, 
we but five ; by them merely the breast [of Hiranyakasipu] was torn open, 
but by us our foe (Mahi$a) was brought to utter annihilation; hence the 
cause of our pride/ ' 

V.L. (c) ity utpanndbhimUnair atiruciranakhCtih. (d) sa 'stu iHntydi 
HvH vah, 


raktakte 'laktakaiSrir vijayini vijaye no virajaty amusmin 
haso hastagrasamvahanam api dalitadrindrasaradviso 'sya 
trasenaiva 'dya sarvah pranamati kadanena 'muneti ksatarih 
pado 'vyac cumbito vo rahasi vihasata tryambakena 'mbika3rah 

' <0 Vijaya>,* there is no sheen of lac-dye glistening on this 
victorious [foot], which is [already] smeared with blood <in 
the victory >, 

And a massaging with the fingers of this [foot] that has destroyed 
its enemy (Mahisa), mighty as (Himalaya), Indra of Moun- 
tains, would be mockery ; 


And today everyone, merely out of fear because of this killing 

[of Mahisa], is making obeisance [to it].' 
By Tryambaka (Siva), smiling as he uttered the above words in 

private, the foe-slaying foot of Ambika (Candi) was kissed.* 
May the foot of Ambika (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Vijaya was one of Can<}rs attendants; she is mentioned again 
in stanza 21 ; see also stanza I5» note 7, where Jaya and Vijaya are dis- 
cussed at length. Here, vijaye may likewise be a locative, meaning 'in 
victory'; for a similar pun, see above (p. 230), in stanza i of the vakrokti 
stanzas of Ma3rura. 2. The thought conveyed by the stanza seems to 
be that Siva kisses the foot of Candi, because all the ordinary attentions 
by which one would honor a foot are in this case either superfluous or 
are being done by someone else. Thus, there is no use in anointing Can4i's 
foot with lac, because it is already stained red with the blood of Mahi$a; 
and a foot so mighty as to be able to destroy a Mahi$a would scorn such 
tender caresses as massaging; and since the whole world is making obei- 
sance to her foot, Siva, who prefers to be more individual, does not care 
to honor it thus, and therefore kisses it This seems to be the interpre- 
tation of the commentary, which says: 'In [the case of] a foot, coloring 
with lac-dye, massaging with the fingers, and making obeisance are the 
three things suitable; but by Mahadeva (Siva) just a kissing of it is made, 
with the thought: "In this case (i.e. in my case), even those three things 
do not take place.' 

M t 

V.L. (b) tulitadrlndrasHradvifo, 


bhaiigo na bhrulatayas tulitabalataya 'nastham asthnam tu 

na krodhat piidapadmam mahad amrtabhujam uddhrtam fial- 

yam antah 
vacalam nupuram no jagad ajani jayam fiamsad am£ena 

musnantya 'sun surareh sipnarabhuvi yaya parvati patu sa vah 

By^ Parvati (Candi), as she, on the field of battle, destroyed with 
a part of her heel the life of (Mahisa), Foe of the (jods. 

There was made not only <a knitting> of her creeper-like brows, 
but also <a breaking> of his bones without concern, owing to 
her mastery of his might* ; 


• • • 

Not only was her lotus foot <upraised> in anger, but also the g^eat 
thorn' in [the side of] the gods was <extracted> ; 

Not only was her anklet <set tinkling>/ but the universe was 
<set talking>, extolling her victory. 

May that Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. For convenience, I have translated the fourth psda first a. 
Lit 'because of his strength being equaled.' 3. The commentary says: 
'For the gods regarded Mahi$a as a thorn [sticking] in [them].' Cf. 
Mahabharata, 3,231.106: so 'yatft tvaya mahUbUho iamito devakanfakafi, 
'this thorn of the gods has been tamed by thee, O Strong-armed (Skanda)/ 
addressed to Skanda (Karttikeya) after he had killed Mahi$a. In the 
Epic, Skanda, and not Can<}i, is recognized as the conqueror of the buffalo- 
demon ; cf . Introd., p. 248. In stanza 56 also, Mahi^a is called a ' thorn.' 4. 
Reference to the tinkling of the anklet is made also in stanzas 6, 43 and 44. 


niryan nanastraiSastravali valati balam kevalam danavanam 
dran nite dlrghanidram dvisati na mahisi *ty ucyase prayafo 

astrisambhavyavirya tvam asi khalu maya naivam akaraniyi 
katyayany attakelav iti hasati hare hrimati hantv arin vah 

'The army of the Danavas,* which advanced with its ranks 
[equipped with] various arms and missile weapons, is hasten- 
ing away, leaderless,* 

And since thy foe (Mahisa) has been quickly despatched [by 
thee] to his long sleep, thou art not called " Mahisi " by me 
today, [as] generally,' 

Nor indeed art thou, who hast strength not to be expected in a 
woman, to be thus summoned hither by me.'* 

As Hara (Siva) was laughing at his jest* made in those words, 
KatyayanT (Candi) [became] embarrassed. 

May Katyayani (Candi) slay your foes! 

Notes. I. The army of Mahi§a, who was lord of the Danavas. 2. 
The word kevahtft literally means * alone,' but the commentary glosses by 
svUmi^Qnyatri, 'without a leader.' 3. There is a pun here which it is 
difficult to bring out in the translation, mahifl meaning both 'consort 
queen ' and ' female buffalo.' It would not be proper to address Can<}i as 


• • • 

' female buffalo/ since she had slain a male buffalo (Mahi$a). On this 
the commentary says : ' How can she, who kills a male buffalo, be spoken 
of by the term ** female buffalo "? A female buffalo is weaker in strength 
than the male, but thou art of a strength which is ten million times supe- 
rior to that of a male buffalo (meaning Mahi§a)/ 4. Can<Ji had per- 
formed so manly an act in slaying Mahi§a that she is no longer regarded by 
her husband Siva as a woman. Nor does Siva exercise the usual privilege 
of a husband — that of summoning his wife to wait on his needs. So the 
conmientary, which reads : ' Summoning a wife who is a woman is proper, 
but thou hast the behavior of a man; therein lies the jest' 5. For the 
explanation of the jest, see note 4. 

V.L. (a) tiryak nUnilstraiastrdvali, 


jata kim te hare bhir bhavati mahisato bhir avaSyam harinam 
adyendor dvau kalankau tyajati patir apam dhairyam alokya 

vayo kampyas tvaya 'nyo naya yama mahisad atmayugyam 

yaya 'rau 
piste nastam jahasa dyujanam iti jaya sa 'stu devi §riye vah 

'Why is fear bom in thee, O <Hari>^? Surely there is fear of 
<Mahisa>, <a buflFalo>, on the part of <horses>*; 

On the Moon today there are two spots*; and (Varuna), Lord of 
Waters, on seeing the Moon [running away], loses his 
courage* ; 

O Vayu (Wind), another should be shaken by thee; [thou thy- 
self shouldst not tremble] •; O Yama, lead thy vehicle away 
from Mahisa/^ 

With these words, after Devi (Candi) had crushed her foe 
(Mahisa), Jaya^ mocked the inhabitants of heaven who had 
run away. 

May that Devi (Candi) bring you prosperity I 

Notes, z. According to the commentary, the epithet Hart may signify 
either Vi§nu or Indra ; this is supported by Sorensen, Index to the Names 
in the MahltbhUrata, s.v. Hari. Indra is called Hari in SUryaiataka, stanzas 
71 and 72, and CantfUataka, stanzas 19 and 59. 2. It is di£Eicult to bring 
out the pun in the translation, the idea being that Hari (Vi$nu or Indra) 
should not be afraid of Mahisa, even if hari (a horse) is usually afraid 


• • • 

of mahifa (a buffalo). For other puns involving the two meanings of 
hari, cf. Surya^ataka, stanza 51, note i. 3. One of these spots is sup- 
posedly the dark blotch that can be plainly seen on the white disk of the 
full moon ; the other is the stigma incurred by his defeat in the battle with 
Mahi^a, a blot, as it were, on the Moon's escutcheon. This is the expla- 
nation of the commentary, which says: 'One [of the two spots] is, to be 
sure, innate; but the second assumes the form of a reproach because of 
his having fled in the battle with Mahi§a.' 4. The commentary points 
out a second rendering for this half of the second pada: 'The Lord of 
Waters, the Ocean, upon beholding the moon, would abandon his stability 
— i.e. would move in the direction of the tide.* 5. The Wind (VSyu) 
usually shakes others and causes them to tremble, as, for example, the 
leaves and boughs of trees. Now he is taking his turn at trembling, 
through his fear of Mahi§a. The commentary says: 'But thou thyself 
art trembling — that is the meaning.' 6. The vehicle of Yama was a buf- 
falo; cf. SHryaiataka, stanza 58, note 5. The commentary says: 'A 
buffalo, seeing another buffalo, gets angry,' and the implication is that 
Yama and his vehicle were so thoroughly frightened that they are iron- 
ically warned to keep away from the dead Mahi$a (buffalo), lest the latter 
should attack the buffalo of the god. 7. Jaya was one of Can<Ji's at- 
tendants ; she is mentioned also in stanzas 19, 32, 33, 38, 69, 86 and 89, and 
appears to be not the same person as Vijaya who is mentioned in stanzas 
12 and 21. In the MahabhOrata, Durga (Can<li) is twice at least addressed 
as Jaya and Vijaya (4.6.16, jayA tvatn vijayH ca, 'thou art Jaya and 
Vijaya*; and 6.23.6, vijaye jaye, *0 Vijaya, O JayS'), and nowhere in 
the Epic does either name appear to be applied to any of Can4i's attendants 
— ^not being so recorded, at any rate, in S6rensen*s Index, nor in the index 
of A. Holtzmann's Das Mah&bhdrata, Kiel, 1895. But in Bana*s PHrva- 
fiparinaya, acts 4 and 5 (ed. M. R. Telang, Bombay, 1892), both Jaya and 
Vijaya appear as separate and distinct persons, attendants of ParvatT 
(Can<}i). In the KatluisaritsHgara, i. 7. 107 (ed. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1839), 
Jaya is represented as wife of Pu^padanta, and portress, or doorkeeper, of 
Parvati (Can<Ji). 


£ulaprotad upantaplutamahi mahisad utpatantya sravantya 
vartmany arajyamane sapadi makhabhujam jatasamdhyapra- 

nrtyan hasena matva vijayamaham aham manayami 'ti vadi 
yam aSlisya pranrttah punar api purabhit parvati patu sa vah 

When the pathway of the gods^ was quickly reddened by the 

stream [of blood] that inundated the earth in the vicinity,* 
As it spouted from Mahisa who had been stabbed by the trident, 


Purabhid' (Siva), under the mistaken impression that [the 

red of] 
Twilight had fallen, b^an to dance*; but when he realized [his 

mistake] , he said, with a smile : 
'I am honoring a festival of victory,' and having embraced 

Parvati (Candi), he began to dance again. 
May that Parvat! (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The 'pathway of the gods' is the sky. a. In the com- 
mentary it is stated that the compound up5ntaplutamahi is an adverb, and 
the translation which I have adopted for it is suggested there. 3. Siva 
acquired the title of Purabhid, 'Destroyer of Cities/ by burning with a 
flaming arrow the three cities built of gold, silver, and iron, in the sky, by 
Maya for the Asuras ; cf. MafUlbhdrata, 13. 161. 25-31. See also Mayura's 
stanza, entitled 'The Burning of the City of Tripura,' translated above, 
p. 2sg. 4. The commentary says : 'And furthermore, after taking thought, 
he realizes [the truth] : " The sky is really reddened by a stream of blood 
spouting from Mahi$a who has been stabbed by the trident of my wife; 
it is not the twilight-time."' Siva's fondness for the twilight-dance has 
been referred to in SUryaiataka, stanza 55, note 10. 

V.L. (a) The Kav3ramala text reads upHttaplutamahi ; following the com- 
mentary, I have emended to updntaplutamahi. 


nakaukonayakadyair dyuvasatibhir asifyamadhama dharitrim 
rundhan vardhisnuvindhyacalacakitamanovrttibhir viksito yah 
padotpistah sa yasya mahisasuraripur nupurantavalambl 
lebhe lolendranllopalaSakalatulam stad uma sa §riye vah 

[Mahisa], who possessed the dark-blue sheen of a sword^ seemed 

to the gods, at whose head was Indra,^ 
To cover the earth, and their minds were agitated at [what they 

supposed was] the Vindhya Mountain beginning to g^ow.* 
But he, this buflFalo [-shaped] Foe of the Gods, after being crushed 

by the foot of Uma (Candi), took on the appearance 
Of a dangling piece of sapphire-stone,' as he clung to the edge of 

her anklet. 
May that Uma* (Candi) bring you prosperity! 

Notes. I. Lit. ' was viewed by the inhabitants of heaven, beginning with 
the Lor d-of -those- whose-dwelling-is-the-sky.' 2. The gods mistook the 


great dark-blue bulk of Mahi§a for a mountain, an addition to the Vindhya 
range, and they were alarmed, fearing a repetition of an unpleasant expe- 
rience which they had had with the Vindhya on a previous occasion. 
' According to a legend related in MahdbhUrata, 3. 8782 seq. [i.e. 3. 104. 
1-15], the personified Vindhsra, jealous of Himalaya, demanded that the 
sun should revolve round him in the same way as about Meru, which the 
sun declining to do, the Vindhya then began to elevate himself, that he 
might bar the progress of both sun and moon ; the gods, alarmed, asked 
the aid of the saint Agast3ra, who approached the Vindhya and requested 
that by bending down he would afford him an easy passage to the South 
country, begging at the same time that he would retain a low position 
till his return; this he promised to do, but Agastsra never returned, and 
the Vindhya range consequently never attained the elevation of the Hima- 
laya'; cf. Monier- Williams, Skt-EngL Diet, s.v. Vindhya, 3. The com- 
parison of Mahi$a with the sapphire, as with the blade of a sword, or a 
distant mountain-range, was due to the bluish color of his skin. 4. In 
Harivatftla, 1, 18. 13-22, it is related that when P^lrvat! (Can<}i) began a 
rigorous course of austerities, her mother, Mena, seeking to dissuade her, 
said : u ma, * Oh don't i ' Hence her epithet of Uma, which is first applied 
to her in the Kefta Upanifad (3. 11. 12) ; cf. J. Muir, Original Sanskrit 
Texts, 4.420-421, 2d ed., revised, London, 1873. The same accotmt is 
given by Kalidasa in the KumSrasambhava, i. 26. 


durvarasya dyudhamnam mahisitavapuso vidvisah patu 3018- 

parvatya pretapalasvapurusaparusah presito 'sau prsatkah 
yah krtva laksyabhedam hrtabhuvanabhayo gam vibhidya pra- 


• • • 

patalam paksapafipavaxiakiiapatattarksyaSankakulahih 

An arrow, sharp as the very messengers* of (Yama), Keeper of 

the Dead, was sped by Parvati (Candi) 
At the irresistible (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods,* who had changed 

his body into that of a buffalo; 
And this [arrow], by hitting its mark,' removed the anxiety of the 

world, and piercing the earth, entered Patala,* 
Where it agitated the serpents with the fear that Tarksya* 

(Garuda) was descending — a fear caused by the wind of 

its fringe of feathers. 
May that arrow [of Parvati (Candi)] protect you! 


Notes. I. Sharp as Death, the messenger of Yama. The commentary 
glosses svapurufdh, * his own men/ by svaklyadutah, * his own messengers/ 
2. The genitive vidzH^ah, * Foe,' appears to be an objective genitive depend- 
ing on prepto, 'was sped/ 3. Lit 'having made a cleaving of the mark ' ; 
the ' mark ' was Mahi$a. 4. The words gdifi , . . patHlaffi occur again in 
stanza 39, in the same order as here, and in the same position in the pddas, 
5. Tark§ya was Garu<}a, the inveterate foe of all serpents ; cf . Suryaiataka, 
stanza 47, note 3. The commentary says: 'Formerly the snakes were 
frightened by Garuda's entering Patala, because of the wind [stirred up] 
by his wings; even so by the [winged] arrow of Parvati (Ca^cji).' 


vajram vinyasya hare harikaragalitam kanthasutre ca cakram 
kelian baddhva 'bdhipafiair dhrtadlianadagada prak pralinan 

devan utsaranotka kila mahisahatau mHato hrepayanti 
hrimatya haimavatya vimativihataye tarjita staj jaya vah 

Jaya,* by placing in her garland of pearls the thunderbolt* <that 
had fallen from the hand of Indra>,* and on her necklace 
the discus <that had fallen from the hand of Visnu>, 

By binding up her hair with the nooses of (Varuna), the Ocean, 
and by carrying the mace of (Kubera), Giver of Wealth, 
mocked the gods who had formerly fled, 

And with pretended* desire to drive them away, put them to 
shame as they reassembled 

On [the occasion of] the death of Mahisa. But she was re- 
buked by the modest Haimavati* (Candi). 

May that Jaya remove your errors of judgment ! 

Notes. I. Jaya was one of Candl's attendants; cf. stanza 15, note 7. 
a. The gods had abandoned their weapons in their flight from Mahi$a; 
Ja3ra, who had picked up these weapons, now flaunts them in the faces of 
their quondam owners. 3. Hari is an epithet both of Vi^nu and of 
Indra; cf. stanza 15, note i. 4. The particle kila seems to have an 
ironical force here. 5. A patron3rmic from Himavat, ' Snow-possessing,' 
an epithet of Himalajra, who was Candi's father. 


khadge pamyam ahladayati hi mahisam paksapati prsatkah 
SuleneiSo yaiSobhag bhavati parilaghuh syad vadharhe 'pi 


• • • 

hitva hetir iti Va l)hihatibahalitapraktanapataliinn& 

par; njraiva prositasum suraripum avatat kurvati pirvati vah 

*On the sword there is that which may be drunk; but it would 
indeed refresh Mahisa^; 

The <flying> arrow <sides with>* [him] ; [if killed] by thetrident^ 
he would become Ka* (Siva), and entitled to fame; 

And in the case of one who is deserving of death, a staff [as in- 
strument of punishment] would be too light/ 

With this thought, as it were, Parvati (Candi) laid aside her 
weapons, and simply with her heel, whose previous redness* 
was increased by striking him, made (Mahisa), Foe of the 
Gods, reft of life. 

May Parvati (CandT) protect you! 

Notes. I. There is blood on the sword» and Mahi$a would be refreshed 
by any kind of drink. a. The arrow is pakfapM, ' flsring/ but in order 
to bring the translation into harmony with the sentiment, the meaning 
' siding with/ ' partial to/ must be used. 3. Mahi$a, if the trident were 
sticking in his body, would be a 'trident-bearer' ; but Min, 'Tjident-bcarer/ 
is one of Siva's epithets; Mahi$a would thus become Siva (liia). See the 
illustration in Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 6, p. 22, where Siva is pictured 
holding a trident 4. The commentary says : ' In the case of DevTs f ooty 
its natural reddishness was increased by the slaying of Mahi$a.' 


krtvedrk karma lajjajananam anafiane £akra ma 'sun vihasir 
vittefia sthanukanthe jahi gadam agadasya 'yam evopayogah 
}Bta& cakrin vicakro ditija iti surams tyaktahetin bruvantya 
vridam vyapaditarir jayati vijayaya niyamana bhavani 

*0 Sakra (Indra), <who didst abandon thy thunderbolt>/ even 
though thou hast committed such a shame-causing deed, do 
not, <in fasting>, abandon thy life; 

O (Kubera), Lord of Wealth, dispel the disease on the neck* of 
Sthanu (Siva), for that is surely the [proper] employment 
of <medicine>,* and of <one who is bereft of his mace> ; 

O (Visnu), Bearer of the Discus, (Mahisa), OflFspring of Diti, is 
<deprived of his army>,* but thou art <deprived of thy 


• • • • 

By Vijaya,' uttering these words to the gods who had abandoned 
their weapons, Bhavani (Candi), who destroyed her foe 
(Mahisa), was put to the blush.^ 

Glory to Bhavani (Candi) ! 

[In this stanza the usual benediction is omitted,]'' 

Notes. I. The pun depends on anaiane (loc.)» 'in fasting/ and anaiane 
(voc), 'O thou deprived of the thunderbolt/ The meaning is that Indra 
should not starve himself to death in chagrin, merely because he abandoned 
his weapon and ran away in the battle with Mahi^a. The commentary 
says: 'For he who commits a shame-causing deed abandons life by fast- 
ing.' a. Siva drank the poisonous fluid kalakafo that was produced at 
the churning of the ocean, and its virulence was such as to stain his neck 
dark-blue; hence one of his epithets is nilakantha, 'whose neck is dark- 
blue ' ; cf . MahdbhUrata, 1. 18. 41-43 and SQryaiataka, stanza 42, note 12. 
3. The pun rests on agada, meaning ' medicine ' and ' deprived of the mace/ 
Kubera lost his weapon, the mace (gadit), in the battle with Mahi$a. 4. 
The pun rests on vicakra, 'without an army' and 'without the discus/ 5. 
Vijaya was one of Can<}rs attendants; cf. stanza 12, note i, and stanza 15, 
note 7. 6. Can4i is ashamed because her handmaid thus presumes to 
taunt the gods. 7. For the omission of the benediction, cf. stanza 3, 
note 5. 

V.L. (b) artheia sthattukanfhe. (d) lajjatfi vyapoditarir, 


deyad vo vaiichitani cchalamajramahisotpesarosanuf angan 
nitah patalakuksim hrtabhuvanabhayo bhadrakalyah sa padah 
3rah pradaksinyakahksavalayitavapusa vandyamano muhurtam 

Because of its connection with anger,^ in crushing Mahisa, who 
was full of deceit, 

The foot of Bhadrakali (Candi), which had taken away the fear 
of the world, was brought to the depths of Patala, 

Where, resplendent with the circle of its mighty anklet that was 
made of moon-stone* jewels, 

It seemed to be for an instant adored by Sesa, whose body en- 
twined it out of a desire to circumambulate* it properly.* 

May that foot of Bhadrakali (Candi) grant your desires ! 

Notes. I. The commentary seems to imply that the foot of Can<}i was 


• • • 

brought to Patala as a punishment for the loss of merit engendered by 
yielding to anger, but it may be that the idea involved is simply that, in 
killing Mahi$a, the foot struck so hard a blow in its anger, that it crashed 
through the earth's surface, and momentarily entered the lower world. 
Se$a, the serpent king of Patala, mistaking the circular anklet on this foot 
for a serpent, and being desirous of treating his visitor with proper hos- 
pitality, circumambulated the anklet — and so the foot of Candi at the same 
time — by entwining his body about it Thus the mighty Se§a became but 
the foot-ornament of the goddess. On §e$a, see SUryaJataka, stanza 35, 
note 8, and stanza 75, note 5. 2. On the moon-stones, see SUryaiataka, 
stanza 37, note 5. 3. Respectful circumambulation required that the 
object honored should be kept to the right of the circumambulator. 4. 
The fanciful picture portrayed in this stanza is an instance of utprekfd, 
' Poetic Fancy.' 

V.L. (a) -dofUnufangdn, (b) kftaparamabhayo bhadrakdlySfi, 


fiulam tulam nu gadham prahara hara hrslkeiia keiSo 'pi vakrafi 
cakrena Icari kim me pavir avati na hi tvastraiiatro d3rura8tram 
pafiah kefia l)janalany anala na labhase bhatum ity attadarpam 
jalpan devan divaukoripur avadhi 3raya sa 'stu liantyai iSiva vah 

*0 Hara (Siva), is thy trident nothing but cotton? [therefore] 

strike hard^ ; <0 (Visnu), Lord of the Senses>,^ < whose hair 

is thy joy>, 
Is my hair also made twisted by thy discus*? O (Indra), Foe 

of Tvastar's Son,* thy thunderbolt does not indeed protect 

thy quarter of the sky ; 
O (Varuna), Lord of Waters, thy nooses' are but lotus-stalks*; 

O Anala (Agni), thou canst not [longer] shine/ ^ As with 

these words 
(Mahisa), the Foe of the Gods, was proudly® addressing the 

gods, he was put to death by Siva (Candi). 
May that Siva (Candi) bring you prosperity ! 

Notes. I. Siva's trident made no more impression on Mahi$a than 
would a flock of cotton. a. The compound hfflke£a may be resolved 
into hfflka-Ua, 'Lord of the Senses/ and hr^l-keia, 'whose hair is his 
joy/ In the latter sense, it probably contains an allusion to the h%vatsa, 
a curl of hair, the result of Siva's spear-thrust in Vi$nu's breast, and worn 
by the latter as a treasured possession over the wounded spot; cf. 


MoMbhOraia, 12. 342. 132-133. In MahabhOrata, i. 64. 53, hfvatsdnko Af jf- 
ke£ah 18 read, with these two words in juxtaposition, among a series of 
epithets applied to Vi$i^u ; so also in MaMbhUrata, 13. 147. 3. But in 
MahabhOrata, 12.342.66-67, the etymology of hf^keia is explained as 
'whose hair is [Agni and Soma], the two joys,' hf^ being taken as dual 
3. The taunt is intended to shame Vi$nu, who abandoned his weapon, the 
discus, in his flight from the battle. 4. In Rig Veda, 10.8.8-9, ^t is 
recorded that ViSvarupa, the three-headed son of Tva^tar, was slain by 
Indra and Trita; but in the BhUgavata PurOfta, 6. 9. 11-18, the son of 
Tva$tar is identified with Vftra, Indra's celebrated adversary; cf. stanza 
60, note 3. 5. The noose was Varuna's weapon and attribute ; cf . SUryO' 
iataka, stanza 59, note 3. 6. That is, they have no more strength than 
the stalks of a lotus. 7. The commentary notes : ' Thou art slain [out- 
shone?] by the splendor of me.' 8. On the analogy of Magarva and 
attagandha, 'humiliated' (cf. Bohtlingk and Roth, PWB, and Monier- 
Williams, Skt.-Engl. Diet, s.v.— cf. also Uttamanaska, Sttavacas, etc.), one 
might render attadarpaffi, which the commentary says is to be taken 
adverbially, as 'shorn of pride'; but it is probably used here to mean 
'with an asswnption of pride.' In stanza 57, where attadarpatfi refers 
to Mahi$a, the meaning ' with an assumption of pride ' best flts the sense, 
and in stanza 29, attafUlsA must mean ' assuming mockery,' ' mocking ' ; cf . 
pwb, s.v. attavidya, 'having gained knowledge,' and attatnbhava, 'having 
attained wealth.' 

V.L. (d) yaya pHrvatt patu sd vah. 


iarhgin banam vimuiica Uiramasi balir asau 8am3ratah kena 

gotrare hanmy aham te ripum amararipus tv ecfa gotrasya 

daitya vyapajdyatam drag aja iva mahiso hanyate manmahe 

utprasyoma purastad anu danujatanum mrdnati trayatam vah 

*0 Bowman (Visnu), let fly thine arrow; thou art mistaken [in 
supposing^ that] this (Mahisa) is Bali; why is thy arrow 
held back*? 

O (Indra), Foe of the Gotras^ (Mountains), I am slaying thy 
foe; [for] this (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, is also a Foe of 
the Gotra (Family) ; 

O ye Daityas, today at my festival a buflFalo (Mahisa) is sacri- 
ficed like a he-goat* ; let him be quickly despatched.' 


Having in these words first derided [the gods], Uma (Candi) 

then crushed the body of the Danava* (Mahisa). 
May Uma (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The commentary supplies f^f. 2. This puda may also be 
read as follows : ' O Vi§nu, let Bana go ; thou art mistaken [in supposing 
that] this [thy captive] is Bali; why is Bana held in captivity?' The 
demon Bana, who was Bali's son (cf. Mahabhdrata, 1.65.20), was, like his 
j father, an enemy of Vi§nu. The struggle in which Bana was worsted by 

Kr$na ( Vi§nu) is described in the Vi^nu Purana, 5. 32-33 (Wilson, vol. 5, 
p. 107-120) . The commentary says : * Thou art the cause of the confining 
of Bali, therefore the setting free of Bana is [a] suitable [act] for thee/ 
For Bali, and his relations with Vi$nu, see Silryaiataka, stanza 7, note 4. 
3. Indra is called GotrUri, 'Foe of the Mountains,' because, as is told in 
familiar legends, he cut off their wings and cleft the hills with his thunder- 
bolt (cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 5, note 7, and stanza 40, note 7), but in the 
epithet gotrasya iatruh, as applied to Mahi$a, gotra must be taken to mean 
' family,' the explanation, as given by the commentary, being as follows : 
' This foe of the gods, Mahi§a, is a foe of the gotra, that is, of his own 
family, since both gods and demons are descendants of Kasyapa; there- 
fore he also is a gotrUri, and I therefore, thinking it not suitable that there 
should be two gotrHris, am putting to death this one, thy foe.' 4. The 
commentary says: *At the festival of Devi (Can4i), a he-goat is slain.' 
To-day, at the Durga festival, held in Bengal and other parts of India, buf- 
faloes, as well as goats, are sacrificed as victims ; cf . Introd., p. 257. Blood 
sacrifices to Cancji are authorized by the Kalika Purdna; cf. the Rudhi- 
radhyHya, * Blood-chapter,' of that Purdna, translated by W. C. Blaquiere 
in Asiatic Researches, vol. 5, p. 371-391, London, 1799. 5. The Danavas 
were sprung from Danu, wife of Kasyapa and daughter of Dak§a. 

V.L. (b) ripum asuraripuh, 


spardhavardhitavindhyadurbharabharavyastad vihayastalatn 
hastad utpatita prasadayatu vah krtyani katyayani 
yam Sulam iva devadarughatitam skandhena mohandhadhir 
vadhyoddeSam aiSesabandhavakuladhvamsaya kamso 'najmt 

From^ [Kamsa's] hand, crushed* by her weight that was as hard 

to support' as the Vindhya, 
Which expanded* itself in emulation [of Himalaya], up to the 

sky rose Katyayani (Candi), 
Whom Kamsa, with mind blinded by error, had carried on his 

shoulder, like a spear** made of devadQru^ wood, 


To the place of execution, in accord with his [purpose of] de- 
stroying the entire family of his relative.^ 
May Katyayani (Candi) make successful your acts®! 

Notes. I. The events narrated in this stanza are doubtless to be referred 
to the following story given in the HarivaffiJa, 2. 1-4 (ed. Narayanatmaja 
Vinayakaraya, Bombay, 1891 ; cf. Engl, transl. by M. N. Dutt, p. 244-259, 
Calcutta, 1897) » in the Vi^nu Purana, 5-1-3 (Wilson, vol. 4, P- 245-271), 
and referred to in MahGhharata, 4. 6. 1-3 : Kanisa was king of Mathura, 
and the sage Narada had foretold that the eighth child of Kaipsa's aunt 
(or, cousin) Devaki should kill Kainsa. By divine appointment, this 
eighth child was to be an incarnation of Vi$nu (Kr$na). Kamsa, having 
heard the prophecy, had the children of Devaki put to death as soon as 
they were bom, and in this way the first seven were disposed of. But 
Vi§nu, who was destined to be the eighth, arranged for his own preserva- 
tion in the following manner. He ordained that Nidra (whom the context 
shows to be identical with Durga or Candi) should be born of Yasoda, 
wife of Kamsa's herdsman, the same night on which he himself was to 
be bom of Devaki. Vasudeva, the husband of Devaki, managed, under 
cover of the darkness, to exchange the two babes, taking Kr$na to Yasoda, 
and bringing back the girl child Candi to the bed of his wife Devaki. 
Karnsa was informed by Vasudeva, who was under obligation by promise 
to announce the birth of every child of Devaki, that a girl child had been 
born, and that he was earnestly begged by the parents of the infant to 
spare its life. This, however, Kaipsa refused to do, and seizing the babe 
by its foot, he dashed out its brains against a stone. Then, instantly, the 
goddess rose from the ground, full-grown and in full panoply, and after 
telling Kamsa that his crime in killing her should be expiated by his own 
death, she mounted up to the sky. Stanzas 45 and 54 of the CandUataka 
contain further reference to this same anecdote, as does also Mayura's 
stanza entitled 'The Dream of Kr$na,' translated above, p. 241. a. Lit 
t/yasta means * scattered ' ; it is glossed by vikala, * maimed ' ; I have ren- 
dered by 'crushed.' 3. The idea perhaps is that Cancji, though but an 
infant, was nevertheless a goddess, and therefore of weight sufficient to 
crush a mortal hand ; or perhaps the hand was symbolically crushed, looking 
forward to the time when Kamsa would be wholly crushed by the weight 
of her anger, in accord with her prophecy tha't he should atone for her 
murder with his own death (see note i). 4. For the story of the growth 
of the Vindhya, see stanza 17, note 2. 5. He carried the infant as easily 
as one would carry a spear. 6. The Pinus Devaddru or Deodar (also 
Avaria Longifolia and Erythrosylon Sideroxyloides) ; so Monier- Williams, 
Skt.'Engl. Diet. s.v. devaddru. 7. Devaki, whose children iCaipsa had 
been killing, was his father's sister (or, his cousin), and so his relative. 
8. It is noteworthy that this stanza contains no mention of Mahi$a, and 
the same is true of stanzas 45, 49, 54 and 71. The meter of this stanza is 



turnaxn tosat turasatprabhrtisu faxnite fiatrave stotrakrtsu 
klantevopetya patyus tatabhujayugalasya 'lam alambanajra 
dehirdhe gehabuddhim prativihitavati laj jaya "liya kali 
krcchram vo 'nicchayaiva "patitaghanatara&lefasaukhya vi- 

While those who are led by Indra,* quickly, and because of joy 
over their fallen enemy (Mahisa), compose hymns of praise 
[in honor of Candi], 

That goddess flies for refuge, as one who is weary, to her hus- 
band, who has a pair of arms outstretched for her secure 

And, seeking to conceal any knowledge of [the whereabouts of] 
her home^ in one half of his body,^ she dings to him in her 

Thus, without design, she verily enjoys the felicity of a more than 
close embrace.' 

May KbIi (Candi) ward off trouble from you! 

Notes. I. The compound turQfdf, 'he who overcomes the mighty/ is 
here, according to the commentary, an epithet of Indra. a. Lit. ' for 
her excessive support/ 3. Lit 'guarding against knowledge of her 
home/ 4. A reference to Siva's manifestation as the Ardhanditia, half 
man and half woman; cf. stanzas 28, 80 and 91, and SUryaiataka, stanza 
88, note 4. 5. Lit 'to whom indeed has fallen, without design, the 
felicity of a rather close embrace'; this is the result, of course, of her 
living in one half of Siva's body. 

V.L. (a) tUrnaffi rofdt, 


astam mugdhe 'rdhacandrah ksipa surasaritam ya sapatni 

krida dvabhyam vimunca 'param alam amunaikena me paSa- 

Sulam prag eva lagnam Sirasi yad abala yudhyase 'vyad vidag- 

sotprasalapapatair iti danujam uma nirdahanti dria vah 


' O* lovely lady (Candi), leave the <arrow>* and <crescent> alone, 

but throw [at me] the (Ganges), River of the Gods,' who is 

thy co-wife ; 
The game [is played] with two <dice> or <nooses> ; throw another 

one ; have done with that one <die> or <noose> for me ; 
[As for your <trident>], a <pang>* has just come into my head, 

since thou, ca woman>, cwithout an army>,* lightest with 

<aever>« [though Mahisa was] with these shafts of derisive^ 

speech, Uma (Candi) with her eye burnt up that Danava, 

[who was accordingly] <consumed>. 
May Uma (Candi) protect you! 


Notes. I. Each of the first three podas contains, punningly, a reference 
to some one of Cancji's weapons — the arrow, noose and trident — and this 
underlying notion of the weapons, together with Mahi$a's scorn of them, 
is the only thing that gives coherence to the stanza. a. A certain type 
of arrow is called ardhacandra, 'half -moon,' presumably because its barb 
is shaped like the cusp of the crescent moon. 3. iSiva wore both the 
crescent moon and the Ganges on his head; cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 42, 
note 10, and Can4^ataka, stanza 3, note 2. Mahisa implies that there is 
jealousy between Ganga and Canjii inasmuch as they are rival wives of 
Siva. See Mayura's stanza, entitled 'The Anger of UmH' (p. 240, above), 
where Um^'s (Can^rs) jealousy of Ganga is again alluded to. 4. Ac- 
cording to the commentary. Ma means 'a weapon and a disease.' 5. 
The commentary reads : ' Since thou, a woman, tightest with me, this is a 
ifi/a having the form of a disgrace; or, since I have an army (sabalah 
sasOinyah), and thou art alone, without an army, this is indeed a iula 
having the form of a disgrace clinging to my head.' As applied to the 
weapons, ^Ula means 'trident,' and we may translate: 'A trident entered 
my head, when you fought [historical present] with me.' This poda offers 
difficulties at best 6. The cleverness refers to Mahi^a's ability to pun. 
7. The scorn was for Can<}i's weapons. 


vaktranam viklavah kim vahasi bata rucam skanda sannam 

. . . • . • . . • 

anyah san mataras te bhava bhava sakalas tvam fiariranlha- 

jihmam hanmy adya kalim iti samam asubhih kanthato nirgata 

gir f 


girvanarer yayecchamrdupadamrditasya 'drija sa 'vatad vah 

* O Skanda (Klarttikeya), why, alas, dost thou, so distressed, wear 

a despondent expression^ on thy six faces? Thou hast six 

other mothers.^ 
O Bhava (Siva), become thou whole by taking possession of the 

[other] half of thy body,* for today I shall slay the false 

Kali* (Candi)/ 
These words went out from the throat of (Mahisa), Foe of the 

Gods, together with the [breath of his] life. 
As he was crushed at her pleasure by the tender foot of (Candi), 

the Daughter of the Mountain.' 
May (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, protect you! 

Notes. I. I have rendered rucatfi by 'expression/ although its literal 
meaning is Muster/ a. Skanda is Karttikeya, usually called the son of 
Agni and Svaha, but sometimes of ^iva and Parvati (Can<}i) ; of. the 
account given above, in stanza 5, note i. He really had no mother, as 
the story related in MahSbhdrata, 3. 225, and RUm&yana, i. 37, points out, 
but he was fostered by the six Krttikas (the Pleiades), who from this cir- 
cumstance are called his six mothers; cf. MahObhQrata, 3.226.22-25, and 
RdmHyana, i. 37. 24-29. He was bom with six faces ; cf. Mahabharata, 3. 225. 
17, and RSmdyana, i. 37. 29. Mahi$a is here seeking to console Skanda for the 
death of Can<}T, which he (Mahi$a) claims to be on the point of bringing 
to pass. 3. Can<}i occupied one half of diva's body; cf. stanza 26, note 
4. 4. The commentary attributes the following thought to Mahisa : ' She 
is dishonest and black (kali), but you are honest and white; hence the 
union of you two is not fitting; therefore I am slaying her.' 5. Can<}i, 
or Parvati, was the daughter of Himalasra. 

V.L. (d) glrvanHrer yadrcchatnrdu', 


gahasva vyomamargam gatamahisabhayair bradhna viirab- 

dham a£vaih 
firngabhyam viivakarman ghatayasi na navam Sarhginah 

iarhgam anyat 
aibhi tvah nisthureyam bibhrhi mrdum imam ISvarety attahasa 
gauri vo 'vyat ksatarih svacaranagarimagrastagirvanagarva 


*0 Bradhna (Surya), roam confidently over the pathway of the 

sky^ with thy horses that need now have no fear of Mahisa ; 
O Visvakarman,* art thou not fashioning another new bow for the 

Bowman (Visnu) from the two horns' [of Mahisa] ? 
O Isvara (Siva), that elephant's skin [thou art wearing] is rough; 

take this soft [skin of Mahisa].' Thus in derision* 
Spake Gauri (Candi), who slew her foe (Mahisa) and humbled 

the pride* of the gods by the weight of her foot. 
May Gauri (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Lit 'plunge confidently into the pathway of the sky.' a. 
Visvakarman was the artificer of the gods, and in the Epic and Puranic 
periods is invested with the functions of the Vedic Tva§tar; cf. Dowson, 
Hindu Mythology, p. 363-364. He corresponds to the Vulcan of the Ro- 
mans, and to the Hephaestus of the Greeks. 3. The implication is that 
Vi$nu needs a new bow, since he lost his old one in the battle with Mahisa, 
But if we render as ' thou art not fashioning, etc.,' the idea would be that 
there is no need to fashion a new bow for Vi$nu, since CanjI, by killing 
Mahisa, had recovered his old one which Mahi$a had won from him in 
the battle. 4. On UttahasH, and its meaning, see stanza 23, note 8. 5. 
Lit * devoured the pride.' 


ksipto banah krtas te trikavinatitato nirvalir madhj^deSah 
prahrado nupurasya ksataripu&irasah padapatair diio 'gat 
sangrame samnatangi vyathayasi mahisam naikam anyan api 


ye yudhyante 'tra naivety avatu patiparihasahrsta fiiva vah 

' <The arrow was sped>, and cthy abdomen>, cstretched taut by 

the twisting of thy shoulders*, ccbecame free from 

While <Bana was laid low>, and cthe Middle R^ion>,* cbeing 

stretched in obeisance to the three sacred syllables*," ccbe- 

came freed from Bali» ; 
Because of the stampings of thy foot on the head of thy slain foe 

(Mahisa), the <noise> of thy anklet, and also <Prahrada>, 

went to the skies ; 
O (Candi) of the contracted limbs, [thus] in the battle thou 


didst discomfit not Mahisa alone, but also others^ who did 

not fight there at all/ 
With these witty speeches of her husband (Siva), Siva (Candi) 

was delighted. 
May Siva (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Owing to the muscular effort put forth in drawing a bow, the 
shoulders are thrown back, and the trivali, or triple wrinkle over the abdo- 
men—considered a mark of beauty in women — is momentarily smoothed 
out This seems to be the explanation of the commentary, which reads: 
'For at the moment of despatching an arrow, the abdomen, owing to the 
upright position (Qrdhvottambhana) of the body, becomes free from 
wrinkles.' a. The Middle Region (Madhyadela) comprised the north 
central part of India. 3. The three sacred syllables (t/yUhfti) are the 
names of the first three of the seven worlds — bhttr, bhuvas and svar — and 
are pronounced after om by every Brahman on commencing his daily 
prayers; cf. Monier- Williams, Skt.-Engi Diet. s.v. vyQhfti. 4. The 
' others ' were the demons Bana, Bali and Prahrada, who are referred to, 
punningly, in the words 'noise' (^ra^rflrfa), 'arrow' (bana), ssid 'wrinkle' 
(bali or vali). According to the commentary, the wit or jest lies in the 
conception that CanjI discomfited three people who were really not present 
in the battle at all. Prahrada was Mahi$a's uncle ; Bali was grandson of 
Prahrada, and father of Bana ; cf . BhOgavata Purdna, 6. 18. 10-19, where 
the genealogy of the Daityas is recorded. 

V.L. (c) sangrOme satfitatd vo. (d) ye vidyante 'tra ; patiparihdsatufta 


merau me raudrafirngaksatavapusi ruso naiva nita nadlnam 
bhartaro riktatam yat tad api hitam abhun nihsapatno 'tra ko 

etan no mrsyate yan mahisa kalusita svardhuni murdhni 


iSambhor bhindyad dhasanti patim iti &unitaratir Itir uma vah 

' When Meru* had its body wounded by thy cruel horns,* I felt no 

anger'; and when the (Oceans), the Lords of Rivers, 
Were brought to a state of emptiness,* that too was agreeable, 

[for] then a certain person'* came to be without a rival ; 
But this, O Mahisa, is not forgiven — ^that the revered (Ganges), 

River of Heaven, on the head of Sambhu (Siva) should be 



With these words Uma (Candi), who slew her foe (Mahisa), 

mocked* her husband (Siva). 
May Uma (Candi) destroy your distresses! 

Notes. I. Mem, the Dawn Mountain (cf. Sdryaiataka, stanza i, note 
4), was Canal's grandfather, the father of Canal's mother Mena; cf. 
Rimayana, 1.35. 16-17. a. The MarkatjKfeya Purana, S3. 24-26 (Pargiter, 
p. 480), in describing the battle between Mahi§a and Canji* says : ' And he 
[Mahi§a], great in valour, pounding the surface of the earth with his 
hooves in his rage, tossed the mountains aloft with his horns, and bel- 
lowed ; . . . and the sea, lashed by his tail, overflowed in every direction ; 
. . . mountains fell in hundreds from the sky, being cast down by the 
blast of his breath.' 3. Lit *no angers at all' 4. The 'certain per- 
son' was §iva. On this the commentary says: 'Ocean and Mahadeva 
(§iva) were [both] husbands of Ganga (Ganges), but on Ocean's being 
made empty, Mahadeva's (Siva's) husbandship of Ganga came to be without 
a rival.' 5. The commentary says: 'She became impure by touching 
another man.' On Siva's relation to Ganges, cf. stanza 3, note 2. 6. 
She ironically pretends to be solicitous only for her rival Ganga. 

V.L. (a) The Kavyam&la text reads nadlnO; following the commentary, 
I have emended to nadlndtn. 


sadyah sadhitasadhyam uddhrtavati iulam fiiva patu vah 
padaprantavisakta eva mahisakare suradvesini 
distya deva vrsadhvajo yadi bhavan e^ 'pi nah svamini 
samjata mahisadhvajeti jayaya kelau krte 'rdhasmita 

Just when §iva (Candi) had pulled out [from Mahisa's body] 

the trident^ that had effected its object, 
And while the tip of her foot was resting on (Mahisa), Foe of 

the Gods, who was in the form of a buffalo,* 
She half smiled when a jest was made by Jaya,' who said : * Is it 

not auspicious, O God (Siva), that whereas 
Your Excellency's emblem is a bull, (Candi), this mistress of 

ours, has also acquired an emblem, namely, a buffalo 

(mahisa) ? '* 
May Siva (Candi) protect you'! 

Notes. I. Mahisa had had a taste of all of Can<)i's weapons before he 
received the final coup de grace from her foot a. Lit 'while the foe 


^ • • • 

of the gods, in the form of a buffalo, was adhering to the edge of her 
foot.' The picture presented in the first two pOkdas is that of Can(}i bra- 
cing her foot against Mahi$a's body in order to pull out the trident While 
in this position, she appears to be standing upon or mounted on him, thus 
giving rise to Jaya's little jest which compares her to ^iva, since the latter 
is often represented as mounted on his bull 3. Jaya was Canal's hand- 
maid, as already explained in stanza 15, note 7. 4. The commentary 
says : * Proper is the union of you two, for you both have cattle as your 
emblems ; this, however, is the laughable thing — that you are mounted on a 
bull, but she on a buffalo/ 5. The meter of this stanza is iOrdHiXQVxkrliita, 

V.L. (b) protaprHntavi^akta, 


vidranendrani kim tvam dravinadadayite paSya samkhyam 

svahe svastha svabhartary amrtabhuji mudha rohini roditi 'va 
laksmi invatsalaksmorasi vasasi purely artam asvasayantyam 
svargastrainam jayayam jayati hataripor hrepitam haimavat- 


*0 Indrani,^ why art thou perplexed? O wife of (Kubera), 

Giver of Wealth, behold the [successful] conflict of thy 

friend (Candi) ; 
O Svaha,* compose thyself, for thy husband (Agni) [will soon 

be] enjoying the residue of sacrifices* ; Rohini* is weeping, 

as it were, without cause ; 
O Laksmi, thou wilt' soon [again] be reposing on the breast of 

(Visnu), whose emblem is the Mvatsa/^ As Jaya^ in these 

Was consoling the unhappy® women of heaven, a modest f eding* 

[arose in] Haimavati (Candi), who slew her foe (Mahisa).^® 
Glorious is the modesty of Haimavati (Candi) ! 

[In this stanza the usual benediction is omitted.y^ 

Notes. I. The wife of Indra. a. The wife of Agni. 3. Usually, 
amrtabhuj means * nectar-en j oyer,' *god,' but I have rendered as 'enjoy- 
ing the residue of sacrifice ' — ^a meaning allowed by the lexicons — because 
the commentary says : ' Now, since Mahi$a is slain, he (Agni) will be 
worshiped with joy by Brahmans/ 4. The wife of the Moon. 5« 
The particle purd, when used with a present tense, sometimes gives to that 


tense the force of a future; cf. Monier- Williams, Skt-Engl. Diet, s.v. 
6. Vi§nu wore on his breast the curl of hair known as the Jrivatsa, which 
was produced by a thrust of Siva's lance; cf. stanza 23, note 2. On 
Lak§mi, and her relation to Vi$nu, see SUryaiataka, stanza 2, note 2, and 
stanza 42, notes 3 and 6. 7. On Jaya, see stanza 15, note 7. 8. The 
wives of the gods were unhappy because they believed that their husbands 
had perished in the battle with Mahi$a. 9. I have taken hrepitatfi to be 
a participial noun, meaning 'modest feeling' (cf. stanza 38), although it 
is not so recognized in the lexicons. 10. Candl was overcome with emo- 
tion at the thought that she had saved the husbands of all these women. 
The commentary says: *Devi (Candl), on hearing all this consolation of 
the women of heaven, blushed (or, was ashamed).' Owing to her excessive 
modesty, she desired no praise for her acts. iz. For similar omission 
of the benediction, cf. stanza 3, note 5. 

V.L. (b) svabhartary amrtasfji, (d) The Kavyamala text reads hQima' 
vatyH; I have emended to haimavatyHlif which is the reading of the com- 
mentary and of a similar passage in stanza 38. 


nirvanah kim tvam eko rana&irasi iikhin fiarngadhanva 'pi 

tat te dhaiiTam kva yatam jahihi jalapate dinatam tvam 

§akto no §atrubhange bhayapiSiina siinaslra naslradhulir 
dhig yasi kveti jalpan ripur avadhi yaya parvati patu sa vah 

*0 Sikhin (Agni), art thou alone <worsted>* in the forefront of 

the battle? [Nay, for] he (Visnu) whose bow is the 

iQrnga is also < without arrows>, having shot [them away]. 
O (Varuna), Lord of Waters, where has that bravery of thine 

gone? Give over* thy timidity, [for] thou art <Lord of 

Rivers>, and <not timid>. 
O cowardly <Sunasira (Indra)>, <whose vanguard is excellent>, 

the dust of thy vanguard is not effective in defeating [me, 

thy] foe.' 
Out upon thee! Where canst thou go?'* While uttering these 

[taunting] words, the Foe (Mahisa) was slain by Parvati 

May that Parvati (Candi) protect you! 


Notes. I. The force of the pun is lost in the translation ; as applied to 
Agni (fire), nirvUnah means 'extinguished/ a. The imperative jahihi, 
' abandon/ ' give over/ usually has a long penult— jahihi ; cf . Whitney, Skt. 
Grammar, 65$. The form with short penult is found also in Suryaiatdka, 
stanza 59. 3. The commentary says: 'Just as formerly [thy] enemies 
fled upon merely catching sight of the dust arising from the vanguard of 
thy army, even so now [they do] not/ 4. These same words — dhig yflii 
kveti — occur, with similar meaning, in stanza 82. The 'thee' and 'thou' 
refer to Cancji. The commentary explains : * Wherever thou wilt go, just 
there thou art slain/ 


nandinn anandado me tava murajamrduh samprahare pra- 

kim dante romni rugne vrajasi gajamukha tvam vafifbhuta 

nighnan nighnann idanim dyujanam iha mahakala eko 'smi 

na 'nyah 
kanya 'drer daityam ittfaam pramathaparibhave mrdnati trajra- 

tam vah 

' O Nandin, in the battle thy blow, soft as [the noise* of] a drum, 
was to me a g^ver of joy ; 

Elephant-faced (Ganesa), why dost thou wander about, abso- 

lutely subdued,* with thy hair-like tusk' broken off? 

1 alone am <Mahakala>,^ <the great destruction> ; there is no 

other here now who keeps constantly slaying the folk of 

As he was thus insulting her attendants,' (Candi), Daughter of 

the Mountain, ci\ished the Daitya (Mahisa). 
May (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, protect you! 

Notes. I. The commentary supplies dhvani, * noise/ a. GaneSa's cor- 
pulence did not permit of his running far or fast, so, although he attempted 
to flee, he was easily overtaken and subdued by Mahi§a. The commentary 
says: 'Because of having a protuberant belly, it is not possible [for thee] 
to make a distant flight/ 3. Lit. ' thy tusk, a hair,' but the commentary 
supplies ' like/ Presumably the tusk was comparable to a hair, either be- 
cause it curled or because it was slender. The cause of the loss of Gai^iela's 
tusk is variously given; the Brahmavaivarta Purdna (3.40) tells how it 
was lost in conflict with ParaSurama (cf. stanza 67, note 2), the SUupdla" 


vadha (1.60) states that it was cut off by R&vana, and the Haracarita 
(18.23) says that it was lost as the outcome of a wager between Kum^ra 
and Gane^ as to which of them could most quickly encircle the earth ; cf . 
H. Jacobi, BrUhmanism, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol 2, 
p. 799-813, sub-heading GaneJa (p. 807), ed. James Hastings, New York, 
1910. The CantfUataka, stanza 67, tells us that the tusk was broken off by 
the demon Mahi$a. 4. Mahakala was the name of one of diva's attend- 
ants, as well as being an epithet of §iva himself. 5. Nandin, Ganesa and 
Mahakala were all attendants of iSiva, and so also of Candl, Siva's wife. 
Ganesa was the reputed son of Siva and Parvati (Can4i) ; for his parent- 
age, see Kennedy, Ancient and Hindu Mythology, p. 352-356, and especially 
H. Jacobi, BrShmanism, as cited in note 3 ; see also Moor, Hindu Pantheon, 
pi. 9, p. 42, where the infant Ganesa is pictured held in PHrvati's (Canal's) 


vajram majiio marutvan ari harir urasah iulam iiah fiirasto 
dandam tundat krtantas tvaritagatigadam astliito 'rthadhi- 

prapan yatpadapiste dvisi mahisavapusy angalagnani bhuyo 
'py ayuxnsi Va "yudhani dyuvasataya iti stad uma sa iriye vah 

When* Uma (Candi) crushed with her foot the Foe (Mahisa) 

who had the body of a buffalo, 
The inhabitants of heaven <obtained> again their weapons cthat 

were sticking in his body>, just as they <saved> their lives 

cinherent in their bodies>2 ; 
(Indra), whom the Maruts attend, [recovered] the thunderbolt 

from [Mahisa's] marrow; Hari (Visnu), the discus from 

his breast; Isa (Siva), the trident from his head; 
Krtanta (Yama) [recovered] the staff from his mouth; and 

(Kubera), Lord of Wealth, the swift-moving mace from his 

May that Uma (Candi) bring you prosperity! 

Notes. I. For convenience, I have translated the last two pildas first 
2, The commentary says: 'Formerly, in the battle with Mahi$a, the 
weapons of all the gods were plunged into his body; now, when Mahi$a 
has been crushed by Devi (Candi), their weapons are obtained by them 
again; in like manner their lives are obtained (i.e. saved) through the 
destruction of Mahisa; for otherwise their lives were verily precari- 
ous. 3. Note that the name of the god has some similarity in sound 


with the name of his weapon, or with the name of the part of the body 
f rom jvhich the weapon is drawn ; e.g. Hari draws the art from the uras, 
and Ua draws the JUla from the ^ras — an exaggerated assonance (ya- 
maka), which, however, finds its counterpart in stanza 52, and in SUryaia" 
taka, stanzas 71 and 81. 


drstav asaktadrstih prathamam iva tatha sammukhina 

smera hasapragalbhe priyavacasi krtairotrapeyadhikoktih 
udyukta narmakarmany avatu paSupatau purvavat parvati vah 
kurvana sarvam isad vinihitacaranalaktakeva ksatarih 

• • • • • 

ParvatP (Candi), with her glance fixed on [<Pasupati's 

(Siva's) >] glance [in affection], [and on <Pasupati's 

(Mahisa's)> glance in anger], thus facing them face to face 

at the outset, as it were. 
Smiling [affectionately when <Pasupati (Siva)>] cproudly 

jested», [and scornfully <when Pasupati (Mahisa)>] 

cproudly mocked>, 
Adding even more words worth listening to [when < Pasupati 

(Siva)>] «flattered» [and when <Pasupati (Mahisa)>] 

<spoke her fair». 
Intent upon the carrying on of the sport [of battle] <in the case 

of Pasupati (Mahisa) >, just as formerly [she had been intent 

upon carrying on the sport of love] <in the case of Pasupati 

Doing everything triflingly [<in the case of Pasupati (Mahisa) >, 

but with real affection <in the case of Pasupati (Siva)>], 
Killed the Foe (Mahisa), and became smeared, as it were, with 

lac-dye on her foot.* 
May Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. This is a troublesome stanza, but it seems to be clear that 
there is a pun, running all through, on the two meanings of the term 
Paiw/>ah*— Siva and Mahi§a. a. After killing Mahi§a, Candi found her 
foot smeared with blood, as if with lac-dye ; cf . stanzas 2, 3, 12 and 44. 

V.L. (a) -dr^tiJk krtamukhavikrtih sammukhina, (c) paiupateh. 



daityo dordarpaiali na hi mahisavapuh kalpaniyabhyupayo 
vayo variSa visno vrsagamana vrsan kim visado vrthaiva 
badhmta bradhnamiirah kavacam acakitai citrabhano daha 

evam devan jayokte jayati hataripor hrepitam haixnavatyah 

'The* Daitya (Mahisa), in the form of a buffalo, and full of 

pride in his prowess,* is not indeed one in whose case the 

[ordinary] expedients' are effective ; 
[Therefore], O Vayu (Wind), O Lord of Waters (Varuna), 

O Visnu, O Bull-rider (Siva), O Bull (Indra), why [this] 

wholly vain despbndency?* 
Gird on your armor, together with Bradhna (Surya), ceasing 

to be cowards'; O thou (Agni) whose luster is variegated, 

bum up thy foes/ 
While Jaya* was thus speaking to the gods,^ a modest feeling* 

[arose in] Haimavati (Candi), who slew her foe (Mahisa). 
Glorious is the modesty of Haimavati (Candi) ! 

[In this stanza the usual benediction is oniitted.Y 

Notes. I. The sense of this stanza is that the gods must make special 
efforts to subdue Mahi$a, since none of the ordinary means for subduing 
enemies are effective against him. a. Lit. ' full of pride in his arm.' 
3. The four recognized upHyas, or means of subduing an enemy, were 
'conciliation' (j^man) /bribery' (ddna), 'sowing dissension' (6 A^Ja), and 
' open assault ' (danda) ; cf. Manu, 7. 107-109, 198, and Can4Uataka, stanza 
46, note I. The commentary says: 'He (Mahi$a) is incapable of being 
subdued by the employment of sUman, etc' 4. That is, despondency does 
no good; it is time for strenuous effort. The alliteration {anupmsa) in 
this pada is noteworthy. 5. Lit * without fear.' 6. On Jaya, see stanza 
15, note 7. 7. The accusative devHn must be taken as a sort of object 
of jayokte used with a verbal force — * in the utterance of Jaya to the gods.' 
The commentary glosses devHn by devSLn prati, *to the gods.' 8. For 
the construction of hrepitatfi, see stanza 33, note 9. 9. For the omission 
of the benediction, cf. stanza 3, note 5. 

V.L. (b) brhat kim visado. (d) hataripur hrepitasvamikHyd. 


a vyoma vyapislmnam vanam atigahanam gahamano bhu- 

304 THE candISataea of bXna 

arcirmoksena murchan davadahanarucim locananam trayasya 
yasyk nirxnajjamajjaccaranabharanato gam vibhidya pra- 

patalam pankapatonmukha iva mahisah atad uma sa iriyc vah 

Mahisa, plunging into the very impenetrable forest [composed] 

of [Uma's (Candi's)]^ arms whose extremities reached to 

the sky,* 
Became dazed at the emission of flame from the triad' of her 

eyes that gleamed like a fire in a burning forest ; 
[Then], bowed by the weight of her foot which sank into his 

lifeless* [body], he clove the earth, 
And entered Patala,' as if expecting to wallow in its mud.* 
May that Uma (Candi) bring you prosperity! 

Notes. I. The commentary says: 'Of the arms, that is to say, [the 
arms] of Devi (Can<)i)/ a. I have changed the division of the words 
in the reading of the Kavyamala text, from a vyomavydpi slmnHijt into d 
vyoma vyapislmnattt, which is the reading of the commentary. This is, I 
confess, open to the objection that vynpin appears not to be used at the 
beginning of compounds (ci.pwb,s,y.). As another alternative, one might 
read dvyomaz/ynpisitnndrfi as a compound word. For the ' forest of arms ' 
of Can()i, cf. stanza 64, and Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 19. 3. In the 
De^ Upani^ad, Candi is addressed as * thou represented with three eyes ' ; 
cf. Kennedy, Hindu Mythology, p. 492; her three eyes are also mentioned 
in the account of her birth given in the VSLmana PurHna; cf. Kennedy, 
ibid., p. 335. See also Can(fUataka, stanzas 40 and 51. It may likewise be 
noted that since ^iva had three eyes, Can<j[i, who is Siva's sakti — ^i.e. the 
female personification of his 'energy' — is also entitled to the possession 
of a like number. 4. Lit ' marrowless,' meaning deprived of the life or 
the blood ; for a similar conception, cf . stanza 3, note 4. 5. The words 
gam • • • patalani occur in the same order, and in the same position in the 
pudas, in stanza 18. 6. The commentary notes an implied simile in this 
stanza. It reads: 'Just as any other buffalo (mahifa), when wandering 
in a forest, and heated by a forest-fire, enters a hollow, expecting to wallow 
in the mud, even so also this [buffalo — i.e. Mahi$a], completely scorched 
by the flame of the eyes of Devi (Candi), enters Patala.' For the fire in 
Candi's eyes, cf. stanza 51. 

V.L. (a) The Kavyamala text reads d vyomavydpi Amniffi; following 
the commentary, I have emended to H vyoma vyapislmnarfi. (b) loca- 
nanafn trayena. (d) sa Hva *stu Mye vah. 



nite nirvyajadirgham aghavati maghavadvajralajjanidane 
nidram drag eva devadvisi musitarusah samsxnarantyah sva- 

devya drgbhyas tisrbhyas trajra iva galita ra§ayo raktatayas 
trayantBxn vas tri&ulak^atakuharabhuvo lohitaxnbhahsamudrah 

When the sinful (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, who had put to 

shame the thunderbolt of the Munificent (Indra);^ 
Had been brought full quickly to the sleep that is ineffably long,* 

Devi (Candi), reft of her anger, came back to herself ; 
And the oceans of flowing blood,'* issuing from the holes of the 

wounds [caused] by the trident [in Mahisa], 
Became, as it were, three masses of the redness [of anger] 

streaming from her three eyes.' 
May these oceans of blood protect you* ! 

Notes. I. Indra's thunderbolt was ashamed because it had been unable 
to subdue Mahi§a. 2, Lit 'long beyond semblance.' 3. Lit. 'recol- 
lecting her own nature.' 4. Lit. ' blood-water oceans.' 5. Upon seeing 
the blood, Canji realized that the killing had been effected, her rage sub- 
sided, and the red of anger faded from her eyes. The fanciful imagining 
of the red blood flowing from Mahi$a to be the redness of anger receding 
from the eyes of Can^i, is an instance of the rhetorical figure utprekfd, 
* Poetic Fancy.' For Canal's three eyes, cf . stanza 39, note 3, and stanza 
51, note I. 6. This stanza is quoted in the SarasvafikanfhUbharana (2. 
296) of Bhojadeva (fl. 1010-1042 A.D.; cf. Mabel Duff, Chronology of 
India, p. 109, Westminster, 1899), as an illustration of the rhetorical figure 
citra, 'picture,' a type of vartUtnuprOsa, or 'syllable alliteration' (see the 
2d ed. of this work by Jivananda Vidyasagara, p. 255, Calcutta, 1894). 
Stanza 66 of the Caiufliataka is also quoted in the Sarasvatlkanfhabharana 
as an illustration of the venika ('braid') tjrpe of varninuprllsa', cf. stanza 
66, note i. 

V.L. (b) tnufitabhiyah. (c) rUlayo Jonitasya. (d) rakfantu tvUffi tri' 
iulak^ata-. The text as given in the Sarasvatlkanthabharana (see note 6) 
shows the following variants: (a) -vajranidrHnidane, (d) rakiantu WHfit 


kail kalpantakalakulam iva sakalam lokam alokya purvam 
pa&cac chliste visane viditaditisuta lohita matsarena 


3o6 THE candTiSataka of bana 

padotpiste parasau nipatati mahise praksvabhavena gauri 
gauri vah patu patjruh pratinayanam iva "viskrtanyonyarupS 

[Candi], on seeing the whole world as if confounded by Fate at 
the end of a kalpa, became at first <black>, and so <Kali>*; 

Afterwards, when she perceived (Mahisa), Son of Diti, with 
his horn encircling* [her foot], she became <red> with anger, 
and so <Lohita> ; 

But when Mahisa, crushed by her foot, fell lifeless, she became, 
by [virtue of] her original nature, <dazzling white>, and 
thus < Gauri >. 

May this Gauri (Candl), whose forms are but reciprocal mani- 
festations of the eyes of her husband (Siva)' — 

May she, Gauri (Candl), protect you! 

Notes, z. The meaning is that Can(}i, on seeing the destruction wrotight 
by Mahisa, assumed her dark, horrific aspect of Kali, 'The Black One/ 
For the periodic destructions of the world at the end of every kalpa, cf . 
SHryaJataka, stanza 23, note 6. a. See stanzas 2 and 44, where the same 
is said of Mahi$a's horn. 3. Lit. ' whose reciprocal form is manifested, 
as it were, according to the eyes of her husband.' That is to say, the 
three eyes of iSiva, the black (kdtl), the red (lohitH), and the dazzling 
white (gduri), became incarnate as Can<]i, under the names, which she 
bore, of Kali, Lohita and Gauri. It should be noted, however, that Lohit& 
seems not to occur elsewhere as a name of Can<]i, although it is found, 
along with Kali and Karili, two recognized epithets of Can<}i, among the 
names of the seven tongues of Agni; cf. Mundaka Upani^ad, 1.2.4 as 
quoted by J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. 4, p. 429, London, 1873; 
cf. also H. Jacobi, Durgd, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 5, 
p. 117-119, ed. James Hastings, New York, 1912. 

V.L. (d) pratinayana ivd "vi^kftdnyonyabhUvS, 


gamyam na 'gner na cendoh sapadi dinakrtam dvadafianam 

§akrasya 'ksnam sahasram saha surasadasa sadajrantam 

utpatograndhakaragamam iva mahisam nighnala sarma di£yad 
devi vo vamapadamburuhanakhamayaih pancabhiS candramo- 



Mahisa, who was assailable^ neither by Agni nor by Indu (Moon), 

and who could not be resisted for an instant by the twelve 

Who violently destroyed the thousand eyes* of Sakra (Indra) 

together with the assembly of the gods, 
And who was like the approach of the terrible darkness of some 

[evil-boding] portent, was killed by Devi (Candl) 
With the five moon-like toe-nails of her left lotus foot.* 
May Devi (Candi) bestow happiness upon you! 

Notes, z. In S^ryaiataka, stanza 23, gamy a, ' assailable/ is again found 
with a genitive case. a. By the 'twelve Suns' are meant the twelve 
manifestations of the Sun in the twelve months of the year; cf. SUrya- 
Jataka, stanza 90, note i, and stanza 94, note 5. 3. For Indra's thousand 
eyes, cf . SUryaJataka, stanza 94, note 4, and Canfi^ataka, stanza 57, note 6. 
4« Lit 'with the five moons constituting the nails of her left foot-lotus.' 
Stanza 10 says that Can(}i killed Mahi$a with her right foot, but elsewhere 
in the CanifUataka, whenever specific mention is made, it is always said 
that she used her left ; cf . stanza 10, note 6. 

V.L. (a) na 'gner jitenduffi ; dvOdaJOndtn aJakyafft, 


dattva sdiiUantranialavalivighasahasadghasmarapretakantam 
katjrajranjra "tmanaiva tridaSaripumahadaitjraddiopaharam 
vifirantyai patu jrusman ksanam upari dhrtam kesariskan- 

bibhrat tatkesaralim alimukhararanannupuram padapadmam 

After Katyayani (Candi) had verily in person oflFered as an 
oblation the body of the great Daitya (Mahisa), the Foe of 
the Gods — 

An oblation that roused the mockery of the voracious female 
ghouls/ since the residue* [for their consumption] was 
[merely] the series of the festoons of his large intestine,' 

Her lotus foot/ possessed of a jingling anklet' that hummed 
like a bee, was placed for a moment, for the purpose of rest- 
ing [it], 

3o8 THE candISataka of bAna 

On the wall-like surface of the shoulder of her lion, [and there- 
fore seemed to be] wearing a fringe of his mane. 
May the lotus foot [of Katyayani (Candi)] protect you! 

Notes, z. Lit 'wives of the ghouls/ a. The residue of the oblation, 
usually eaten. 3. The commentary says : ' There is cause of mockery by 
the wives of the ghouls, with the thought : " There has been left over for 
us by Devi (Ca9<}i) merely the sapless pile of entrails." ' The implication 
is that the body of Mahi$a had been reduced to a shapeless mass by the 
force of Candi's kick, nothing being left but one intestine. 4. Accord- 
ing to the conunentary, the term ' lotus foot ' is aptly applied here, because 
it has an anklet that hums (lit 'is mouthy') like a bee, while a lotus is 
always surrounded by bees, and because the foot has a fringe of kesara 
(mane), while a lotus has kesara (filaments). 5. The noise of Caod^'s 
anklet is mentioned also in stanzas 6, 13 and 44. 

V.L. (c) upari kftatft, 


kopeneva 'ninatvam dadhad adhikataralaksyalakfarasafirih 
pratya8annatmanirt3rupratibhayam asurair ik^ito hantv arin 

pado devyah krtanto 'para iva mahisasyoparistan nivistah 

The foot of Devi (Candi) is, as it were, red from anger, and the 

sheen of its lac-dye becomes [thereby]^ more apparent*; 
And it diffuses sound* from its jeweled anklet that is twanged 

by the tip of [Mahisa's] encircling horn,* as with a quill ; 
And it is gazed on by the demons with fear that their own death 

is imminent* ; 
And it <is placed on Mahisa>, [being thus also] like a second 

Krtanta (Yama), [for the latter] <is seated on a buffalo>.' 
May the foot of Devi (Candi) destroy your foes! 

Notes, z. The commentary introduces ata eva, * just thereby/ a. Lit 
'possessing a more apparent lac- juice sheen'; for other passages in the 
Can4^ataka where mention is made of the practise of staining the feet 
with lac-dye, cf . stanza 3, note i, and stanza 37, note 2. 3. Lit. ' is filled 
with the sound.' 4. For the ' encircling horn,' cf. stanzas 2 and 41, and 
for the noise of the anklet, cf. stanzas 6, 13 and 43. 5. Following the 
commentary, I take the compound pratyilsannd . . . bhayam to be an ad- 
verb. 6. Yama's vehicle was the buffalo (mahifa) ; cf. SUryaJataka, 


Stanza 58, note 5. The commentary calls attention to the various points of 
comparison between CarKJi's foot and Yama, as follows : ' Yama also is red 
from anger, makes a sound (hufjtkOra — ^the death rattle?), is seated on a 
buffalo, and is gazed on by mortals fearful that death is imminent' 

V.L. (a) dadhad adhikam alatfi, 


ahantum niyamana bharavidhurabhujasramsamanobhasramsam 
kamsenainatnsi si vo haratu hariyasoraksanaya ksama 'pi 
prak pranan asya na "syad gaganam udapatad gocaram ya 

samprapya "gamivindhyacalaiikharafiilavasayogodyateva 

<Ksama (Candl)>, when carried off to be slain* by Kamsa' — ^his 

two shoulders stooping as his arms were burdened by her 

weight* — 
Although <capable> of defending the renown of Hari (Visnu),* 

did not at once' despatch his (Kainsa's) life, 
But after having, [at his hands], come into forcible contact with 

a rock,' rose up to heaven, 
As if intent on meditation in her future home of rock on the 

summit of the Vindhya Mountain.'' 
May that Ksama (Candi) destroy your sins'! 

Notes, z. For the story of Kaipsa's attempt to destroy Can<}i, see stanza 
25, note I. a. It is worthy of note perhaps that ' K$ama ' and ' Karpsa ' 
contain similar sotmds. The epithet K^amd is applied to Durga (Can<]I) 
in the Det/i Purdna) cf. PWB, s.v. 3. The body of Can<Ji as a baby, 
though not actually heavy, was figuratively so, because Kaqisa was destined 
in the future to be crushed by the weight of her might ; cf . stanza 25, notes 
2 and 3. 4« Can^r, in the incarnation here referred to, was Kr^na's 
( Vi$nu's) substitute, having elected to be killed in Vi^nu's stead ; cf. stanza 
25, note I. 5. Lit *in the first place,' *at first/ 6. Lit 'having at- 
tained the realm of rock,' the meaning being that Kamsa dashed out Canal's 
brains against a stone. 7. When Kr$9a (Vi^nu) persuaded Can<)I to be 
bom of Yasoda as a mortal, he promised her as a reward that she should 
be the adored of gods and mortals and should have a dwelling-place on 
the Vindhya; cf. HarivamJa, 2.2.30,49 (Dutt, cap. 57, p. 249-250). 8. 
Note in this stanza the absence of any reference to Mahi^a; cf. stanza 
25, note 8. 

V.L. (a) aghatafft hiyamSnd. 



saixma na "mnayayoner dhrtim akrta harer na 'pi cakrena 

sendrasyairavanasya 'py upari kalusitah kevalam danavretya 
danto dandena mrtyor na ca viphalayathoktabhyupayo hato 

yenopayah sa padah sukhayatu bhavatah paficamai candikayah 

[Mahisa]^ <took* no pleasuro either in the €conciliation» or in 
the cSama Veda» of (Brahma), the Source of the Vedas/ 
and because of [his fondness for] «dissension», <was in- 
different to> the discus of Hari (Visnu) with its cability to 
cleave* ; 

<With regard to>* Indra's [elephant] Airavana,* he was simply 
€angered»* by the cshower of gifts*, just as he was 
€smeared» <over> by the cflow of ichor* [from its fore- 
head] ; 

Nor was he subdued by the <open assault> and the <staff> of 
Death (Yama), these expedients, as described, being all 
ineffectual ; 

But he, the Foe (Mahisa), was slain by a fifth expedient — ^the 
foot of Candika (Candi). 

May that foot of Candika (Candi) prosper you! 

Notes, z. The meaning of this stanza is that the gods were unable to 
subdue Mahi$a by any of the four recognized means of success against an 
enemy, and so employed a fifth — the foot of Can^i. The four recognized 
means (updyas) of subduing a foe were 'conciliation' (siinian)t 'sowing 
dissension' (bheda), 'bribery' (dStuj), and 'open assault' (dan^a) ; cf. 
Manu, 7. 107-109, 198. In this stanza there is a pun on each of these four 
terms. In stanza 38, Mahisa is said to be ' not one in whose case the ordi- 
nary expedients (abhyupHyas) are effective.' a. The word akfta appears 
to be a root-aorist middle used in Vedic literature; cf. W. D. Whitney, 
Roots, Verb-Forms, and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, 
s.v. 1st kr, Leipzig, 1885; but it is recognized by the grammarians as 
forming a part of the s-aorist; cf. Whitney, 5"^/. Grammar, 881, c. 3. 
Brahma is usually credited with the production of the Vedas; cf. SUrya- 
Jataka, stanza 99, note 2. 4. I have regarded AirQvanasya as governed 
by upari, *in regard to'; the commentary, however, makes Airdvanasya 
depend upon ddnavfftyd, and it takes upari closely with kalufitah, in the 


sense, apparently, of ' smeared over.' The commentary does not authorize 
a double rendering of upari, 5. On Airava^a, see SUryasataka, stanza 
I, note 3. 6. For kalufitaft, the commentary gives a double gloss — ' de- 
filed' (fnalinatvaffi gatah), and * angered' (krodhafft gato na tu ^M//aji) ; 
so also Apte, Skt.-EngL Diet, s.v. 

V.L. (b) pulakitah kevalatft, (d) piidah nudatu bhcwadaghatft, 


bharta karta trilokjras tripuravadhakrti pafijrati tryaksa esa 
kva stri kva "y^dhaneccha na tu sadrSam idam prastutam kim 

matva savyajasavyetaracaraxuicalangusthakonabhimrstam 
sadyo ya lajjiteva 'surapatim avadhit parvati patu sa vah 

*The three-eyed (Siva), [my] husband, creator of the three 

worlds, and the bringer of destruction to the three cities,* 

is looking on here. 
What has a woman to do with the lust for battle? But this is 

not seemly ; why did I undertake it ? ' 
Being abashed, as it were, at such a thought, Parvati (Cand!) 

slew in an instant^ (Mahisa), Lord of the Demons, 
Who had been struck by the sharp point of the quivering great 

toe of her left* foot. 
May that Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes, z. The triple city of the demons is meant ; cf . stanza 16, note 3. 
a. Can<]i slew Mahi$a at once, so as to bring to an immediate close the 
spectacle of a woman engaged in a matter so far outside her normal sphere 
as fighting. 3. According to the commentary, which I have followed, 
savydja is here taken adverbially with savyetaracarana-, the literal render- 
ing being ' a foot falsely other than left ' ; that is, ' falsely right,' and there- 
fore ' left' The commentary glosses by vdmapddasya, ' left foot' It may 
be noted that, according to stanza 10, Candi killed Mahi$a with her right 
foot; but all other stanzas, when specific mention is made, say she used 
her left ; cf . stanza 10, note 6. 

V.L. (c) savydjasavyetaracararuitKikhdngufthakonena piffvCl, 


vrddhokso na ksamas te bhavatu bhava bhavadvaha eso 

.• • • • 



k^ptah padena devam prati jhatiti yaya kelikantam vihassra 
dantajyotsnavitiniir atanubhir atanur nyakkrtardhendubhl- 

gatiro gaur eva jatah ksanam iva mahisah sa 'vatad ambika 



'Thy old bull,* O Bhava (Siva), is no [longer] capable; let this 

one now be the vehicle of Your Highness.' 
As [Ambika (Candi)] uttered these words, laughing in pleased 

amusement,' [Mahisa] was at once kicked over to the god 

(Siva) by her foot; 
[For] the mighty' Mahisa, by reason of the not small masses of 

light [emanating] from his teeth* — masses that dimmed the 

splendor of the crescent moon — 
Became shining white (gHura), and so actually a bull' (g^iur) 

for an instant, as it were.' 
May that Ambika (Candi) protect you! 

Notes, z. The bull was Siva's vehicle. a. ' In pleased amusement ' is 
my rendering of kelikHntaffi, which I take to be an adverbial accusative. 
3. The word atanur, ' mighty/ despite its position, must modify mahifoi^ ; 
if, however, any hesitation is felt about so taking it, an emendation to 
atanunyakkfta-, forming a compound, may perhaps be suggested. This 
change would not affect the meter, and the translation would be: 'that 
dimmed in no slight degree, etc' 4. For the splendor of Mahi^a's 
teeth, cf. stanza 50. 5. Lit. '[being] shining white, became actually a 
bull.' 6. The reason for Ambika's (CarKjI's) amusement lies in a pun 
whose force it is very difficult to convey in translation. It consists in the 
idea that the black buffalo (mahisa) turns into a white bull (gOur), the 
metamorphosis being attained as follows: A buffalo, being a gdura (the 
bos gaurus, a species of buffalo), is therefore momentarily a bull (gdur) ; 
momentarily, because gdura is gHur, before its final syllable -a is pro- 
notmced. The rendering of the pun is further complicated by the fact 
that the other meaning of gHura — 'shining white* — ^must be used in the 
translation in order to make the stanza read intelligibly. It may be added 
that as Siva's bull was white, a white (gdura) substitute would be accept- 
able to him. 

V.L. (c) dantajyotsnQTntHnQir alabhata tanubhir, 


prak kamam dahata krtah paribhavo yena trisamdhyanataih 
sersya vo Vatu candika caranayoh svam patayand patim 


kurvatyi 'bhyadhikam krte pratikrtam muktena maulau muhur 
baspena 'liitakajjalena likhitam svam nama candre yayi 

The jealous Candika (Candi) caused her husband (Siva), by 
whom she had been formerly humiliated through his burn- 
ing up of Kama,* 

To fall at her feet with prostrations at the three twilights ; 

And, having [thus] exacted excessive retribution for [his] ac- 
tion,* she wrote her own name on the moon* 

With the tears mixed with coUyrium* that were repeatedly shed 
upon his diadem." 

May Candika (Candl) protect you'! 

Notes, z. As is well known, Kama was reduced to ashes by Siva's third 
eye, because he interrupted iSiva's meditations and called his attention to 
Parvati (Can<)i) ; cf. Suryaiataka, stanza 55, note 9. a. Lit. 'causing 
an excessive counter-deed in his deed.' 3. iSiva wore the moon on his 
diadem (cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 42, note 10), and perhaps we have here a 
fanciful Hindu explanation of the darkish blotch visible on the full orb 
of the moon. I have, however, been unable to find any allusions in Hindu 
mythology to support such a view. 4. Lit ' tears in which coUsrrium has 
been placed.' 5. We must imagine Siva kneeling at Carters feet, and 
her tears dropping on his head, and so on the moon-diadem with which 
his head was adorned. The collyrium, which was lampblack, when washed 
from her eyelids by the tears, formed with the tears a dark fluid akin 
to ink, with which Can<}i could write her name. Just why Can<)! wept is 
not apparent, but the fact that she was humiliating the mighty Siva may 
have been too much for her emotions. It will be remembered that, as 
Kali, she is often represented with her tongue out — ^a sign of overwhelm- 
ing shame — ^because on one occasion she found herself dancing on her 
husband's (Siva's) body; cf. Wilkins, Hindu Mythology, p. 309 and 311. 
6. Note in this stanza the absence of any reference to the demon Mahi$a; 
stanza itself is cited in the Sarasvatlkan^hahharana, 5.633, as an example 
of the mrdvikA ('grape') variety of paka ('consequence'); cf. ed. of 
Jfvananda Vidyasagara, p. 7S>-3. The commentary on this stanza in the 
Sarasvatlkanfhabharana authorizes the following rendering for the first 
two pddas: 

Can<]ika, jealous because her husband Siva, by whom she had been 

formerly humiliated through his burning up of Kama, 
Was bowing before Samdhya, caused him to fall at her feet. 

V.L. (a) trisafftdhydnateh. (d) likhitafft ndmeva candre. The text as 
given in the SarasvatJkanfhdbharana (see note 6) shows the following 

314 THE candiSataka of bana 

variants: (3,) yena*thasandhyAnatSu, (h) caratiayos tatft, (c) kunnintya. 
(d) Impend "hftakajjalena likhitaffi lakftneva. 


tuhgam irhgagrabhumim iritavati marutam pretakaye nikaye 
kunjautsukyad viSatsu irutikuharaputam drak kakupkufijaresu 

smitva vah samhrtasor daSanarucikrtakandakailasabhasah 

• • • • • • • 

pajrat prsthadhirudhe smaramusi mahisasyoccahaseva devi 

When^ the assembly of the gods, on the dead body of Mahisa, 
resorted to the lofty ground of his horn-tip — 

Of Mahisa, whose life had been taken away, and who had un- 
expectedly assumed the splendor of Kailasa owing to the 
gleam of his teeth* — 

And when the elephants of the sky-regions,* through longing for 
a [shady] bower, entered quickly into the hollow cavity of 
his ear, 

Devi (Candi) smiled; but when (Siva), the Destroyer of Smara,* 
movmted on his back, she laughed outright, as it were. 

May Devi (Candi) protect you! 

Notes, z. The mighty body of Mahi§a is mistaken for Mt Kailasa, a 
favorite resort of the celestials (of. SUryaJataka, stanza 88, note 3). Some 
of the gods think his horn a lofty peak, and the elephant guardians of the 
eight points of the compass take the interior of his ear for a shady bower, 
while Siva, who had a dwelling on Kailasa, climbs on his back, believing 
it to be one of the ridges of that mountain. Can^i laughs at their blun- 
ders. 2. For the radiance of Mahi$a's teeth, cf. stanza 48. 3. These 
were the elephants of the lokapilas, or regents ; they are mentioned again 
in stanzas 57, 59 and 100; see also SUryaiataka, stanza 18, note 10. 4. 
Smara is a name of Kama, whom Siva destroyed by the fire of his third 
eye ; cf . stanza 49, and SUrya^ataka, stanza 55, note 9. 

V.L. (a) tungah ^rngagrabhUmlh ; protak&ye nikdye, 


krtva patalapahke ksayarayamilitaikarnavecchavagaham 
dahan netratrayagner vilayanavigalacchrngaiunyottamangah 
kridakrodabhiSankam vidadhad apihitavyomasima mahinina 
viksya ksunno yajra 'ris tmam iva mahisah sa 'vatad 


Mahisa, whose head had been shorn of its homs that trickled 

away when melted by the heat of the fire of [Candl's] triad 

of eyes,* 
Made a plunge into the mud of Patala, in accord with his desire 

for the general inundation that accompanies the onrush of 

[the final] destruction,* 
And thus sought to create the impression of a * mock-boar/' 

But, though he filled the sky* to its borders with his great 

Ambika (Candi), beholding the Foe (Mahisa), trampled on him 

as if he were a [mere] blade of grass**. 
May that Ambika (Candl) protect you! 

Notes, z. See stanza 39, where a similar scorching of Mahi$a is re- 
corded; for the three eyes of Can4i, of. stanza 39, note 3, and stanza 40, 
note 5. 2. At the end of a kalpa the earth is destroyed by being im- 
mersed in ocean. Brahma, the Creator, then begins the work of re-creation ; 
cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 23, note 6. At the begmning of the present kalpa, 
Brahma created himself as Vi$nu, and the latter, in his incarnation as a 
boar (varAha), descended into the flood, and raised the earth out of it on 
his tusks; cf. Vifnu PurHna, 1.4 (Wilson, vol. i, p. 55-65). Mahi§a is 
here represented as being so scorched by the fire of Canal's eyes (cf. 
stanza 39), that he desires an ocean large enough to drown the whole 
world in order to have sufficient cooling water to relieve his bums. Being 
a buffalo (mahisa) ^ his instinct teaches him that wallowing in mud will 
bring relief; so he plunges down to muddy Patala — descending to Patala 
is ssmonymous with death — and his descent thither is sarcastically com- 
pared to Vi?nu's pltmge into the waters of primeval chaos. The com- 
mentary says: 'Just as the First Boar (Vi§nu) made a plunge into the 
inundation accompanying the destruction [of the world], even so by this 
(Mahi§a) [a plunge] is made into the mud of Patala.' 3. Lit. ' suspicion 
of a play-hog.' The meaning is that Mahi$a is seeking to be a 'make- 
believe' Vi$nu, as pointed out in note 2. 4. Mahi$a again (see note 2) 
seeks to imitate Vi§nu by filling the sky. It will be remembered that 
Vi§nu, in his dwarf incarnation, filled the sky with one of his famous 
'three steps'; cf. SUrya^ataka, stanza 7, note 4. Can<Ji, however, is not 
deceived by this false Vi$nu, and slays the impostor. 5. In stanza 7 also 
Mahi$a is compared to a blade of grass. 

V.L. (a) patslapankaih k^ayarayamilitdir arnavecchdvagahaip, (b) vila- 
yanavilasat'. (d) klUikH vah. 



fiule iailavikampam na nimisitam i^au pattifie sattahisam 

prase sotprasam avyakulam api kulUe jatafiahkam na fank&u 


cakre 'vakram krpine na krpanam asuxilratibhih pityamane 
daityam padena devi mahisitavapusam pimfati vah ptin&tu 

The Daitya^ (Mahisa), whose body was changed into that of a 

buffalo, was firm as a rock* when the trident* was hurled [at 

By the enemies of the demons*; he was unwinking when the 

arrow was sped, and loud in his laughter at the spear ; 
Scornful of the dart, not stunned by the thunderbolt, and having 

no fear of the pike' ; 
Unbending* before the discus, and untroubled by the swordJ 

But Devi (Candi) crushed him with her foot. 
May Devi (Candi) purify you! 

Notes, z. For convenience, I have rendered dnityaip, and its modifiers, 
MlUvikampatft, nimiptam, etc., as subject, though they really constitute the 
object of pitfi^atl. a. The commentary glosses id»7a by Jdihvat, Mike 
a rock/ 3. Grammatically, JUle, i^du, etc., the names of the weapons, 
are in the locative absolute construction with putyamUne. 4. The 'ene- 
mies of the demons ' are the gods. 5. Or, ' staff ' ; ianku may mean any 
sort of weapon. 6. Lit. *not crooked.' The commentary glosses by 
saralam eva sthitam, ' standing straight' The meaning is that he did not 
dodge or stoop. 7. The instances of assonance {yamaka) in this stanza 
are noteworthy. Each adjective that modifies dnityatfi has much the same 
sound as the name of the weapon with which it is coupled in the sentence. 
For a somewhat similar use of this rhetorical device, see stanza 36, and 
SUryaiataka, stanzas 71 and 81. 

V.L. (b) avyHkulam iva kuliie. (c) cakre vaktrafft kfpdnafft, 


cakre cakrasya na 'Srya na ca khalu paralior na ksuraprasya n& 

yad vakram kaitavaviskrtamahisatanau vidvisaty ajibhaji 
protat prasena murdhnah saghrnam abhimukhayatajra kala- 

kalyanany ananabjam srjatu tad asrjo dharaya vakritam vah 


The lotus face of Kalaratri (Candi) — ^which displayed no emo- 
tion* either because of the edge of [Mahisa's]* discus, 

Or for that of his ax, his sharp arrow, or his sword, as long as 
that Foe (Mahisa), disguised in the body of a buffalo,* 

Was intent on the combat — ^became softened* in pity* because of 
the stream* of blood 

Coming out before her eyes from [Mahisa's] head, which had 
been pierced by her dart. 

May that lotus face of Kalaratri (Cand!) shed blessings upon 

Notes, z. Lit 'that was not made wry' (reading vakratfi—cL V.L.)< 
The sense is 'altered by emotion'; cf. trakritafu sttghfnam, 'altered by 
compassion/ or 'softened in pity/ as I have rendered it in piUias (c) and 
(d). a. Referring, according to the commentary, to the time when these 
weapons were hurled at Cao<}i by Mahi$a. 3. Lit ' manifesting the body 
of a buffalo for [the purpose of] deceit' 4. Lit ' wry/ ' crooked ' ; cf . 
note I. 5. The commentary says that sctghfnam is to be taken adverb- 
ially. 6. The word dhOrd, here rendered by ' stream/ also means ' edge,' 
and hence punningly refers back to airi, * edge/ in piida (a). 

V.L. (a) The Kavyamala text reads nJ *sryll na ca\l have emended to 
ltd 'ityd na ca. (b) The Kavyamala text reads yad vaktratfi; following 
the commentary, I have emended to yad vakratu, (c) The Kavyamala 
text reads kaiarOtryU ; I have emended to kahrdtryafi, 


hastad utpatjra yantya gaganam aganitadhdiryaviryavalepam 
vailaksyeneva pandudjrutim aditisutiratim apddayantyah 
darpanalpattahasadvigunatarasitah saptaloldjananyas 
tarjanya janyadiityo nakharucitatayas tarjayantya jayanti 

Hail to those emissaries^ of war, those masses of splendor of the 

nail of the menacing* forefinger of (Candi), Mother of the 

Seven Worlds — 
Which masses had become doubly* white by reason of her loud 

laughter excessive through pride. 
As she sprang away from the hand [of Kamsa]* and went to the 

sky, after making pale,' as if through shame,* 

31 8 THE candIiSataka of bana 

That [Kamsa], Foe of the Sons of Aditi/ whose pride in his 
own cowardly strength was [by her] disregarded.® 
[In this stansa the usual benediction is omitted,]^ 

Notes, z. The commentary glosses by dutyah sangramcLsUcikHh, * female 
messengers, indicative of conflict/ a. The commentary glosses : * mena- 
cing the Daityas.' 3. The meaning seems to be that when Can<)! smiled, 
the splendor of her gleaming teeth was added to the splendor of her flash- 
ing nails. 4. The commentary says that the hand of Kaipsa is meant, 
and for that reason I have so interpreted it For the story of Can<]i and 
Kaipsa, see stanzas 25 and 45, and notes. 5. Lit 'having caused the 
Foe of the Sons of Aditi to assume a white splendor.' 6. We of the 
Occident associate blushing with shame, and pallor with fear. As Can<}i 
rose from Kamsa's hand, she threatened him with his coming doom, and 
this threat may have made him pale with fear. Or else we are to under- 
stand that Katpsa was flooded with light reflected from the nails of Can<]f, 
and so appeared white or pale. 7. The ' Sons of Aditi ' were the gods ; 
cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 90, note i. 8. The commentary renders: 'that 
Foe of the Sons of Aditi, by whom pride in strength was, because of cow- 
ardice, disregarded ' ; but this seems doubtful to me, and I have not adopted 
it 9. For the omission of the benediction, cf. stanza 3, note 5. Note 
also the absence of any mention of Mahi$a ; cf . stanza 25, note 8. 

V.L. (c) darpSnalpAttahas&d dvigunitarasitdh, (d) The Kavyamala text 
reads janyadUto; following the commentary, I have emended to janya- 
dutyo; nakharucirarucah. 


praleyacalapalvalaikabisini sa "rya 'stu vah ireyase 
yasyah padasarojasinini mahisaksobhat ksanam vidrutah 
nispiste patitas trivistaparipau gitjrutsavollasino 
lokah sapta sapaksapatamaruto bhanti sma bhrnga iva 

Arya^ (Candl) is the sole* lotus in the pool of (Himalaya), the 
Snow Mountain, 

And the seven worlds on the edge of her lotus foot* seemed like 

For the seven worlds <were agitated for a moment by the quiver- 
ing of Mahisa>,* but when (Mahisa), the Foe of Indra's 
Heaven, had been crushed,** 

They cfell [again into position] », as bees <are driven oflF for a 
moment by the shaking of a buffaIo>,* and [afterwards] 
calight [again] »; 



The seven worlds <sport in festivals of song>/ and bees <delight 

in festivals of buzzing> ; 
The seven worlds <have the gods partial [to them]>, and bees 

<produce a breeze by the humming of their wings>. 
May that Arya (Candi) bring you prosperity! 

Notes, z. The meter is JdrdUlavikridita. 2. That is, only daughter 
of Himalajra; see, however, Rdmdyana, 1.35. 17, where Uma and Ganga, 
who are both regarded as wives of iSiva, are said to be the two daughters 
of Himavat (Himalaya). 3. Since the commentary, in drawing a com- 
parison between the seven worlds and bees, contains the phrase padma- 
sthtta hhratnardh, *bees stand on a lotus,' we may perhaps be justified in 
seeking to render the compound padasarojaslfnni, ptmningly, as '[like bees] 
on the border of a lotus-petal/ Such a rendering, however, seems to do 
violence to the order of the words psdasaroja; sarojapSda would more 
naturally be rendered ' lotus-petaL' 4. The foot of Can(}i is resting on 
the shoulder of Mahi$a (cf. stanzas 2, 32 and 79), and as the body of 
Mahi$a quivers in its dying throes, the foot of Can^i, as well as the seven 
worlds that rest on her foot, are agitated, and disturbed in their position. 
Or, perhaps, the words are to be taken figuratively, meaning that the seven 
worlds were agitated (i.e. made anxious) while Mahi$a was engaged in 
his campaign of destruction. On the 'seven worlds,' see SUryaiataka, 
stanza 92, note 11. 5. The words ni^piffe trwiftaparipau, 'when the 
Foe of Indra's Heaven was crushed,' appear to have no paronomasiac 
rendering. 6. That is, a buffalo on which they happen to have alighted. 
The meaning is that insects, such as flies or bees, fly off from an object 
when it moves, and return again when it is still. 7. That is, songs of 
victory over the fall of Mahi$a. 


aprapyesur udasitasir asaner arat kutah £ankuta£ 
cakravyutkramakrt paroksaparafiuh £ulena iunyo yaya 
mrtyur daitjrapateh krtah susadrSah padanguliparvatah 
parvatya pratipalyatam tribhuvanam nih^lyakalyam taya 

The^ death of (Mahisa), Lord of the Daityas, although not 

brought about* by the arrow, nor participated in by the 

And far from [being caused by] the thunderbolt, still less by the 

spear,' being out of range of the discus,* and beyond the aim 

of the ax," not caused by the trident. 
Was [nevertheless] a death very similar [to such], and was 


brought about by Parvati (Candi) through the joint of hef 

The three worlds [were thus made] healthy by being freed from 

(Mahisa), the thorn* [in their flesh]. 
May the three worlds be protected by Parvati (Candi) ! 

Notes, z. The meter is iardulavikr%4ita. a. Reading aprdpye^uh; 
cf. V.L. 3. Lit * how [could it be done] by the spear? ' 4. Lit. ' caus- 
ing an overstepping of the discus.' 5. Lit ' in which the ax was invis- 
ible.' 6. The 'thorn' was Mahi$a; he is similarly spoken of in stanza 
13, and in MahObharata, 3. 231. 106. 

V.L. (a) aprnpteiuh; the KavyamaU text reads Aprnpyefuh; following 
the commentary, I have emended to aprapye^uh, (c) paddnguHparvafia, 


na^tan asf au gajendran avata na vasavah kim difio drag grhitah 
fiarhgin sangramajruktya laghur asi gamitah sadhu tarksyena 

utkhata netrapanktir na tava samaratah pa£ya na£yad balam 

svamathety attadarpam vyasum asuram uma kurvati trayatam 


* O ye Vasus, do not^ protect the eight lordly elephants* [of the 
sky] that have fled. What! Have the regions been sud- 
denly seized?' 

O Bowman (Visnu), thou, being swift in preparation for battle, 
art fittingly carried swiftly* [in flight] by Tarksya 

O (Indra), Lord of Heaven, thy row of eyes' has not been 
gouged out; behold thine own army vanishing from the 

Just as the Demon (Mahisa) was saying these words with an 
assumption of pride,^ Uma (Candi) took away his life. 

May Uma (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The imperative with na is worthy of note. a. These are 
the elephants belonging to the eight regents of the directions of the com- 
pass ; cf . stanzas 50, 59 and 100, and SHryaiataka, stanza 18, note 10. 3. 


The commentary says: *Why are ye also fled?' The meaning of this 
pada is not clear to me, and the whole stanza is troublesome. The prin- 
cipal idea seems to be that Mahi$a is seeking to deride the Vasus, Indra 
and Vi$nu for having run awa^ from the battle where they had been 
fighting with Mahi^a. 4. Lit * caused by Garu^a to go to swiftness/ 
The commentary glosses tOikfnyatu, which ordinarily means * sharpness' 
or * severity,' by SlghratHtti, ' swiftness.' 5. The bird Garu^a was Vi§iju's 
vehicle; cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 47, note 3. 6. Indra is sometimes rep- 
resented as 'the thousand-eyed/ with eyes all over his body; cf. SUrya- 
Jataka, stanza 94, note 4, and Can^Uataka, stanza 42, note 3. 7. Or, 
Uttadarpatu may mean * reft of his pride ' ; cf . stanza 23, note 8. 

V.L. (c) tava surapate paiya. 


firutva $atrum duhitra nihatam atijado 'py agato linaya harsad 
aSlisyan chailakalpam mahisam avanibhrdbandhavo vindhya- 

yasyah fivetikrte 'smin smitadasanaruca tulyarupo himadrir 
drag draghiyan iva "siid avataxnasanirasaya sa stad uma vah 

The Snow Mountain (Himalaya), although very sluggish [with 
cold], came quickly in joy, upon hearing that the Foe 
(Mahisa) had been slain by his daughter (Candi), 

And, since his relatives were mountains, he embraced Mahisa, 
who resembled a mountain, under the impression that he 
(Mahisa) was the Vindhya; 

And so, since this (Mahisa) was made white by the [dazzling] 
splendor of [Uma's (Candi's)] teeth, as she smiled,^ 

The Snow Mountain (Himalaya), whose form was similar [to 
Mahisa's] , quickly appeared to become more extended.* 

May that Uma (Candi) remove your ignorance*! 

Notes. I. Can<j[i smiled at her father's mistake. a. The flash of daz- 
zling light emanating from Can<j[!'s teeth (cf. stanza 67) enveloped Mahisa 
and made him seem white by its gleam. Being of mountainous size to 
begin with, and now being made white by the dazzling splendor of Can<j[!'s 
teeth, he appeared, when embraced by the snow-covered Himalasra, to be 
an extension of that mountain, or, as the text has it, ' the Snow Mountain 
appeared to become more extended.' 3. Lit 'darkness,' but the com- 
mentary says : ' the darkness of ignorance.' According to Hindu philoso- 
phy, the darkness of ignorance was sin, and prevented the merging of the 
individual soul in the All-soul of the Creator. 

V.L. (d) atanujanunir&s&ya, 



ksipto 'yam mandaradrih punar api bhavata vestyatam vasuke 

pnyasva 'nena kim te bisatanutanubhir bhaksitais tarksya 

astabhir diggajendraih saha na harikar! karsati 'mam hate vo 
hrimatya haimavatyas trida^aripiipatau pantv iti vyahrtani 


*Let this Mount Mandara,^ thrown into the ocean, again be 

twirled by thee, O Vasuki, [King of the Serpents]. 
O Tarksya (Gartida), be pleased [to partake] of this [buffalo]*; 

why dost thou, [O Garuda], eat snakes whose bodies are 

thin as lotus-stalks? 
The elephant of Hari* (Indra), together with the eight lordly 

elephants* of the quarters [of the sky], does not drag away 

this (Mahisa)/ 
These were the utterances of the modest Haimavati (Candi), 

after (Mahisa), Lord of the Foes of the Gods, had been 

May these utterances of Haimavati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Mahi$a, who was bulky as a mountain, is meant. Vasuki, or 
Ahina, King of the Serpents, was used as a twirling-cord when Mount 
Mandara was twirled in the celebrated churning of the ocean; cf. the 
references cited in SUrya^ataka, stanza 42, notes 3 and 14, and stanza 72, 
note 4. a. Lit ' be pleased with this ; what is there of you with [these] 
devoured snakes whose bodies, etc.' Garu<j[a is invited to abandon his cus- 
tomary diet of snakes (cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 47, note 3), and to partake 
of a choice morsel of buffalo-meat {mahisa) . 3. According to the com- 
mentary, the allusion here is to Airavana, the elephant of Indra; this 
animal is mentioned in SUrya^ataka, stanza i, and CandUataka, stanza 46, 
and was one of the products of the churning of the ocean ; cf . SUryaiataka, 
stanza i, note 3. The epithet Hart is applied to both Vi§nu and Indra; 
cf. stanza 15, note i. 4. The elephants of the lokapslas are meant; they 
are mentioned in stanzas 50, 57 and 100; see also SUryaMaka, stanza 18, 
note 10. 

V.L. (a) vOsuke 'sau. (b) pr^to 'nenaiva kitn te, (d) tridivaripuhatau. 



esa plosta puranam trayam asuhrdurahpatano 'yam nrsixnho 
hanta tvastram dyurastradhipa iti vividhany utsaveccha- 

vidrananam vimarde idititanayamaye nakalokeSvaranam 
aSraddheyani karmany avatu vidadhati parvati vo hatarih 

' [Can] this [be] (Siva), Burner of the Triad of Cities?^ [And 

is] this the Man-lion (Visnu), who rent open the breast of 

his foe^ (Hiranyakasipu) ? 
[And can] this [be] (Indra), Lord of the Realm of Heaven, 

and Slayer of the Son of Tvastar?'" Thus spake Parvati 

(Candi), who slew her foe (Mahisa), 
And did various deeds that were incredible to the [aforesaid] 

Lords of the Sky-world, who ran away in the battle with 

(Mahisa), Son of Diti, 
But were brought back by a desire for the festival [of victory 

over their foe Mahisa] . 
May Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. That is, can it be possible that the courageous destroyer of 
Tripura, the 'three cities' of the demons, should have run away in the 
battle with Mahisa? The commentary says: 'If by this one a burning of 
Tripura was made, why (kim) did he flee in the battle with Mahi§a?' 
On the destruction of Tripura, see stanza 16, note 3. Although in the text 
there is no kim, or other particle of interrogation, I have thought it best 
to follow the commentary in regarding the clauses in the first two pudas 
as questions. For the omission of kim in interrogative sentences, cf. J. S. 
Speyer, Vedische und Sanskrit-Syntax, 255, in Grundriss der Indo- 
Arischen Philologie, ed. G. Biihler, Strassburg, 1896. a. On the slaying 
of Hiranyakasipu, cf. stanza 11, note i. 3. Indra slew Vftra, son of 
Tva$tar ; cf . stanza 23, note 4. 


^trau iatatriSulaksatavapusi rusa presite pretakastham 
kali Idlalakulyatrayam adhikarayam viksya viSvasitadyauh 
trisrotas tryambakeyam vahati tava bhr^m pa§ya rakta 

no murdhna dharyate kim hasitapatir iti pritaye kalpatam vah 


When the Foe (Mahisa), whose body was wounded by the sharp 

trident, had been despatched, through her anger, to the realm 

of the dead, 
Kali (Candi), who inspired heaven with confidence,* gazing 

upon the swift-flowing triple stream of blood,* 
Said, mocking her husband: *0 Three-eyed (Siva), seel This 

Triple-streamed* (Ganges) of thine, exceedingly red, 
Is flowing impetuously along. Why is she not being carried on 

thy head?'* 
May Kali (Candi) further your joy! 

Notes. I. The commentary takes vih/dsitadySuh, * who inspired heaven 
with confidence,' to be a modifier of trisrotdh, * Triple-streamed,' but from 
its position in the second psda I have regarded it as more properly modi- 
fying kdtl, a. Lit. ' gazing on the triad of rivers of blood, whose speed 
is excessive.' The number of streams of blood corresponds to the number 
of the prongs on the trident ; hence their confusion with the three streams 
of Ganges. To be in keeping with the idea of * three,' Siva is called 
'Three-eyed' (tryambaka) . 3. On the 'three streams' of Ganges, cf. 
stanza 4, note 3. 4. Siva wore the Ganges on his head; cf. stanza 3, 
note 2, and Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi 7, 9 and 11. 

V.L. (a) profite pretaka^thHtn. (b) adhikataratu vlkfya, 


irhge paiyordhvadrstya 'dhikataram atanuh san na puspa- 

yudho 'smi 
vyalasaiige 'pi nityam na bhavati bhavato bhir na yajiio 'smi 

tvam muiicoccaih pinakin punar api visikham danavanam puro 



payat sotprasam evam hasitaharam uma mrdnati danavam vah 

* Gaze more intently on my two horns with thy upper eye, for I, 
<being not weak>, am not one cwhose weapons are flowers*,^ 
and though I am <bodiless>,^ yet I am not cKama* ; 

Nor have I ever fear of thee, even <because' of thy arrows>,* 
seeing that I am cnot Yajna»,° nor <because of thy snakes>,* 
seeing that I am cversed in the mantras'^ [that control 
snakes] >; 


O (Siva), Bearer of the bow Pindka,^ again <shoot thy arrow 
upwards>, for I am cthe cities of the Danavas>,® and <shoot 
thy arrow with might>, for I am cat the front of the 

While the Danava (Mahisa) was derisively saying the above 
words in mockery of Hara (Siva), Uma (Candi) crushed 

May Uma (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The meaning appears to be that if Siva wishes to subdue 
Mahi$a, he must put forth greater efforts than were required to kill Kama 
(cf. SUryaJataka, stanza 55, note 9), who was burnt up by Siva's 'upper 
eye' — that is, his third eye, which was situated in his forehead. Mahi$a 
here implies that Siva's destructive eye has no terrors for him, and he 
further hints that Siva will find his horns more dangerous weapons than 
the weapons of Kama. The latter was armed with flowers, as his epithet 
PufpOyudha, 'he whose weapons are flowers,' implies. a. The epithet 
atanu, 'bodiless,' like ananga, 'bodiless,' was applied to Kama after his 
body had been destroyed by Siva's eye. As applied to Mahi$a, ' bodiless ' 
may refer to his frequent metamorphoses during the battle with Can<j[i; 
cf . Introd., p. 250. Note the apparent contradiction — ' though I am Kama 
(Atanu), yet I am not Kama (Pu$payudha)' — an instance of the rhetorical 
figure virodha ; cf . SUryaSataka, stanza 80, note i. 3. Lit * even in con- 
tact (or, in connection) with thy arrow.' 4. The commentary glosses 
vy&la by hUna, ' arrow,' on the basis of a lexicographical quotation to the 
effect that ' vydla means both " arrow " and " snake " (vydlah sydd bUna- 
sarpayoh)* The ordinary lexicons do not give the meaning 'arrow' for 
vyttla, nor does the Amarakoia nor the Sabdakalpadruma. 5. The com- 
mentary says: 'Just as Yajiia ran away out of fear of the descent of thy 
arrow, even so do not I.' The allusion appears to be to ' Sacrifice ' 
(Yajna) personified, whom Siva slew with an arrow at the sacrifice of 
Dak$a; cf. SUryaJataka, stanza 80, note 2. 6. Siva wore a necklace of 
snakes ; cf . stanza 5 of the vakrokti stanzas of Mayura, p. 232, above. 7. 
Read naya^jna, 'knowing maxims.' This the commentary glosses by 
gdrudiUastrajna, ' versed in the Garu<j[a idjfror.' GanKJia was an authority 
on snakes, since they formed the principal article of his diet; cf. SQrya- 
sataka, stanza 47, note 3. For the formulas or mantras used to cure snake- 
bites, cf. Garuifa Purdna, cap. 19-20 (ed. by Paiicanana Tarkaratna, and 
revised by Virasitnhasastri and Dhiranandakav3ranidhi, Calcutta, 1890; cf. 
transl. by M. N. Dutt, p. 53-58, Calcutta, 1908). 8. Siva was the pos- 
sessor of the bow Pinaka, and is also called Sarva, ' the god who kills with 
arrows.' Ordinarily, the term 'Bowman' is applied to Vi§nu. 9. Siva 
destroyed Tripura. the triple city of the Danavas, by setting it on fire with 
a flaming arrow shot from his bow ; cf. stanza 16, note 3. 

V.L. (a) yasyordhvadrffyHdhikataratn. 



nandisotsaiyamanapasitisamanamannakilokaxn nuvatya 
naptur hastena hastam tadanugatagateh sanmukhasya 'va- 

jamatur matrmadhyopagamaparihrte dar^ane §arma diiyan 
nediyaS cumbyamana mahisavadhamahe menaya murdhny 

uma vah 

At the celebration of the slaying of Mahisa, Uma (Candi) was 

kissed on the head by Mena,^ in the presence of* [her 

(Mena's)] son-in-law (Siva), 
His' eye being averted* upon the approach of the mother (Mena) 

into their midst, 
Grasping with her hand the hand of (Karttikeya), her six-faced 

grandson," whose footsteps followed hers, 
And praising the gods, who did homage as they withdrew when 

ushered out by Nandisa (Siva). 
May Uma (Candi) bestow happiness upon you! 

Notes. I. Mena was the wife of Himalaya and mother of Uma (Can^i) ; 
cf. HarivatfiJa, 1. 18. 13-22. a. The commentary glosses nediyas, * near/ 
by samjpam, * in the presence of/ and supplies jOmatur, * of the son-in-law.' 
3. The commentary takes jQmatur with dar^ane, * eye/ and supplies another 
jdm&tur with nediyas; cf. note 2. 4. Siva, remembering his defeat at 
the hands of Mahisa, averts his glance in shame. 5. The six-faced 
Karttikeya was the reputed son of Siva and Parvati (Can^i) ; cf. stanza 
5, note I, and stanza 28, note 2; see also Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. 11, 
p. 44, where is pictured the family group, consisting of Parvati (Can^i), 
Siva, Ganesa and Karttike3ra, at home on Mt. Kailasa. 

V.L. (a) nUkinrtyam nuvatya, (d) devl saffttusyamSna mahi^avadha'. 
The Kavyamala text reads nedlyac cumbyamdna ; following the commen- 
tary, I have emended to nediyai cumbyam&nH. 


bhaktya bhrgvatrimukhyair munibhir abhinuta biUirati naiva 

Sarvan? Sarmane vah pra^amitasakalopaplava sa sadi 'stu 
ya parsniksunnasatrur vigalitakuli$aprasapa$atri$ulam 
nakaukolokam eva svam api bhujavanam samyuge Vastv 



Sarvani (Candi), who allays all misfortune, and who is praised 

with devotion 
By the sages^ headed by Bhrgu and Atri, does not indeed assume 

pride, [though it was she] 
Who, after crushing the Foe (Mahisa) with her heel, r^arded 

as a useless thing her own forest of arms,* 
As well, indeed, as [those belonging to] the world of the gods, 

[for from their arms, as from hers], there fell in the battle 

the thunderbolt, the javelin, the noose and the trident.'^ 
May that Sarvani (Candi) ever promote your welfare! 

Notes. I. For a list of the seven sages, see SUryaiataka, stanza 13, 
note 8. a. For Can<j[rs ' forest of arms/ cf. stanza 39, note 2. 3. The 
commentary explains: 'The thunderbolt, etc., fell from the hands of the 
gods because of fear, and from the hands of Bhavani (Can<j[i) for the 
purpose of [delivering] blows/ 

V.L. (c) vigalitakuliidpc^taiastfipinOikafft or naganitakulUaprilsaJastf%pi' 
nUkaffi, (d) evatn svam api bhujavanatu satfiyuge or drtatfi drutam iti 
rabhasH satfiyuge, 


cakram fiaureh pratipam pratihatam agamat prag dyudham- 

nam tu paScad 
apac capam balarer na param agunatam pustrayaplosino 'pi 
Saktya lam mam vijetum na jagad api Sisau sanmukhe ka 

nyakkurvan nakilokam ripur avadhi yaya sa 'vatat parvati 


'First the <discus> of Sauri (Visnu),4:being warded off», «re- 
bounded*,* and afterwards the <army> of the gods, cbeing 
repulsed*, «retreated» ; 

Not only did the <rainbow> of Bala's^ Foe (Indra) attain cthe 
condition of being without a bowstring*, but also the <bow> 
of (Siva), Burner of the Triad of Cities,' attained cthe 
condition of being without efficiency*; 

The world was not able to conquer me with its <power> ; far 
less the Six-faced Boy (Karttikeya) with his <spear>.'* 


As with these words the Foe (Mahisa) was humbling the god- 
world, he was slain by Parvati (Candi). 
May that Parvati (Candi) protect you! 


Notes. I. Lit. 'went backward/ a. Bala was a demon, brother of 
Vftra; cf. MahObhOrata, 1.65.33; he was conquered by Maghavan (Indra), 
according to MahOhhUrata, 3. 168. 81. 3. Siva burnt Tripura; cf. stanza 
16, note 3. 4. Lit. ' what is the tale in [the case of] the Six- faced Boy?' 
— ^the meaning being that Karttikeya would be even less able to conquer 
him; this is implied also in the commentary. For Karttike3ra and his six 
faces, cf. Suryaiataka, stanza 25, notes i, 4, 8 and 10, and Can4Uataka, 
stanza 5, note i, and stanza 28, note 2. 

V.L. (a) pratihatam apatat 


vbtrane rudravrnde savitari tarale vajrini dhvastavajre 
jata^fike Safianke viramati maruti tyaktavaire kubere 
vaikunthe kunthitastre mahisam atirusam paunisopaghnanigh- 

nirvighnam nighnati vah Samayatu duritam bhuribhava 


When* the troop of the Rudras ran away, when Savitar (Surya) 

trembled, when Indra lost his thunderbolt, 
When fear was bom in the Hare-marked^ (Moon), when Marut 

(Wind) stopped, when Kubera was deserted by his courage, 
And when the Sharp One's (Visnu's) weapon was blunted, [then] 

Bhavani (Candi), whose existences are manifold. 
Easily^ slew the enraged Mahisa, who depended for safeguard 

on his own prowess. 
May Bhavani (Candi) destroy your sin! 

Notes. I. This stanza is quoted in the Paddhati (4. 26) of ^arngadhara 
(no. 112 of the ed. by Peterson; cf. the partial edition by Aufrecht in 
ZDMG, vol. 27, where text and translation are given on p. 53-54), in the 
Harihdrdvali, or Subh^itahQrHvall (13 b), of Hari Kavi (cf. Peterson, 
Second Report of Operations in Search of Skt. MSS, p. 57-58, Bombay, 
1884; see also Thomas's edition of the Kavlndravacanasamuccaya, introd., 
p. 56, Calcutta, 1912; Peterson, loc. cit., states that this anthology is later 
than the Subha^itSvali [1450 A.D.], or the Paddliati [1363 A.D.] of Sarn- 
gadhara), in the SaduktikarnHmrta (1.25.5) of Sridhara Dasa (ed. in the 


Bibliotheca Indica Series by Ramavatara Sarma, the first fascicle having 
appeared at Calcutta in 1912; cf. Rajendralala Mitra [Notices of Skt. 
MSS, voL 3, p. 134, no. 1180, Calcutta, 1876], who gives the date of the 
Saduktikarnamfta as 1205 A.D.), in the SarasvafikanthQhharana (2.295) 
of Bhojadeva (p. 254 of the edition by Jivananda Vid3rasagara, Calcutta, 
1894), and m Parab's modem anthology, the SubhO^taratnabhanditgara 
(p. 19, stanza 48). The reason for its citation by the Sarasvatikanthabha- 
rana is to illustrate the rhetorical device venikd ('braid'), a type of 
var^tihtuprasa (* syllable alliteration ') ; on p. 254 of Vidyasagara's edition, 
venika is defined as follows: J vQkyaparisamUpter varnanuprasanirvUho 
venika, 'veniki is the bringing about of the repetition of sounds as far 
as the close of what is said.' Stanza 40 of the Canfi^ataka is similarly 
cited in the Sarasvafikan^hobharana as an example of the citra type of 
varndnuprUsa; cf. stanza 40, note 6. a. For the * Hare-marked (Moon),' 
cf . SHryaiataka, stanza 42, note 7. 3. Literally, ' unobstructedly.' 

V.L. (b) The HarifUlrSvali (see note i, above) reads viramati mahati. 
(c) Aufrecht (see note i) reads mahifam ahiru^am, and the HarihUrHvali 
reads mahifam atiru^a; the HarihdrQivali and the SaduktikarfUtmrta (see 
note i) read -opaghnavighnam, (d) the HariharOvali reads ^amalatn (for 


bhusam bhuyas tava 'dya dvigunataram aham datum evaisa 

bhagne daityena darpan mahisitavapusa kim visane visannah 
ity uktva patu matur mahisavadhamahe kunjarendrananasya, 
nyasyann asye guho vah smitasitarucini dvesino dve visane 

*P am indeed resolved to give back again [to thee] today thy 

adornment in twofold measure ; 
Why [then] art thou despondent over thy tusk's having been 

arrogantly broken by the Daitya (Mahisa),^ who changed his 

body into that of a buffalo?' 
So speaking at the festival [of rejoicing] over the killing of 

Mahisa, Guha (Karttikeya) flung into the face' of (Ganesa), 

who has the visage of a lordly elephant, 
The two horns of his mother's* (Candi's) foe (Mahisa) — horns 

made dazzling white by her smile.* 
May Guha (Karttikeya) protect you! 

Notes. I. Guha (Karttikeya), the speaker, is here addressing his brother 
GaneSa, whose adornment was a tusk; he had but one, the other having 

330 THE candISataka of bana 

been broken off. Guha now promises to give him two tusks, namely, the 
two horns of Mahi$a, in place of the one he had lost. s. This is not 
the usual cause assigned to explain the loss of Ganesa's tusk. According 
to the story told in the Brahmavdivarta Purdna, Ganesa and Parasurama 
once came to blows because the latter attempted to force his way past the 
former into Siva's presence. In the course of the struggle, Parasurama 
threw his ax at Ganesa, and the latter, recognizing it as his father's weapon 
— Siva had given it to Parasurama — received it humbly on his tusk, which 
it forthwith severed; cf. Wilkins, Hindu Mythology, p. 327. For other 
accounts of the manner in which Ganesa lost his tusk, cf. stanza 35, note 3. 
3. Or, 'placed them on the face'; that is, adjusted them to Ganesa's 
physiognomy. 4. Karttikeya was the reputed brother of Ganeia, and 
son to Siva and ParvatI (Can<}i) ; cf. stanza 5, note i, stanza 28, note 2, 
and stanza 35, note 5. 5. For the power of Can<}i's smile to make objects 
brilliant, cf. stanza 58. 


viSramyanti Sramarta iva tapanabhrtah saptayah sapta yasmin 
suptah sapta 'pi lokah sthitimusi mahise yaminidhamni yatra 
dharanam raudhirinam arunimani nabhahsandrasamdhyam 

tasya dhvamsat suta 'drer aparadinapatih patu vah padapataih 

When <Mahisa>,^ cpossessing the appearance of night*,* de- 
stroyed the ^settled order of things*,* 

The seven horses* of (Surya), Bringer of Heat, sought repose, 
as if oppressed with weariness, and the seven worlds* [had 
recourse to] sleep; [but] 

(Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, a second (Surya), Lord of 
Day,* produced a deep twilight in the sky 

By the redness of the streams of blood [that arose] from the 
destruction of <that (Mahisa)> ^through blows of her feet*. 

May (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, protect you! 

[And, punningly] 

After the <powerful> ^splendor of night» destroys the «uni- 
formity of things*,^ 

The seven horses of (Surya), Bringer of Heat, seek repose, as 
if oppressed with weariness, and the seven worlds [have re- 
course to] sleep; [but] 


(Surya), Lord of Day,® produces a deep twilight in the sky by 
the redness of the blood [-colored] streams [of the dawn- 
Hght] , 

[Which arise] from the destruction of <that (splendor of night) > 
cby the shedding forth of his rays». 

May (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, protect you! 

Notes. I. For the second renderings, compare the corresponding pudas 
in the second version of the stanza. a. According to the commentary, 
the meaning is that Mahi$a is black-colored, like night. 3. The ' settled 
order of things ' is that men and animals work in the daytime and sleep 
during the night. Mahi$a, by bringing the darkness of destruction upon 
the universe, makes night come unseasonably, and so disturbs the settled 
arrangement. 4. On the * seven horses ' of Surya, cf . SHryaiataka, 
stanza 8, note 2. 5. For the ' seven worlds,' cf . SUryaJataka, stanza 92, 
note II. 6. Mahi$a brings darkness and destruction, but Can<}!, like the 
sun (Sunra), brings the light, and dissipates the darkness by slaying 
Mahi^a. 7. Night destroys uniformity by alternating with day. Other- 
wise it would be always and uniformly daytime. 8. The word apara, 

* second,' as applied to the ' Lord of Day,' is necessarily omitted in the 
second rendering, for otherwise the point of the intended comparison be- 
tween Can<}i and Surya would be lost 


devarer danavarer drutam iha mahisacchadmanah padma- 

vidrati 'ty atra citram tava kim iti bhavan nabhijato yatah sah 
nabhito loihut svayanxbhur iva samarabhuvi tvam tu yad vi- 

smita 'smi 
'ty uktva tad vismitam vah stnararipumahislvikrame 'v3raj 


* <0 Atra* (Siva)>, are you amazed <at this> — ^that the Lotus- 

dweller (Brahma) here ran quickly away from (Mahisa), 

Foe of the Gods, who was disguised as a buffalo ? 
Are you amazed <at this>, seeing that he, although <sprung from 

the naveh of (Visnu), Foe of the Danavas,* is <not of 

noble birth>?" 
He (Brahma) was [indeed] <sprung from the naveh,* but I am 

amazed that you also, like the Self-existent (Brahma), were 

<not fearless> on the field of battle/ 


So spake Jaya," who was amazed at the prowess of (Candi), the 

queen-consort of (Siva), Foe of Smara. 
May that amazement of Jaya protect you ! 

Notes. I. According to the commentary, atra is a vocative, meaning ' O 
Siva.' Etymologically it may mean ' non-protecting/ as it does, according 
to PIVB, in Brhad Aranyaka Upani^ad, 5. 13. 4. Such a meaning would 
be apposite here, since Siva had failed to protect the three worlds in the 
conflict with Mahi^a. It should be noted, however, that the term atra 
seems not to be used elsewhere as an epithet of Siva. s. The commen- 
tary connects dUnavdrer, *of the Foe of the Danavas,' with nObhijdto, 
* sprtmg from the navel,' and although its position seems against this, the 
grammatical construction and the sense demand that it be so taken. For 
an account of Brahma's birth from a lotus growing out of Vi$nu's navel, 
cf . Saryasataka, stanza 13, note 4. 3. The commentary says : * For one 
well-born, running away is not becoming.' 4. The full force of the pun 
in nabhitas is lost in translation. Jaya is amazed that Siva, as well as 
Brahma, should be nUbhUas, 'sprung from the navel [of Vi?nu]'; but of 
course, apart from the pun, ndbhUas as applied to Siva must be taken only 
in its other sense of 'not fearless' (na-abhUas), $• On Jaya, see stanza 
15, note 7. 

V.L. (c) and (d) vismitSstnUtnstyaktvS or vismitHsity uktvH, (d) jayd 
vah (at the end of the pada), 


nistrunSe nocitam te visasanam urasa§ candi karma 'sya 

vridam asyopari tvam kuru drdhahrdaye muiica $astrany 

ittham daityaih sadainyam samadam api surais tulyam evo- 

nidrani darunam vo dravayatu duritam danavam darayanti 

' <0 Cruel One>,^ the cutting open of the breast [of Mahisa] is 
<not> a proper [thing] for thee [to do] ; cO Angry One», 
«give over* [this] ccawful deed»» ; 

Do thou have shame <in regard to [killing] him>^; cO Hard- 
hearted One»,^ clay aside» those weapons.' [Thus spake 
the demons; 

But the gods said] : * cO Candi», the cutting open of the breast 
[of Mahisa] <with the sword>* is a proper [thing] for thee 
[to do] ; ccawful [are] the deeds»» «of him* ; 


Do thou have shame <in regard to [sparing] him>* ; tO Resolute- 
hearted One>,' «hurl» those weapons <at him>/ 

Thus addressed in the same words — ^by the demons piteously, 
and by the gods joyously — Rudrani (Candi) split open the 
Danava (Mahisa). 

May Rudrani (Candi) remove your dire sin*! 

Notes. I. Resolve here as nistriffih na-ucitatfi, but in the second ren- 
dering as nistriftihna-ucitafji. For the second meanings of the Ile^as in 
the first two p&das, see the second rendering, beginning ' € O Can^I ».' 3. 
Lit 'do thou make shame in regard to him/ The commentary says: 
'Through the killing of an animal there is shame/ Mahisa, being a 
buffalo, was an animal, and the demons remind Can<j[i that she, a good 
Hindu, should be ashamed to kill an animal 3. The word dY4^^fdaye, 
'O Hard-hearted One,' is here glossed by aparCtdhasahifnu hrdayatft, 'a 
heart patient of sin,' and in the second rendering by kathinahfdaye, *0 
Firm-hearted One/ 4. The commentary says : ' If the killing of Mahisa 
is not brought about, then great will be thy shame/ That is, if Caii^i did 
not kill Mahi$a, she would have failed to accomplish what she had at- 
tempted to do, and so would be open to ridicule. 5. The alliteration 
(anuprUsa) of the letter d in the last puda is perhaps worthy of note. 

V.L. (b) dr^hahrdayam, 


caksur diksu ksipantyaS calitakamalinicarukosabhitamram 
mandradhvananuyatam jhatiti valayino muktabanasya paneh 
candyah savyapasavyam suraripusu §aran prerayantya jayanti 
trutyantah pinabhage stanavalanabharat samdhayah kaiicu- 

Candi casts her glance out over the regions — ^a glance red as 

the beautiful bud of the tremulous lotus — 
And it is instantly^ followed by the deep humming sound of the 

arrow that is sped from her braceleted hand ; 
And, as she despatches her shafts right and left at the foes of the 

The joints of her corselet gape open at the part where it bulges 

out from the bulk of her swelling breasts. 
Glory to these joints of Candi's corselet ! 

[In this stanza the usual benediction is omitted. y 

334 THE candiSataka of bana 

Notes. I. 'Instantly/ because she shoots as soon as she glances. The 
commentary, however, would take jhafiti, 'instantly,' with mukta, 'sped,' 
and regards the humming sound as that made by the bracelet. It would 
render as follows : ' A glance,* followed by the deep humming sound of her 
braceleted hand that instantly speeds an arrow.' s. For the omission of 
the benediction, cf . stanza 3, note 5 ; and for the omission of any mention 
of Mahi$a, cf. stanza 25, note 8. 


bahutksepasamuUasatkucatatam prantasphutatkaiicukam 
parvatya mahisasuravyatikare vyayamaramyam vapuh 
paryastavadhibandhabandhuralasatkesoccayam patu vah 

In* the conflict^ with the Buffalo-demon (Mahisa), the body of 

Parvati (Candi) [appeared] lovely in its exertion; 
[For] her corselet gaped open at the edges, and her rounded 

breasts' came into view by the raising of her arm, 
And the girdle-supported half of her upper garment slipped 

down to the circle of the navel deep-set* in her abdomen. 
And the shining mass of her hair, adorned with fillets to confine 

it," was disheveled. 
May the body of Parvati (Candi) protect you*! 

Notes. I. The meter here, as also of stanzas 25, 32, 49, 55 and 56, is 
^OrdUlavikrufita. s. For vyatikara used in the sense of * battle/ or * con- 
flict,' see stanza 5, note 3. 3. Lit. * slope of the breast' 4. A deep-set 
navel was a mark of beauty. 5. Lit * adorned with fillets as limits.' 
6. A stanza not unlike this as regards subject-matter, but in the sragdhard 
meter, is found under Bana's name in the Saduktikarndmrta (1.25.4), and 
runs as follows: — 

pSddva^tambhanamfikffamahifatanor ullasadbShumUlafft 

Matfi proUdsayantyah saralitavapufo madhyabhdgasya devy&h 


tisro vah pantu rekhah kramavaiavikasatkahcukaprantamuktih 

*When Devi (Can<Ji), with tense body, crushed the form of Mahi$a with 

her pillar-like foot. 
She brandished her trident, making visible her arm-pit, and the three 

wrinkles over her abdomen 
Came into view by reason of the opening of the edges of her corselet as 

she took a [forward] step. 
And the very beautiful white spaces [of flesh] between [the wrinkles 

appeared], disunited, clearly seen, raised, and separated by intervals. 
May the three wrinkles of Devi's (Can<jrs) abdomen protect you!' 


The SarasvatJkanthdbharana (3. 10) of Bhojadeva also cites this stanza, 
but anonymously; cf. p. 439 [^339], ed. by JIvananda Vidyasagara, Cal- 
cutta, 1894. The variants are -valivyakta- (for -bahuvyakta-) and lekhah 
(for rekhilh). The commentary in the SarasvatlkafifhCibharana says that 
the compound ullasadbUhumUlam is to be taken adverbially. Further ref- 
erence to the trivali, or triple wrinkle over the abdomen, is found in 
CantflJataka, stanza 30. 

V.L. (c) rudrdnyOrh mahifOsura' ; Irngararamyam. 


cakram cakrayudhasya kvanati nipatitam romani gravani 'va 
sthanor banaS ca lebhe pratihatim uruna carmana varmaneva 
yasyeti krodhagarbham hasitaharihara tasya girvanaSatroh 
payat padena mrtyum mahisatanubhrtah kurvati parvati vah 

'The discus of (Visnu), the Thrower of the Discus, when it de- 
scended on the hair [of Mahisa], rang out* as if [it had 
descended] on a stone, 

And the arrow of Sthanu (Siva) rebounded from the broad hide* 
[of Mahisa], as if from a coat of mail.' 

Parvati (Candi), having mocked Hari (Visnu) and Hara (Siva) 
with these words in her anger," 

Brought about with her foot the death of that (Mahisa), Foe of 
the (jods, who bore the body of a buffalo. 

May Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Lit. 'rings out' a. Lit. 'took a rebound by the broad hide.' 
3. The word krodhagarbhatu is best regarded as an adverbial accusative. 


krtva vaktrendubimbam caladalakalasadbhrulatacapabhaiigam 
ksobhavyalolataram sphuradarunarucispharaparyantacaksuh 
samdhyasevaparaddham bhavam iva purato vamapadam- 

ksiptam daityam ksipanti mahisitavapusam parvati vah punatu 

After* Parvati (Candi) had, on the moon-like disk of her face, 
knitted her creeper-like, bow-shaped eyebrow that moved 
like a tremulous leaf ,^ 


And after she had, in her agitation, caused the pupil of her eye to 

roll about, and when her eyelid was expanded, red-colored 

and quivering, 
She spumed with her left* lotus foot the Daitya (Mahisa), whose 

body had been changed into that of a buffalo, 
As if [he were] Bhava (Siva), who formerly was spumed* [by 

her] for having committed a fault by his adoration of 

May Parvati (Candi) purify you! 

Notes. I. Lit. ' Parvati, having caused the moon-like disk of her face 
to have the knitting of its brow moving, etc., and to have its eye-pupil 
rolling about, etc' a. Or, 'which shines like the (Uvattha tree'; caladala, 
'whose leaf is tremulouis,* is an epithet of the ah;attha tree (ficusreligiosa). 
The derivative form dalaka for dala, 'leaf/ happens not to be found in 
the ordinary lexicons. 3. On the question which foot Can^i used 
when she kicked Mahisa to death, cf. stanza 10, note 6. 4. The com- 
mentary reads kfipram, 'quickly,' for k^iptatfi, 'spumed.' If k^iproffi be 
adopted, the sense would be: 'quickly spuming, as she did Bhava.' 5. 
Apparently Can<ji was jealous because Siva was paying too much attention 
to Samdhya (Twilight personified, a daughter of Brahma, and wife to 
Siva — so Dowson, A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, p. 277), 
and too little to herself, but I have been unable thus far to find any refer- 
ence in the m3rthology to such an incident as that here described; in the 
following stanza, however, mention is again made of this spuming of Siva. 
Compare also the rendering of stanza 49 suggested in note 6 thereon. In 
Mayura's stanza entitled 'The Anger of Uma' (see above, p. 240), Uma's 
(Cancji's) jealousy of Sarpdhi (Samdhya) is again alluded to. 

V.L. (b) kopClt T/y alolataratft. 


vafichasampurnabhavad adhikatararasam turnam ayan 

ksiptah padena duram vrsaga iva yaya vatnapadabhilasi 
devarih kaitavaviskrtamahisavapuh sa Vatad ambika vah 

(Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, who had deceitfully assumed the 
body of a buffalo, 


Was, like the Bull-riding (Siva), spumed^ to a distance by the 

foot of Ambika (Candi), even though, [like him], desirous 

of her left foot,* 
And he was <made to appear speckled > by the pollen that was 

shaken off from the lotus-cluster damaged by [his] contact 

with Ganga (Granges), 
[Whereas Siva was] <beautified> by the pollen that was shaken 

off from the lotus-cluster damaged by [his] contact with 

Ganga [his wife] ; 
[The one, Mahisa], quickly approached [Candi] <with anger 

greater than the measure of his desire>'; [the other, Siva], 

approached [her] <with sexual passion increased by the 

fulness of his desire>.' 
May that Ambika (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. See stanza 74 (note 5), where a similar spuming of Siva is 
recorded. Can this possibly be a veiled allusion to the kick Baxia received 
from his wife (of. Introd., p. 22) ? a. The commentary explains : ' De- 
sirous to cling to [her] left foot, in order to propitiate and to injure [it]/ 
Mahi$a, of course, was the one who wished to injure the foot, for it was 
Candi's foot that was destined to cause his death; cf. stanza 10, note 6. 
3. Lit ' with anger more than superior to the full state of his desire,' and 
in the second rendering, ' with sexual desire more than superior, etc' 


bhadre bhrucapam etan namayasi nu vrtha visphurannetra- 

na liam kelau rahasye pratiyuvatikrtakhyatidosah pinaki 
devi sotprasam evam dhrtamahisatanum drptam antahsako- 

devarim patu yusman atiparusapada nighnati bhadrakali 

*0 my dear madam (Candi), vainly indeed dost thou bend [at 

me] that bow of thy brow, whose arrow is thy quivering 

glance ; 
I am not Pinakin (Siva) making a mistake in [using] the name 

of a co-wife, while [engaged] in secret amorous play.'^ 
While he was thus derisively speaking, proud and inwardly full 

of anger, and wearing the form of a buffalo, 


338 THE candiSataka of bana 

The goddess Bhadrakali (Candi) killed with her excessively hard 

foot [this] (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods. 
May Bhadrakali (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Mahi$a implies that Can^i, when dealing with him, was not 
handling some little cause of misunderstanding in the domestic circle, as, 
for example, when her husband ^iva called her by the name of the co-wife. 
The commentary explains : ' I am not Siva, making a blunder in a name.' 

V.L. (a) ^atnaya mama ru^S visphuran- or ^amayasi tu ru^H, (c) 
mahifitavapu^atn dfptam. 



svam bhoh samtyajya &unbhau khuraputadalitaprollasaddhuli- 

bhadre kridabhimardi tava savidham aham kamatah prapta 

'traivam sotprasam avyan mahisasuraripum nighnati parvati 

'I have abandoned to Sambhu (Siva) his garland of skulls that 
fell, crushed by the close contact of [our] clinching one 

And I am white with the eddying dust, that is pulverized by the 
hollow of my hoof, [and thus look like the ascetic Siva] ; 

And, gracious lady (Candi), I have come into thy presence here 
<purposely> 4:to oppress [thee] for my amusement», 

[Like] Siva, who, <because of his desire>, 4:hugs [thee] in amor- 
ous play».'* 

As (Mahisa), the buffalo [-shaped] Foe of the Gods, was thus 
derisively speaking, Parvati (Candi) killed him. 

May Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Mahi$a claims to be Siva — first, because he has crushed Siva's 
necklace of skulls ; secondly, because he is white with dust, like Siva, who, 
as an ascetic, is smeared with dust and ashes; and in the third place, be- 
cause he acts like Candi's lord, 'hugging [her] in amorous play,' though 
this phrase is applicable to Mahi$a only in its other meaning, namely, 
'oppressing [her] for [his] amusement.' There may also be another double 
rendering as follows: 'And, gracious lady (Candi), since [in the battle] 


I < oppressed [thee] for my amusement >, I have been obtained by due rite 
as thy € lord >, « after [my] desire », and so in this case also am [like] 
€ §iva>, who, « because of [his] desire », < hugs [thee] in amorous play >/ 

V.L. (a) and (b) 'kapalam^atft svdngatu vinyasya, (b) iamhho. (c) 
kroif^bhimardl. (d) atra omitted. 


jvaladharakaralam dhvanitakrtabhayam yam prabhettum na 

calaram visnor drdhafiri prativihatarayam daityamalavinafii 
ksunnas tasya 'sthisaro vibudharipupateh padapatena yasya 
rudranl patu sa vah prafiamitasakalopaplava nirvighatam 

The hard-edged discus of Visnu, terrible as a stream of flame, 

inspiring fear by its noise, annihilating hosts of demons, 
Was not able to pierce that (Mahisa), and had its impetuous 

onset warded oflF [by him] ; 
But the [very] marrow of the bones of that (Mahisa), Leader of 

the Foes of the Gods, 
Was crushed with a blow of her foot by Rudrani (Candi), who 

alleviates all distress. 
May that Rudrani (Candi) unfailingly* protect you! 

Notes. X. Lit ' unhinderedly/ 

V.L. (a) svanitakftabhayam yatra kartutft na iaktatfi, (b) The Kavya- 
mala text reads df4hilsri, but I have changed to df^hdiri, which is one of 
the variants given in the footnotes, and which seems to be the preferred 
spelling, according to the recognized lexicons, PIVB, etc. (b) srtivihata- 
rayatfi dOityamdyCnnUivi, (c) vibudhariputnbhoh, (d) praJamitabhuva- 



daityam samjataSiksam janamahisam iva nyakkrtagrjranga- 

arudha Siilapanih krtavibudhabhayam hantukamam sagarvam 
deyad va$ cintitani drutamahisavadhavaptatustir bhavani 

340 THE candISataka of bXna 

Bhavani (Candi), trident in hand, mounted on the Daitya 

(Mahisa), who had filled the gods with fear, and was proud 

and eager to slay, 
[But] who had the upper surface of the forepart of his body 

bending beneath the great weight of her firmly planted foot. 
And his head^ brought low, like an ordinary buffalo that has been 

[She then] obtained satisfaction by quickly despatching Mahisa. 
May Bhavani (Candl) mow down* your cares! 

Notes. I. Lit. 'chief part of the body/ a. Lit 'in whom learning 
has been produced/ The meaning seems to be that, as a trained buffalo 
will lie down and put his head on the ground at the command of his master 
and trainer, so Mahi^a's head is brought to the ground by Ca9<}i, who 
la3rs him low after proving herself his master in the battle. 3. The form 
deydt appears to be a precative from the root do or di, which means 
' divide ' or ' mow ' ; cf . SUryalataka, stanza 36, where dyatu, also from the 
root do or da, is used in the sense of ' mow down/ 

V.L. (a) -padapracurabharanamat'. (b) nijUHtaHk^affi or nirjnUtar 
Hfyatft or niryatasSraffi or nirjUtoH^faffi; prakrtHgryangabhagam, (c) 


brahma yogaikatano virahabhavabhayad dhurjafih strikrtatma 
vaksah Saurer vifialam pranayakrtapada padmavasa 'dhifiete 
yuddhaksmam evam etc vijahatu dhig imam yas tyajaty esa 

drptam daityendram evam sukhayatu samada nighnati parvati 


'Brahma is intent on yoga meditation; (Siva), with his btirden 
of matted locks, has had [half of] himself made into a 
woman through fear of becoming separated^ ; 

And (Laksml), whose dwelling is a lotus, reclines upon the 
broad breast of Sauri (Visnu), having gained a footing in 
his affection. 

Let these abandon the battle-field in that way, [if they choose], 
but fie upon him, namely, Sakra (Indra) here, who deserts 
it! '2 


As (Mahisa), the proud Indra of the Daityas, was uttering these 

words, Parvati (Candi), enraged, put him to death. 
May Parvati (Candi) bring you welfare! 

Notes. X. A reference to ^iva in his ardhanHrUa form, half male and 
half female ; cf . stanza 26, note 4, and SUryaJataka, stanza 88, note 4. For 
the etymology of dhUrjafi, 'possessing a burden of matted locks/ cf. 
Snryaiataka, stanza 71, note 4. a. The thought seems to be that the 
other gods have duties, attractions or occupations elsewhere that may 
have called them from the battle, but Indra, the war-god, has no such 
excuse, since fighting is his principal business. 

V.L. (a) brahman; bhavatnrahabhaydd; svlkrtHinUt, (c) dhig imdn 
yat tyajaty e^a latruh or vidUatft drOk tyajatv e^a iakrdh. (d) dr^^afji 


evam mugdhe kila "sih karakamalaruca ma muhuh ke&ipa$am 
so 'nyastrinam ratadau kalahasamucito yah priye dosalabdhe 
vaidagdhyad evam antahkalusitavacanam dustadevarinatham 
devi vah patu parsnya drdhatanum asubhir mocayanti bhavani 

*0 lovely (Candi), pray do not thus repeatedly, with thy lovely 
lotus hand,* throw [at me] thy noose of hair — 

That [noose it is] which is suitable for chastising thy beloved 
(Siva), when he has incurred a fault [by indulgence] in 
love's pleasures, and the like, with other women.' ^ 

As the massive-bodied (Mahisa), Lord of the Vile Foes of the 
Gods, was cleverly making this utterly foul speech. 

The goddess Bhavani (Candi) deprived him of life with her heel. 

May Bhavani (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Lit. ' with the beauty of thy lotus hand.' 2, Mahi$a would 
say that the noose with which Candi was tr3ring to entangle him was com- 
monly used by her as a means of chastising Siva on the occasions when 
he was guilty of infidelity. 

V.L. (a) karakatnalatayS, (b) kopalahdhe. 


balo 'dya 'pi "Sajanma samaram udupabhrt pamsulilavilasi 
nagasyah fiatadantah svatanukaramadad vihvalah so 'pi Santah 


dhig yasi kveti dustaxn muditatanumudam danavam sasphu- 

payad vah ^ilaputri mahisatanubhrtam nighnati vamapar^nyS 

' (Karttikeya), the son of Isa (Siva), has become a child* again 
today, as r^;ards combat*; the Crescent-bearing (Siva) is 
devoting himself to playing with dust* ; 

The Elephant-faced (Ganesa), of sharp tusk, exhausted by his 
intoxication for his own slender trunk, is also subdued ; 

And where — out upon thee! — art thou going?'* As the wicked 
Danava (Mahisa), bearing the body of a buffalo, and de- 
lighting in the horripilating of his body," 

Was saying these words in a vibrant tone, (Candi), the Daughter 
of the Mountain, killed him with her left* heel. 

May (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, protect you! 

Notes. X. A sarcastic reference by Mahi$a to Karttikeya's epithet 
Kumdra, which means 'child' or *son.* For Karttikeya's relationship to 
Siva, see stanza 5, note i, and stanza 28, note 2. 2. The commentary 
glosses samaram, which I take to be an adverbial accusative, by sangrHmatfi 
Pratt, * in the matter of battle.' 3. The commentary glosses : * Intent on 
sprinkling [himself] with ashes.' The meaning is that Siva, having failed 
to overcome Mahi$a in battle, has recourse to ascetic practices. 4. 
Mahi$a, after stating that Can(}rs husband, Siva, and her two sons, 
Karttikeya and Ganesa (cf. stanza 5, note i, and stanza 35, note 5), have 
g^ven up the struggle and gone their respective ways, asks Candi where 
she intends to go after he has defeated her. The phrase dhig yUsi kveti, 
'and where — out upon thee! — art thou going?' occurs also in stanza 34. 
5. Lit muditatanutnudafft means ' whose joy is a joyful body,' but the com- 
mentary glosses mudita, 'joyful,' by romdncita, ' horripilated.' 6. For 
the ' left ' foot, cf . stanza 10, note 6. 

V.L. (a) samarasurapatir hhasmalMUvilUA] -lildbhiyogyah, (c) kveti 
dr^tam; mfditatanumudatft; sasphutoktam, 


murdhnah gulam mamaitad viphalam abhimukham Samkarot- 

sangramad duram etad dhrtam ari harina manmanah kar^atf 



garvad evam ksipantam vibudhajanavibhiin daityasenadhi- 

Sarvanl patu yusman padabharadalanat pranato durayanti 

'Useless is this trident (sttla) brandished* by Samkara (Siva) 

before my face, it [merely causes] an ache (iula) in my 

head ; 
And this discus, borne by Hari (Visnu) far from the battle,* 

draws," as it were, my sensibilities [after it] .'* 
As (Mahisa), the Overlord of the Army of the Daityas, was thus 

in his pride reviling the sovereigns of the race of the gods, 
SarvanT (Candi) removed him from life by crushing him with 

the weight of her foot. 
May Sarvani (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The word utkhdta, 'eradicated/ is here glossed by prahSra- 
rtham uttambhitam, 'raised for the purpose of [delivering] a blow.' I 
have rendered as 'brandished.' a. According to the commentary, the 
phrase sangrdmdd dUram, ' far from the battle/ is to be taken with harinU 
dhrtam, 'borne by Hari/ and not with manmanah kar^ati, 'draws my 
mind.' 3. That is, draws one's thoughts (or, sensibilities) to it by yoga 
meditation. 4. The ptmning meaning seems to be that the trident {Hila), 
which ^iva had thrust into Mahi$a's head, did not cause the latter any more 
serious inconvenience than a headache {Ma), and the discus of Vi$nu he 
regarded not as a weapon for him to fear, but merely as an object of medi- 
tation. For a similar pun on the meanings of the word iQla, cf. stanza 
27, note I. 

V.L. (b) dUratn asmat sthitam art, 


bhramyaddhamaurvadahaksubhitajalacaravyastavicm sakam- 

krtvaiva "&u prasannan punar api jaladhm mandaraksobha- 

darpad ayantam eva Srutiputaparusam nadam abhyudgirantam 
kanya 'dreh patu yusmamS caranabharanatam pimsati daitya- 


When (Mahisa), Lord of the Daityas, had indeed quickly caused 
the clear* [waters of the] oceans to be again disturbed [as 
if] by [Mount] Mandara* — 

344 THE candISataka of bana 

While they heaved and their waves were tossed about by the 

aquatic animals that were agitated by the submarine con- 

flagration* with its flickering blaze, 
He (Mahisa) approached [Candi] in his pride, giving voice to a 

bellow that pierced the hollow of her ear ; 
But (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, crushed him as he 

bowed beneath the weight of her foot. 
May (Candi), Daughter of the Mountain, protect you! 

Notes. X. The word prasanna means both 'clear' and 'cahn/ but the 
commentary prefers the former sense, for it glosses prcisanna by nirmala, 
'spotless/ 2, That is, the disturbance caused by Mahisa when he 
plunged into the ocean equaled that which had formely been made by 
Mount Mandara when used as a chuming-stick (cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 
42, notes 3 and 14). 3. An allusion to the Hurva fire; cf. SUrycJcUaka, 
stanza 35, note 9. 

V.L. (a) bhrHmyadbhlmorudehak^ubhitacalajala', (b) kftvH drUg 


mainam indo 'bhinaisih SritaprthuSikharam firngayugmasya 

yuddhaksmayam tanum svam ratimadavilasatstrikataksa- 

bhano kim viksitena ksitimahisatanau tvam hi samnyastapado 
darpad evam hasantam vyasum asuram uma kurvati trayatam 


*0 Indu (Moon), do not bring that body of thine, which 

[usually] clings to the broad mountain-simimits, near my 

pair of horns 
On the battlefield, [for] that [body of thine] can endure [only] 

women's sidelong glances* agleam with ardent passion for 

love's pleasures ; 
O Bhanu (Sun), what [canst thou do to me] with thy glance? 

Thou mayest, perhaps, cast thy rays upon the body of an 

ordinary buffalo,* [but not on me].*^ 
As the Demon (Mahisa) was thus mocking [the gods] in his 

pride, Uma (Candi) made him lifeless. 
May Uma (Candi) protect you! 


Notes. X. Lit 'is patient of women's sidelong glances, etc' a. Lit 
' bufiFalo of earth/ but the commentary glosses by prAkftamahifa, * ordinary 
bufiFalo.' 3. The commentary explains : ' Thou possessest rays cast down 
upon an earthly, that is, ordinary, buffalo; I am not such a buffalo on 
whom thou desirest to make a casting down of thy rays. 

V.L. (a) fffJtnafft mugdhe ; fyngayugtnasya patryam, 


sangramat trastam etam tyaja nijamahisam lokajive&i mrtyo 
sthatum Sulagrabhumau gatabhasram ajayam mattam etam 

daitye padena yasyafi chalamahisatanau Sayite dirghanidram 
bhavotpattau jayaivam hasati pitrpatim sa 'mbika vah punatu 

' O Death (Yama), Lord of the Life of the World, abandon that 

buffalo of thine own,* who was frightened from the battle, 
And take this one [i. e. Mahisa] , who is not afraid to stand* on 

the ground [in front] of the spear-points,' who is invincible 

and furious in rut/ 
In these words Jaya,* in an outburst of feeling," mocked (Yama), 

Lord of the Manes, as the Daitya (Mahisa), in the guise of 

the body of a buffalo. 
Was caused to lie down* in his long sleep by the foot of Ambika 

May that Ambika (Candi) purify you! 

Notes. X. The buffalo was Yama's vehicle; cf. SUryalataka, stanza 58, 
note 5. a. The infinitive sthdtutft depends upon the compound gatabha" 
yam, 'with fear — to stand — absent' 3. That is, in the forefront of the 
battle, facing the enemjr's spears. 4. Jaya was Cairi<j[i's handmaid; cf. 
stanza 15, note 7. 5. I have rendered bhdvotpattiu by 'in an outburst 
of feeling/ though I am not at all sure that such is the proper translation 
for it. 6. In £5yite we have a causative participle of the root if. 

V.L. (b) SastrHgrabhUtfUlu. (c) prdpite dlrghanidrHtti. (d) drdg- 
durhhede jayHivain ; hasitapitrpatim, 


Srutvaitat karma bhavad anibhrtarabhasam stfaanuna 'bhyetjra 

chlista bahuprasaram Svasitabharacalattaraka dhutahasta 

346 THE candiSataka of bana 

daitye girvana^atrau bhuvanasukhamusi presite pretaka^tham 
gauri vo 'vyan milatsu tridivisu tarn alam lajjayi varayanti 

After the Daitya (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, who destroyed the 

happiness of the world, had been despatched to the realm 

of the dead, 
Gauri (Candi), her hand trembling, and the pupil of her eye 

rolling because of her labored breathing,^ was embraced with 

outstretched arms 
By Sthanu (Siva), who had heard of that deed, and who came 

from afar with unconcealed impetuosity because of his love ; 
[But] before the assembled inhabitants of heaven she restrained 

him because of her extreme bashfulness. 
May Gauri (Candi) protect you! 

Notes, z. Lit. ' weight of her breathing/ 

V.L. (a) Irutvedfkkartna ; JambhurUl "gatya dUrSc. (b) bihupasOdatu ; 
uddhQtahasta. (c) daitye satfttapitarHu ; profite. (d) gauri vo *vydt 
svarupatn tridaJapaiipuro lajjaya dharayanfi, 


bhadre sthanus tava 'nghrih ksatamahisaranavyajakandutir 

trailokyaksemadata bhuvanabhayaharah Samkaro 'to hare 'pi 
devanam najrike tvadgunakrtavacano 'to mahadeva esa 
kelav evam smararir hasati ripuvadhe yam £iva patu sa vah 

'O lovely lady (Candi), that foot of thine is [really] <Sthanu 
(Siva)>, for it is the <post> that destroyed Mahisa's itch^ 
which took the form of [love of] fighting* ; 

And since it bestows felicity upon the three worlds, it is there- 
fore <Samkara>, <the Beneficent (§iva)>; and since it de- 
stroyed the fear of the world, it is also 4:Hara», 4:the De- 
stroying (Siva)»; 

And, O (Candi), Heroine of the Gods, it is obeyed because of thy 
greatness; therefore it is <Mahadeva>, <the Great God 


In these words (Siva), Foe of Smara (Kama),* playfully jested 
with Siva (Candi) on [the subject of] the killing of the Foe 

May that Siva (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. X. Cattle afiFected with the itch rub themselves on a post, and 
Mahisa, being a bufiFalo, belonged to the cattle family. For other puns 
involving the meaning of sthdnu, cf. stanza 8, note 3. a. Or perhaps 
'pretended itch for battle'; this, however, does not seem to fit the sense 
required here ; but see the compounds quoted in the lexicons : vyOjakheda, 
'pretended weariness,' and vyHjatapodhana, 'pretended ascetic,' etc. 3. 
On Siva's hostility to Kama, cf . SUryaiataka, stanza 55, note 9. 

V.L. (a) ^kan^Utir eva, (b) trOilokyak^etnadanat (c) devUndtfi naya- 
katvUd guna- or devdir hrahmUdibhis tvadguna-, (d) smarCtrHu vadati 
ripuvadhe parvatl vah purUttu, 


khadgah krsnasya nunam rahitagunagatir nandakakhyam 

$atror bhahgena vamas tava muditasuro nandakas tv esa padah 
bhavad evam jayayam nutikrti nitaram samnidhau devatanam 
savrida bhadrakall hataripur avatad viksita §ambhuna vah 

*The sword of Krsna has attained the title of " Joy-bringer,"^ 

although its conduct now [in the battle with Mahisa] was 

without [that] quality; 
But that left* foot of thine [is really] the " Joy-bringer," since 

it brought joy to the gods by the destruction of their foe 

While Jaya' thus, in the presence of the gods, was, because of 

her affection,* paying deep adoration [to Candi] , 
The modest Bhadrakall (Candi), who had slain the Foe 

(Mahisa), was gazed on by Sambhu (Siva). 
May Bhadrakall (Candi) protect you I 

Notes, z. In MahObMrata, 5. 131. 10, the nandaka, ' Joy-bringer,' is 
mentioned among the weapons of Kr$na. a. For the 'left' foot, see 
stanza 10, note 6. 3. On Jaya, see stanza 15, note 7. 4. The word 
bhdvUt is glossed by bhaktitnie\fiit, ' a kind of devotion ' ; I have rendered 
by * affection/ 

V.L. (c) bhOvHd evatfi gatHnHip. 

348 THE candISataka of bana 


ekenaivodgamena pravilasram asuram prapajmim 'ti pado 
yasyah kantya nakhanam hasati suraripum hantum iidsran 

visnos trih padapadmam baliniyamavidhav uddhrtam kaita- 

kfipram sa vo ripunam vitaratu vipadam parvati ksunnaSatmh 

*With only one raising [of myself] I will cause the Demon 

(Mahisa) to attain utter dissolution.' In these words 
The foot of Parvati (Candi), with [all] the splendor of its nails, 

as it rose proudly^ to slay (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, 
Mocked the lotus foot of Visnu, which was three times raised in 

bringing about through a ruse the suppression of Bali.* 
[This was] that Parvati (Candi), who crushed the Enemy 

May Parvati (Candi) quickly effect the ruin of your foes! 

Notes, z. Or, sagarvam may be taken as an adjective with suraripuifi 
— 'proud Foe of the Gods/ a. For the story of Vi§nu's 'three steps/ 
and of how he overcame the demon Bali by deception, cf. SUryaicUaka, 
stanza 7, note 4. 

V.L. (a) udgatena pravijayam aparatfi, (b) nakhanatfi saha vibudharu 
putfi or nakhdndftt hasitasurariputft, (c) udgatatft kiitavena, (d) kpp^ 
taff% sd vo. 


khadgam khatvangayuktam yuvatir api vibho te Sarirardhalina 
hasyam prag eva labdham surajanasamitau duskrtena tvajrai- 

jata bhuyo 'pi lajja ranata iyam alam hasyata §ulabhartar 
darpad evam hasantam bhavam asuram uma nighnati traya-^ 

tam vah 

*0 Trident-bearing (Siva), thy sword is combined with a skull- 
topped club; and, O All-pervading (Siva), a young woman 
is. united with one half of thy body^ ; 

Formerly indeed, in the assembly of the gods, ridicule was en- 
countered by thee who hadst thus done wrong,* 


And now again shame* has arisen [for thee] from the battle. 

This is cause enough for ridicule.' 
As the Demon (Mahisa) was thus in his pride mocking Bhava 

(Siva), Uma (Candi) put him to death. 
May Uma (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. X. For the ardhanHrUa manifestatioti of ^iva, see above, stanza 
26^ note 4, and SUryalataka, stanza 88, note 4. a. The reason for the 
ridicule is not clear to me, though it seems to be connected in some way 
with the ardhanOrUa form of Siva; cf. note i. 3. According to the com- 
mentary, the shame was due to Siva's having run away from the battle. 

V.L. (a) ganga mduldu vilagna yuvatir iti or khafvitngafn kha4gayuktant 
yuvatir apt. (b) prig eva lagnant, (c) ydta bhUyo 'pi. (d) haram 
asuram umd. 


sthanau kanduvinodo nudati dinakrtas tejasa tapitam no 
toyasthane na ca "ptatn sukham adhikataram gahanena 'nga- 

fiunyayam yuddhabhiimau vadati hi dhig idam mahisam rupam 

rudranya "ropito vah sukhayatu mahise pranahrt padapadmah 

' There is no* removal of my itch on a <rubbing-post> by <Sthanu's 

( Siva's) > removing [it], and my limbs are not warmed* by 

the splendor of (Surya), Maker of Day, 
Nor is excessive pleasure gained by plunging into the abode of 

Water (Varuna).' Out upon this buffalo form [of mine] ! ' 
As Mahisa was saying these words upon the deserted* battlefield, 
The lotus foot of Rudrani (Candi) was placed [on him] and 

took away [his] life. 
May that lotus foot of Rudrani (Candi) prosper you! 

Notes, z. The commentator, apparently reading nah for no in his text, 
takes the first puda to mean that the itch is removed on Sthanu, and the 
limbs are warmed by Surya. Regarding sthOnu, the commentary says: 
' If a removal of the itch is made on sthHnu, i.e. Siva and a rubbing-post, 
then he ( ?) removes it, for this SthHnu (Immovable One) is not motion- 
less (sthira)* For similar puns on the term sthdnu, cf. stanza 8, note 3. 
a. Mahi$a's limbs can get no heat, because Surya, the Sun, has run away. 
3. Varuna (Water personified) having fled, Mahi§a can find no refresh- 

350 THE candiSataka of bana 

ing pool in which to take a plunge or wallow. 4. Deserted, because the 
gods had fled, leaving Mahi$a alone in possession of the field. 

V.L. (a) kantfUvinod^t ; tdpitatfi n<ih or tupitarfi vah, (c) The Kivjra- 
m§la text has rUpam ekatfi, I have adopted the variant rUpatit evaip. 


pimsan chailendrakalpam mahisam atigurur bhagnagirvana- 

&unbhor jato laghiyan chramarahitavapur duram abh3ruhya- 

vamo devariprsthe kanakagirisadam ksemakaro 'ngfaripadmo 
yasya durvara evam vividhagunagatih sa Vatad ambika vah 

The irresistible <left>^ lotus foot of Ambika (Candi), a bestower 

of happiness to those dwelling on the Golden Mount 

< Inimical > to the back of (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, has a gait 

possessing manifold excellent qualities,* as follows : 
Although excessively heavy when crushing Mahisa, who resembled 

[in size] (Himalaya), Indra of Mountains, and who had 

humbled the pride of the gods, 
It became nimbler than Sambhu (Siva), with a form freed from 

weariness, and with a kick that was to be apprehended 

afar off.* 
May that Ambika (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. On the Meft' foot, cf. stanza 10, note 6. a. Those who 
dwell on the 'Golden Mountain' are the gods. For Meru's composition 
of gold and precious stones, cf. SUryaiataka, stanza i, note 4. 3. Lit. 
'possessing a gait of manifold excellences.' 4. Lit. 'whose descent is 
to be inferred far oflF.' On dUram abhyUhya- the commentary says: 'For 
he who is heavy gets tired, and does not go far; but this [foot of Cap^H 
has its form free from weariness, and alights at a distance.' 

V.L. (di)Hrnaglrvanagarvafn or Brnaglrvdnagarvah. (b) iamhhor ydto 
gariydn; -vapur nyasta utpdtya koput, (c) and (d) k^emakHro hi yasydft 
pddo 'tulyaprdbhdvah. 


margam §itam$ubhajam sarabhasam alaghum hantum udsran 


netrair udvrttataraih sacakitam amarair unmukhair viksya- 

yasya vamo mahiyan muditasuramanah pranahrt padapadmah 
praptas tanmiirdhaslmam sukhayatu bhavatah sa bhavani 


Impetuously mounting the pathway of (the stars) who are de- 
voted to the Cold-rayed (Moon), in order to slay the bulky 
(Mahisa), Foe of the Gods/ 

And being gazed upon in awe by upward-looking immortals with 
eyes whose pupils were dilated, 

The very mighty left* lotus foot of Bhavani (Candi) — a foot 
that rejoiced the hearts of the gods' — 

After taking away the life [of that foe] , rested on the edge of his 

May that Bhavani (Candi), who slew her foe (Mahisa), prosper 

Notes. X. The meaning of the bombastic image is that when Can^i 
raised her foot to bring it down upon Mahisa, it mounted the sky, which 
is the pathway of the stars. The length of Caniji's stride did not, of 
course, conform to mortal standards. a. On the Meft' foot, cf. stanza 
10, note 6. 3. The commentary regards the epithet muditasuramanOJIjk 
as modifying bhavdnl; it would render as ' Bhavani, who rejoiced the hearts 
of the gods.' 4. Lit ' attained to the edge of his head.' 

V.L. (b) asurttir unmukhair. 


miirdhany apatabhagne misamahisatanuh sannanih£abdakan- 

iSonabjatamrakantipratataghanabrhanmandale padapadme 
yasyR lebhe surarir madhurasanibhrtadvadaSardhanghrililam 
fiarvani patu sa vas tribhuvanabhayahrt svargibhih stiiyamana 

(Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, disguised under the body of a 

buffalo, his throat bent over and voiceless, his head crushed 

by a kick,* 
Assumed, [as he lay] on Sarvani's (Candi's) lotus foot, which 

diffused a large thick circle of reddish* splendor, [like]' a 

red lotus,* 


The semblance of a <motionless> six-footed* (bee), <covercd 

with> honey-juice. 
May that Sarvani (Candi), who took away the fear of the worid, 

and who is praised by the possessors of heaven — 
May she, Sarvani (Candi), protect you! 

Notes. X. The lexicons do not give ' kick ' as a meaning for UpAta, * a 
falling/ but the gloss is prahHra, ' a blow.' a. Canal's foot was red with 
Mahi$a's blood; cf. stanzas 2, 12 and 37. 3. The commentary supplies 
' like.' 4. The commentary would take the long compound in the second 
pada as a dvandva, the first member ending at 'kdnti-. 5. Lit 'whose 
feet are half of twelve'; the commentary glosses by fofpada and bhro'^ 
mora, which both mean * bee.' 

V.L. (a) suramahi^atanuh or mi^atanumahifaJlt. (b) -kdntih pratata-; 
'lasantnanifole. (c) madhupasunibhfta', (d) pdtu sarvatribhuvan€h. 


padotksepad vrajadbhir nakhakiranaSatair bhiisitalS candra- 

miirdhagre ca "patadbhis caranatalagatair amiSubhih SonaSo- 

samnyastalinaratnapraviracitakarai§ carcitah ksiptakayair 
yasya devaih pranito havir iva mahisah sa 'valid ambika vah 

Mahisa, who is brought as an oblation to^ Ambika (Candi) by 

the gods with prostrated bodies,* 
Is adorned by hundreds of rays, moon-white, [that emanate] 

from their [toe-] nails, [and that are] set in motion by the 

raising of their feet,* 
And he has a red* luster because of the rays that proceed from 

the surface of their feet, and fall on the top of his head,* 
And is covered with the rays produced by the jewels that are 

set in, and attached to [their diadems] .• 
May that Ambika (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. I have taken the genitive :ya^d/> (fourth ^JJa) as an objective 
genitive employed with the force of a dative construction. This view is 
perhaps strengthened by the fact that pranUo is glossed by upanltatk, 
'brought to.' a. Lit 'whose bodies are thrown,' but the commentary 
glosses by danifovat pranamadbhir, 'prostrated like a staff,' i.e. prone in 


a straight Une; cf. Monier-Williams, Skt-EngL Diet s.v. dantfavat with 
praftam-. 3. The rays from the nails are set flashing ^ the feet are 
moved in walking. 4. Red, because the feet of the gods are presumably 
stained with lac-dye. 5. It will be noticed that Mahi^a is flooded with 
both white and red rays, and therefore the more resembles an oblation, 
since the latter, if of meat, is also white and red (fat and lean?). This, 
at any rate, appears to be the idea of the commentator, who says : ' For he 
who brings an oblation to a divinity is prostrated like a staff. In such a 
case, the oblation is a lump of flesh, and that [flesh] is white and red.' 
6. The commentary supplies devamukutefu, * in the diadems of the gods.' 

V.L. (b) affiiubhih padmalonaft. 


kva 'jmni tiksnogradharafiataniSitavapiir vajrarupah surarih 
pada§ ca 'yam sarojadyutir anatigurur yositah kveti devyah 
dhyajmni dhyayam stuto yah suraripuma thane vismayabaddha- 

parvatyah so 'vatad vas tribhuvanagurubhih sadaraxn vandya- 


'Where is this (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, in the form of a 

thimderbolt/ [and] with his body sharpened by hundreds of 

keen cruel edges?* 
And where is that foot of the young woman Devi (Candi), not 

very heavy, and possessing the beauty of the lotus?'* 
In these words the [foot] of Parvati (Candi) was praised with 

repeated meditation,* and was respectfully saluted by the 

sages of the three worlds, 
Whose minds were seized with amazement^ at the destruction of 

(Mahisa), Foe of the Gods. 
May that foot of Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The Puranas, so far as I have been able to And, do not state 
that Mahi§a turned himself into a thunderbolt. a. Or, we may take 
tlkfnogra . . . rUpah as one compound, and render ' in the form of a thun- 
derbolt whose body, etc' The commentary, however, takes vajrarUpah as 
a separate adjective compound, and I have followed the commentary. 3. 
The idea of the two interrogative ' where ' clauses seems to be to contrast 
the relative positions of the mighty demon and the weak woman before 
and after the battle. 4. According to Monier-Williams, Skt.-Engi Diet. 
s.v. dhyOyat, the adverb dhydyam, repeated, has the force of a gerund ; the 


354 THE candIiSataka of bana 

commentary glosses by dhydtvH dhydtvd; cf. Whitney, Ski, Grammar, 995, 
c 5. Lit. ' with minds bound by amazement' 

V.L. (b) amaraguror yoptah. (c) dhyatva dhyHtvH stuto, (d) sH 
'vatSt; sUdaram vikfyamUnah or sddaram vanditHydh. 


vajritvam vajrapaner dititanayabhidai cakrina§ cakrakrtyam 
§ulitvam ^iilabhartuh surakatakavibhoh llaktita sanmukhasya 
yasyah padena sarvam krtam amararipor badhayaitat suranam 
rudrani patu sa vo danuviphalayudham svarginam ksemakari 

The wielding of the thunderbolt belongs to Indra^ ; the employ- 
ment of the discus pertains to Cakrin (Visnu), who clave 
(Hiranyakasipu),* the son of Diti; 

The use of the trident' belongs to (Siva), the Trident-bearer, 
and the handling of the spear* to the Six-faced (Kart- 
tikeya)," Lord of the Army of the Gods; 

[But] all this, because of the outrage upon the gods by (Mahisa), 
Foe of the Immortals, was performed 

By the foot of Rudrani (Candi), bringer of happiness to the 
possessors of heaven who had struggled in vain against [the 
sons of] Danu.* 

May that Rudrani (Candi) protect you ! 

Notes. X. Lit 'thunderbolt-possession is of the thunderbolt-handed 
one.' a. On the slaying of Hiran3rakasipu, see stanza 11, note i. 3. 
Lit ' tridentness.' 4. Lit 'speamess.' 5. For Karttikeya and his six 
faces, see stanza 5, note i, stanza 28, note 2, and SuryaJataka, stanza 25, 
notes I, 4, 8 and 10. 6. The Danavas, sons of Danu, were the demons 
of whom Mahi$a was chief. The commentary, in its gloss danuje^u, sup- 
plies the word * sons.' 

V.L. (a) ditidanujabhidah. (b) surasamitivibhoh. (c) pddena jarvoffi 


pang^ur neta harinam asamahariyutah syandanaiS caikacakro 
bhanoh samagryapetah krta iti vidhina tyaktavairah patange 
darpad bhramyan ranaksmam pratibhatasamara^lesalubdhah 

yasyah padena nitah pitrpatisadanam sa 'valid atnbika vah 


'The driver of the fallow steeds of Bhanu (Surya) is crippled,* 
and his chariot is supplied with [an] uneven [number of] 
horses, and has [but] one wheel* ; 

He is' [therefore] lacking in equipment.' Thinking thus, 
(Mahisa), Foe of the Grods, abandoned his hostility towards 
Patanga (Surya), in accordance with prescribed rule*; 

[But] as he was disdainfully stalking* over the battlefield, long- 
ing for the contact in battle with an adversary. 

He was brought to the abode of (Yama),* Lord of the Manes, 
by the foot of Ambika (Candi). 

May that Ambika (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. Aruna, the driver of Surya's car, was thighless ; cf . SUryaia- 
taka, stanza 8, note i. a. For references to the seven horses, and to the 
one-wheeled chariot of Surya, cf. SUryaiataka, stanza 8, note 2. 3. Lit. 
'is made.' 4. The meaning is that no unfair advantage must be taken 
of a foe. The rules prescribing the proper etiquette to be observed in the 
treatment of one's enemies are laid down in Manu; see especially Manu, 
7. 91-93. The commentary on our text, however, takes vidhina as belong- 
ing to Mahi§a's words, and explains : ' Thus the chariot of Bhanu by fate 
is made devoid of equipment' 5. Lit. 'wandering because of pride.' 
6. That is, he was killed. 


yuktam tavad gajanam pratidi&un ayanam yuddhabhiimer 

hiyeta "^agajatvam subhataranakrtam karmana darunena 
yady esa sthanusatnjno bhayacakitadrsa na^yati 'ty adbhutam 

darpad evam hasantatn suraripum avatan nighnati parvati vah 

* Withdrawal^ from the battlefield to their respective quarters is, 
on the part of the elephants, guardians of the quarters, 
[quite] proper, forsooth, 

[For]- the office of elephant [-guardian] of the quarters would 
come to an end by the dismal fate* [incurred by these ele- 
phants] through engaging in battle with mighty warriors ; 

[But] that this (Siva), who is named the ' Post ' (Sthanu), should 
run away, his eye trembling with fear,* — ^that is a marvel.' 


As in these words (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, was scornfully 

deriding [Siva], Parvati (Candi) put him to death. 
May Parvati (Candi) protect you! 

Notes. I. The meaning of this stanza seems to be as follows: The 
elephant-guardians (cf. stanza 50, note 3, and SUryaJataka, stanza 18, note 
10) of the quarters have a good excuse for running away from the battle, 
for if they were killed, there would be none to take their places as guardians, 
but Siva (Sthanu) has no excuse, for he is a post (sthdnu), and that a 
post should run is marvelous. For other puns involving the term sthdnu, 
see stanza 8, note 3. a. The commentary supplies yatai^, ' since/ ' for.' 
3. Lit. karmand dUrunena means 'terrible deed,' but the gloss is marana, 
'act of dying.' 4. The compound bhayacakitadfJCL is apparently an in- 
strumental of qualification; cf. SQryaiataka, stanza 6, note 7, and stanza 
48, note 4. The commentary supplies upalakfita, 'characterized by an 
eye, etc' 

V.L. (a) pratidUagamanafft. (b) subhafarafiayudhafit, (c) yH cfltfdffi 
sthOnusaipjiUl bhayacakitadfilim. 


srastangah sannacesto bhayahatavacanah sannadordandaiia- 

sthanur drstva jram ajau ksanam iha sarusam sthanur evopa- 

tasya dhvamsat surarer mahisitavapuso labdhamanavakaSah 
parvatya vamapadah ^amayatu duritam darunam vah sadaiva 

Sthanu (Siva), upon catching sight, for an instant, there in the 
battle, of the enraged (Mahisa), became actually a post 

[For he grew] limp of limb, languid in effort, with his [power of] 
speech destroyed by fear, and the staff-like limb of his 
arm enfeebled. 

[Then] the left foot of Parvati (Candi) seized the opportimity 
for fame by destroying that (Mahisa), Foe of the Gods, 
whose body had been changed into that of a buffalo. 

May this left^ foot of Parvati (Candi) verily always alleviate 
your dire distress! 

Notes. I. Siva, as Sthanu, 'the one able to stand motionless,' became 
sthUftu, ' the one deprived of the power of motion,' being paralyzed by fear. 


For similar puns involving the two meanings of sthHnu, cf. stanza 8, note 
3. a. On the ' left ' foot, cf . stanza 10, note 6. 

V.L. (a) yafu dfffvd srastaceftab- (h) sthUnur ddityafu tarn ajUu or 
sth&nur doityafft yam djdu or sth^ur dfffvd surdrim; kfanam iva sabha- 
yatfi, (d) iamayatu hhavat&ffi dhvOntatn antarhitdrkah. 


kunte dantair niruddhe dhanusi vimukhitajye visanena mulal 
l&ngulena prakosthe valayini patite tatkrpane svapaneh 
§ule lolahghripatair lalitakaratalat pracyute duram urvyam 
sarvahginam lu&yam jayati caranata^ candika curnayanti 

Candika^ (Candi), when her spear was held fast by [Mahisa's] 

teeth, when her bow had its string utterly loosened* by his 

When her forearm was encircled by his tail, and her sword had 

fallen from her hand. 
When her trident, by reason of the swinging blows of his feet,* 

had fallen from her gentle hand to a distance on the ground. 
Crushed with her foot the buflfalo (Mahisa), who was covering 

her whole body.* 
Glory to Candika (Candi) ! 

[In this stama the usual benediction is omitted. Y 

Notes. X. Text and translation of this stanza are given by Btihler in 
Indian Antiquary, vol. i, p. 113. a. Lit. vimukhita means 'averted/ 
'turned backward.' Buhler translates (cf. notei) as 'his horn had entirely 
unstrung the bow.' 3. Biihler (cf. note i) renders as 'spasmodic blows 
of his feet' 4. The meaning * covering, or thrilling, the whole body ' is 
that given by Monier- Williams, Skt.-Engl. Diet, s.v. sarvdnglna, and this 
seems to be in accord with the scene that is pictured here, where the bodies 
and weapons of the two combatants are described as being all tangled up 
and interlocked in the struggle, which was a virtual wrestling-match. 
Biihler (cf. note i) renders as 'crushed all the limbs of the buffalo'; Dr. 
Louis H. Gray suggests to me, ' crushed the buffalo affected in every limb 
by her foot'; and Professor Jackson is inclined to translate as 'crushed 
with her foot the buffalo, every limb of whose body [had been thrilled 
by her touch],' with which he compares Vikramorvail (ed. G. B. Vaidya, 
Bombay, 1894), 5.9, icchdnti cHinam adayatfi parirabdhum angHih, 'and I 
desire to embrace him ardently with [my] limbs.' 5. For the omission 
of the benediction, cf. stanza 3, note 5. 

V.L. (a) K infQnena SalnL (b) Buhler's manuscript, which he does not 
follow, reads t/alayite tatkfPHnasya pUneh. (c) B lolSnghrighHtdir. 


Page 23 

Another account of how Mayura became afflicted with leprosy 
as the result of his daughter's curse is given by Ramacandrakavi 
in his commentary on the SUryaiataka. A portion of the text of 
this commentary is printed in the Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Skt. MSS in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 
Madras, vol. 19, p. 7622, no. 11318, Madras, 1915. The account 
of the incident is as follows : — 

atra khalu deiUntardc cirasamaydgatena svasutdm aj&natd tatrabhavatd 
mayaranHmna kavinU sndnartham ligatd s& 

enldriah ponipufe niruddha venir vireje iayanotthitdyHh 
sarojakoiad iva nissarantl irenl ghantbhUya madhuvratdnam 
ity anena varnitd \ tatah sA 'pi ru^a pitaram ajSnatl kruddhil satl janmUn- 
tarddhigatakarmavipHkam enafft ku^thA bhaveti iaJdpa \ tatah Jvetaku^fh' 
Ungah so 'pi — 

hutS^anid bhutim icchej jndnam icchen maheSvardt 
drogyatn bhdskarHd icchen mok^am icchej janHrdandt 
iti smfteh sadyah Hvetarakfataye taktvfkfdgrabaddhct^ataranjumayaHkyo- 
pari sthitvd prati^lokam ekdikaranjukrntanena hibhagavantatft sUryam 
ebhir jambhetyddistavdih stutvH ^etaku§\hHd vimukta iti janahutih 

Then indeed she, having come for the purpose of ceremonial ablution, 
was described in the following [verse] by his Honor the poet, Mayura by 
name, who did not recognize his own daughter, [since] he had come, after 
a long time, from a foreign country : — 
Her braid, held fast in the hollow of the hand of [this] deer-eyed [maiden] 

who has risen from her bed. 
Appears like a dense swarm of bees issuing from the calyx of a lotus. 

Then she, being angry, and not recognizing her father because of her 
rage, cursed that [father] (who thus reached the result of his actions 
in a previous existence), saying: "Become a leper." Then he, his body 
[afflicted] with white leprosy, also said, quoting from sacred lore: — 
One should desire prosperity from Agni, one should desire knowledge from 

One should request of Surya freedom from disease, and from Vi$9u one 

should ask emancipation. 

[Then] at once, for the removal of his unpropitious [affliction], he 
placed himself in a swing made of a hundred ropes and attached to the 



top of a palm tree, and having praised the most blessed Surya with those 
[verses of] praise beginning janibha- [i.e., the SHryaiataka\t cutting the 
ropes one at a time, one at each verse, he became freed from the white 
leprosy — so says popular tradition. 

Page 60 

I have stated (p. 60) that seemingly the MayUrOstaka exists in 
but a single manuscript, the one at Tubingen University. There 
is, perhaps, another in the State collection of manuscripts at 
Bikaner. See the Report of a Second Tour in Search of Skt, 
MSS, made in Rdjputdna and Central India in 1904-5 and 1905-6 
(by S. R. Bhandarkar, Bombay, 1907), p. 50, where a mayUraS' 
taka is listed. This, however, may be an astaka on a peacock 
{mayilra)^ for it is included in a series of astakas dealing with 
animals, birds, etc., as for example, hamsdstaka, gajdstaka, and 
so on. 

Page 63, note 5 

The Descriptive Catalogue of the Skt. MSS in the Govern- 
ment Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, does not list, in its 
vol. 3 (Madras, 1906), which includes manuscripts of gram- 
matical and lexicographical works, any SabdalingQrthacandrikd 
by Mayura. 

Page 84 

The division of the subject-matter of the Suryasataka is indi- 
cated also in three manuscripts in the Government collection at 
Madras ; see the Descriptive Catalogue (as noted in Addendum to 
p. 23, above), nos. 11316, 11317, and 11318. In two cases (nos. 
11316 and 11317), the division is indicated in an extra stanza, in 
sragdharS meter, added to the text of the poem. In the other 
case (no. 11 318), the commentator Ramacandrakavi gives the 
division in two ilokas composed by himself. The stanzas are as 
follows : — 

catvUrintJat prabhiyOs tribhir adhikam ato vdjinUff^ ^alkam uktarn 
Paicdn netur dvifatkam punar api ca daia syandane caivam uktah 
bkUyo 'ftSu man<falasya stutir api ca raver tntftlatih MmayUrSd 
itthaffi jatafti pathed yah Satakam anudinaift sQryasayujyam eti 


Forty and three [stanzas arc uttered about] the splendor; a sextet [of 
stanzas] is uttered [about] die horses ; 

Then a double sextet [of stanzas is uttered about] the driver ; and further- 
more ten [stanzas] are uttered in [describing] the chariot ; 

Besides, eight [stanzas constitute] the praise of the disk, and twenty [the 
praise] of Ravi. 

Whoever shall daily recite this Satdka, thus produced by the celebrated 
Mayura, attains absorption in Surya. 

nandabjdir (19) varnito raJmir dvisUryair (24) varnitaffi mahah 
rasQir (6) ahfah stutah padyiHls sUryOir (12) aruna i^tfa/» 
rudrOir (11) at ha rat ham stutvH tnan<foia*r^ vasubhifjt (8) stutam 
svanetrOir (20) varnitah sUryaip (-yah) stutvd mukto mahUgadiU 

The splendor [of Surya] is described in stanzas [that equal in number 

the 19] lotuses of Nanda; the brightness [of Surya] is described in 

stanzas [that equal in number] twice the [12] suns; 
The horse is praised in stanzas [equaling in number the 6] rasas \ Aruna 

is praised in verses [that equal in number the 12] suns ; 
Then he praises the chariot in stanzas [that equal in number the 11] 

Rudras ; and the disk is praised in [stanzas that equal in number the 8] 

Vasus ; 
Surya is described in stanza5 [that equal in number] his own [20] eyes. 

And having praised [Surya, Mayura] became free from his great 


Page 98 

Stanzas i, 40, and 56 of the Sttryaiataka are also cited in 
Halayudha's commentary on Pingala's ChandahsQstra, to illus- 
trate certain types of caesural pauses. See A. Weber, Ueber die 
Metrik der Inder, in Indische Studien, vol. 8, p. 459-466, Berlin, 
1863; cf. the Kavyamala edition of Pingala's Chandahidstra, by 
Kedaranatha and Panashikar, p. 76-80, Bombay, 1908. 

Pages 101-102 

The Descriptive Catalogue of the Skt. MSS at Madras (see 
above, Addendum to p. 23), vol. 19, lists five manuscripts of the 
SUryasataka (nos. 11314-11318). It is highly probable that 
these five include the manuscripts mentioned in Taylor's Cata^ 
logue Raisonne and in the Alphabetical Index of MSS in the 
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, 

The Triennial Catalogue of Manuscripts, ipio^ii to 1912-13, 
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, vol. i, part 


I, Sanskrit, A, p. 226, no. 139(b), Madras, 1913, lists an incom- 
plete manuscript of the Suryaiataka with anonymous commentary. 

Page 102 

The Descriptive Catalogue of the Skt. MSS at Madras (see 
Addendum preceding), vol. 19, no. 11320, lists Gopinatha's com- 
mentary on the Suryaiataka, and states that it accompanies 
manuscript 11314 of the text. 

Page 103 

The Descriptive Catalogue of the Skt. MSS at Madras (see 
Addendum to p. 23), vol. 19, lists four commentaries on the 
Suryaiataka (nos. 11317, 11318, 11320, 11321). Of these four, 
two are anonymous, one is by Ramacandrakavi, and the fourth by 
Gopinatha. The last named is doubtless the same manuscript as 
that recorded by Taylor. 

Pages 106-107 

The Suryaiataka of Lingakavi, listed by Taylor, is also listed 
by the Descriptive Catalogue of the Skt. MSS at Madras (see 
Addendum to p. 23), vol. 19, no. 11319. According to the 
editors of this catalogue, Lingakavi's work is apparently an imita- 
tion of Mayura's Suryaiataka, and is accompanied by a com- 
mentary composed by the author of the text. 

Page 140, note i 

For further discussion of Karttikeya (Skanda), see E. Wash- 
bum Hopkins, Epic Mythology, in Biihler's Grundriss der Indo- 
Arischen Philologie, p. 227-231, Strassburg, 191 5. 

Page 151, note 2 

For the Gandharvas, see Hopkins, Epic Mythology, pages 152- 


Page 166, note 2 

For the Kimnaras, see Hopkins, Epic Mythology, pages 158- 


Page 246 

It should be noted that stanzas 58 and 59 of the Siiryaiataka 
contain a speaking character, but .there is no dialogue. 

Pages 262-263 

Stanzas 2, 12, 20, and 23 of the Candisataka are cited in Hala- 
yudha's commentary on Pihgala's Chandahsdstra, to illustrate cer- 
tain types of caesural pauses. See the references cited imder the 
Addendum to page 98. 

Page 263 

The Triennial Catalogue (see Addendum to pages 101-102), 
vol. I, part I, p. 136-138, no. 87, lists a manuscript containing, 
probably, some 70 stanzas of the Candisataka and ending with 
stanza 73. It is entitled CandikSsaptati and is accompanied by 
the commentary of Vidyapurnamimindra. 

Probably Oppert's two manuscripts having the title of Condi- 
kOsaptati, but without the author's name {Cat. Cat. vol. i, p. 
176), are manuscripts of the Candisataka in this shorter form. 



Edited by A. V. Williams Jackson 
Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages in Columbia University 

Volume I. A Catalogue of the Collection of Persian Manu- 
scripts (including also some Turkish and Arabic) presented to 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, by Alexander Smith 
Cochran, prepared and edited by A. V. Williams Jackson and 
Abraham Yohannan, Ph.D. New York, 1914. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. XXV. + 187, ill., $1.50 net 

The collection of Oriental manuscripts catalogued in this volume was 
presented to the Metropolitan Museum in March, 191 3. All of the manu- 
scripts, a number of which are in certain respects unique, are handsomely 
illuminated and adorned with beautiful miniatures. The catalogue records 
the technical details, as well as matters of literary and historic importance 
connected with the volumes. 

Volume 2. Indo-Iranian Phonology, with special reference to 
the Middle and New Indo-Iranian languages, by Louis H. Gray, 
Ph.D., sometime Fellow in Indo-Iranian Languages in Columbia 
University. New York, 1902. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. xvii + 264, $1.50 net 

A brief statement of the phonetic developments undergone by the prin- 
cipal Indo-Iranian languages from the Sanskrit, Avestan. and Old Persian 
through the Pali, the Prakrits, and Pahlavi down to the Hindi, Singhalese, 
New Persian, Afghan, and other Indo-Iranian dialects. 

Volume 3. A Bibliography of the Sanskrit Drama, with an 
introductory sketch of the dramatic literature of India, by Mont- 
gomery Schuyler, Jr., A.M., sometime Fellow in Indo-Iranian 
Languages in Columbia University. New York, 1906. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. xi + 105, $1.50 net 

The design of this bibliography is to give as complete a list as possible 
of all printed and manuscript Sanskrit plays and of articles and works 
relating to the Hindu drama. The introduction furnishes a convenient 
epitome of tiie whole subject 


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Avesta, by Montgomery Schuyler, Jr., A.M. New York, 

1901. Cloth, 8vo, pp. xiv -f 106, $1,50 net 

This index collects and cites all examples of each word found in the 
hitherto discovered fragments not included in Geldner's edition of the 

Volume 5. Sayings of Buddha : the Iti-vuttaka, a Pali work 
of the Buddhist canon, for the first time translated, with intro- 
duction and notes, by Justin Hartley Moore, A.M., Ph.D. 
(Columbia), Assistant Professor of French in the College of the 
Cky of New York. New York, 1908. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. XX -f 140, $1.50 net 

This volume presents a Buddhistic work not hitherto accessible in trans- 
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of the work, the authenticity of certain of its sections, and the chief fea- 
tures of its style and language. 

Volume 6. The Nyaishes, or Zoroastrian Litanies. Avestan 
text with the Pahlavi, Sanskrit, Persian, and Gujarati versions, 
edited together and translated with notes, by Maneckji Nusser- 
vanji Dhalla, A.m., Ph.D. (Khordah Avesta, Part I.) New 
York, 1908. Cloth, 8vo, pp. xxii + 2S5> $^-50 net 

The Pahlavi text, here edited and translated for the first time, is the 
result of a collation of seventeen manuscripts and forms an addition to 
the existing fund of Pahlavi literature. The introduction gives an account 
of the MS. material and discusses the relation of the various versions, their 
characteristics, and their value. 

Volume 7. The Dasarupa, a treatise on Hindu dramaturgy 
by Dhanamjaya, now first translated from the Sanskrit, with the 
text and an introduction and notes, by George C. O. Haas, A.M., 
Ph.D., sometime Fellow in Indo-Iranian Languages in Columbia 
University. New York, 1912. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. xlv + 169, $1.50 net 

This work, composed at the court of King Mufija of MUlava in the last 
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presented is prefaced by an introduction dealing chiefly with the style and 
characteristics of the work and its native commentary. The notes include, 
as a special feature, references to parallel passages in all available Hindu 
dramaturgic and rhetorical treatises. 


Volume 8, Vasavadatta, a Sanskrit Romance by Subandhu, 
translated, with an introduction and notes, by Louis H. Gray, 
Ph.D. New York, 1913. Cloth, 8vo, pp. xiii + 214, $1.50 net 

This romance is one of the best examples of the artificial and ornate 
style in Sanskrit prose. Besides the translation, the volume contains also 
the transliterated text of the South Indian recension, which differs to a 
noteworthy degree from that of Hall, and a bibliography. The relation 
of the Sanskrit romance to the Occidental, especially the Greek, is dis- 
cussed in the introduction, and the notes include parallels of incident in 
modem Indian and other folk-tales, as well as points of resemblance with 
other Sanskrit romances. 

Volume p. The Sanskrit Poems of Mayura, edited with a 
translation and notes and an introduction, together with the text 
and translation of Bana's Candisataka, by George Payn Quack- 
ENBOS, A.M., Ph.D., Instructor in Latin in the College of the 
City of New York. New York, 191 7. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. xxi + S59> ^K $^-50 net 

This volume presents the works of a Hindu poet of the seventh- century 
A.D. Besides the well-known Suryasataka it includes also the Mayu- 
ri^tak^t printed for the first time from the unique birch-bark MS. in the 
TtJbingen University Library, and the anthology stanzas attributed to 
Mayura. The introduction gives an account of Mayura's life and works 
and discusses the question of the supposedly rival poem of Bana, which 
is added to the volume in text and translation. 


Priyadar^ika, a Hindu Drama ascribed to King Harsha, trans- 
lated from the Sanskrit and Prakrit by G. K. Nariman and A. V. 
Williams Jackson, with notes and an introduction by the latter. 

This romantic drama on the adventures of a lost princess was sup- 
posedly written by Harsha, king of Northern India in the seventh century, 
and is now to be published for the first time in English translation. Be- 
sides giving an account of the life and times of the author, the introduction 
will deal also with the literary, linguistic, and archaeological aspects of 
the play. 



The following volume, not in the Indo-Iranian Series, is also 
published by the Columbia University Press: 

Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran. By A. V. Williams 
Jackson. New York, 1899. 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. xxiii + 314, $2-00 net 

This work aims to collect in one volume all that is known about the 
great Iranian prophet The story of the life and ministry of Zoroaster is 
told in twelve chapters, and these are followed by appendixes on explana- 
tions of Zoroaster's name, the date of the Prophet, Zoroastrian chronology, 
Zoroaster's native place and the scene of his ministry, and classical and 
other passages mentioning his name. A map and three illustrations ac- 
company the volume. 



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